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Exposure Research

Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

Citation:

RICHARDSON, S. D. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water. Chapter 2, J.O. Nriagu (ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. Elsevier Science Inc., Burlington, MA, 2:110-136, (2011).

Description:

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended health hazard: the potential for cancer and reproductive/developmental effects that are associated with chemical disinfection by-products (DBPs). Chemical disinfectants are effective for killing harmful pathogens in drinking water, but they are also powerful oxidants, oxidizing the natural organic matter (including humic and fulvic acids), anthropogenic contaminants, and bromide/iodide naturally present in most source waters (rivers, lakes, and many groundwaters). Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines are the most common disinfectants in use today, and each produces its own suite of DBPs in drinking water.

Purpose/Objective:

Characterize risks associated with drinking water sources, treatment, distribution, and use.

URLs/Downloads:

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Start Date: 02/15/2011
Completion Date: 02/15/2011
Record Last Revised: 03/31/2011
Record Created: 03/04/2008
Record Released: 03/04/2008
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 189106

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB

ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH DIVISION

REGULATORY SUPPORT BRANCH

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