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Appendix 5 Case Studies of Sampling and Monitoring
BUTLER, B. A. Appendix 5 Case Studies of Sampling and Monitoring. Chapter A-5, V.T. McLemore, K.S. Smith, and C.C. Russell (ed.), Sampling and Monitoring for the Line Life Cycle, Volume 6 of Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Englewood, CO, ,:,, (2014).
The North Fork of Clear Creek (NFCC), Colorado, is an acid-mine drainage impacted stream located approximately 48 km west of Denver, CO, is approximately 29 km long, and flows into the main stem of Clear Creek in Golden, CO. The entire Clear Creek watershed is a Superfund site, of which NFCC is Operable Unit 4. The stream is influenced by several mine-drainage sources resulting from extensive historic mining in the Central City - Idaho Springs Mining District in the Colorado Mineral Belt in the late 1800's. The primary metals of concern in the stream include Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Seepage from waste and tailings piles along the stream also contributes to metal input. Immediately downstream from the primary mining inputs, there is a visual and rapid precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide [HFO] that travels downstream as particulate, forms loose coatings on rocks, and settles to the bed sediments. Hydrous manganese oxides [HMO] are seen to form hard coatings on rocks further downstream and aluminum oxyhydroxide [ALO] precipitation is observed during some months below the Russell Gulch. The purpose of this case study is to present findings from a study that assessed aqueous geochemical controls on the spatial fate and transport of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in a mining-impacted stream and to present findings from another study that evaluated effects of several parameters on the release of these metals from the streambed sediments in the absence of the mine-drainage inputs.
The objectives of the two studies were to determine (1) the primary controls on spatial fate and transport of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn; and (2) the primary controls expected on release of metals from streambed sediments to the stream water following removal/treatment of the mine-drainage inputs.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
REMEDIATION AND REDEVELOPMENT BRANCH