U.S. EPA. Sensor Network Design for Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems: A Compendium of Research Results and Case Studies using the TEVA-SPOT -Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/141, 2010.
Recently, water security research efforts have focused on the advancement of methods for mitigating contamination threats to drinking water systems (see for example, Ostfeld 2006; AWWA 2005; Murray 2004). A promising approach for the mitigation of both accidental and intentional contamination is a Contamination Warning System (CWS), a system to deploy and operate online sensors, other surveillance systems, rapid communication technologies, and data analysis methods to provide an early indication of contamination (U.S. EPA 2005c). CWSs with multiple approaches to monitoring – like water quality sensors located throughout the distribution system, public health surveillance systems, and customer complaint monitoring programs – are theoretically capable of detecting a wide range of contaminants in water systems. However, CWSs are expensive to purchase, install, and maintain. To make them a viable option, there is a clear need to minimize the investment required by individual drinking water systems.