HILAL, S. H. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/105 (NTIS PB2007-100142), 2006.
SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external mechanistic perturbation components. The internal perturbations quantify the interactions of the appended perturber (P) with the reaction center (C). These internal perturbations are factored into SPARC's mechanistic components of electrostatic and resonance effects. External perturbations quantify the solute-solvent interactions (solvation energy) and are factored into H-bonding, field stabilization and steric effects. These models have been tested using 1471 reliable measured base, acid and general base-catalyzed carboxylic acid ester hydrolysis rate constants in water and in mixed solvent systems at different temperatures. In addition, they were tested on 397 reliably measured second order base, acid and general base-catalyzed phosphate ester hydrolysis rate constants over a range of temperatures. The RMS deviation error between predicted and measured values for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds was close to the intralaboratory experimental error.
This task is divided into four major research areas: (1) Development of computational tools and databases for screening-level modeling of the environmental fate of organic chemicals; (2) Metabolism of xenobiotics: Enhancing the development of a metabolic simulator; (3) Metabonomics: The use of advanced analytical tools to identify toxicity pathways; and (4) Software infrastructure to support development and application of transformation/metabolic simulators.
For many chemicals, multiple transformation/metabolic pathways can exist. Consequently, transformation/metabolic simulators must utilize transformation rate data for prioritization of competing pathways. The prioritization process thus requires the integration of reliable rate data. When this data is absent, it is necessary to generate a database with metabolic and transformation rate constants based on: (1) experimentally measured values, including those requiring the use of advanced analytical techniques for measuring metabolic rate constants in vivo and in vitro; (2) rate constants derived from SPARC and mechanistic-based QSAR models; and (3) data mined from the literature and Program Office CBI. A long-term goal of this project is to build this database. This information will be used to enhance the predictive capabilities of the transformation/metabolic simulators. As indicated previously, exposure genomics, which provide early signs of chemical exposure based on changes in gene expression, will be used to guide chemical fate and metabolism studies. The incorporation of exposure genomics into fate studies will provide information concerning (1) the minimal concentrations at which biological events occur; and (2) the identification of biologically relevant chemicals(s) in mixtures.
The capability of categorizing chemicals and their metabolites based on toxicity pathway is imperative to the success of the CompTox Research Program. Metabonomics, which is the multi-parametric measurement of metabolites in living systems due to physiological stimuli and/or genetic modification, provides such a capability. The application of metabonomics to toxicity testing involves the elucidation of changes in metabolic patterns associated with chemical toxicity based on the measurement of component profiles in biofluids, and enables the generation of spectral profiles for a wide range of endogenous metabolites. Metabolic profiles can provide a measure of the real outcome of potential changes as the result of xenobiotic exposure.