EPA Science Inventory

Identification And Distribution Of Vanadinite (Pb5(V5+O4)3Cl) In Lead Pipe Corrosion By-Products

Citation:

Gerke, T. L., K. G. SCHECKEL, AND M. R. SCHOCK. Identification And Distribution Of Vanadinite (Pb5(V5+O4)3Cl) In Lead Pipe Corrosion By-Products. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 43(12):4412-4418, (2009).

Description:

This study presents the first detailed look at vanadium (V) speciation in drinking water pipe corrosion scales. A pool of 34 scale layers from 15 lead or lead-lined pipes representing eight different municipal drinking water distribution systems in the Northeastern and Midwestern portions of the United States were examined. Diverse synchrotron-based techniques, including bulk XANES (X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy), µ-XANES, µ-XRD (X-ray diffraction), and µ-XRF (X-ray fluorescence) mapping were employed along with traditional powder XRD, SEM-EDXA (scanning electron microscropy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis), and ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) to evaluate vanadium speciation and distribution in these deposits. Vanadinite (Pb5(VO4)3Cl) was positively identified, and occurred most frequently in the surface layers. Low Vtot in these waters is likely the limiting factor in the abundance of vanadinite in the pipe scales, along with the existence of divalent lead. The occurrence of V in these samples as a discrete mineral is important because it is formed in the presence of very low concentrations of V in the finished water, it provides a mechanism to concentrate µg•L-1 amounts of V from the water to near-percent levels in the pipe scales, and the robustness of V accumulation and release in response to water chemistry changes is likely different than it would be with a sorption accumulation mechansim. Extrapolation from limited existing water chemistry data in this study provides and estimate of ΔGf° for vanadinite as approximately -3443 kJ•mol-1, or less, leading to a long Ks0 value of approximately -86 for the reaction Pb5(VO4)3Cl(s) ↔ {Pb2+}5 + {VO43-}3 + {Cl-}, in which {} denotes activity.

Purpose/Objective:

This study presents the first detailed look at vanadium speciation and distribution in drinking water pipe corrosion scales.

URLs/Downloads:

IDENTIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF VANADINITE IN LEAD PIPE CORROSION BY-PRODUCTS   Exit

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Start Date: 06/15/2009
Completion Date: 06/15/2009
Record Last Revised: 05/25/2010
Record Created: 04/22/2010
Record Released: 04/22/2010
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 222286

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION

WASTE MANAGEMENT BRANCH