You are here:
Appendix 3 Summary of Field Sampling and Analytical Methods with Bibliography
BUTLER, B., L. Guenzel, AND K. Smith. Appendix 3 Summary of Field Sampling and Analytical Methods with Bibliography. Chapter A-3, V.T. McLemore, K.S. Smith, C.C. Russell (ed.), Sampling and Monitoring for the Line Life Cycle, Volume 6 of Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Englewood, CO, ,:,, (2014).
Conductivity and Specific conductance are measures of the ability of water to conduct an electric current, and are a general measure of stream-water quality. Conductivity is affected by temperature, with warmer water having a greater conductivity. Specific conductance is the term for conductivity values that have been compensated to 25oC. Conductivity increases with increasing inorganic dissolved soils and ions in water and commonly is positively correlated with sulfate concentration in mining influenced waters. Conductivity is nonspecific, thus it is dependent upon what ions are present, the concentrations of those ions, and any interactions among the ions. Water hardness is defined as the sum of the polyvalent cations dissolved in the water. The most common cations that contribute to water hardness are calcium and magnesium, although iron, strontium, and manganese may also contribute. Hardness is primarily a function of the geology of the area with which the surface water is associated. Waters are generally classified according to degree of hardness. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) is a term used to describe the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth or reproduction). WET tests replicate the total effect and actual environmental exposure of aquatic life to toxic pollutants in an effluent without requiring the identification of the specific pollutants. WET testing is a vital component of the water quality standards implementation through the NPDES permitting process and supports meeting the goals of the Clean Water Act (Section 402), "..maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation's waters." (USEPA, 2011) These three documents are descriptions of processes or concepts that will be part of an appendix in a handbook.
To describe processes or concepts that will be part of an appendix in a handbook. The title of the handbook is Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water, Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle, Volume 6.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
REMEDIATION AND REDEVELOPMENT BRANCH