EPA Science Inventory

MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

Citation:

Haebler, R. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES. Chapter 23, SK Majumbar, JE huffman, FJ Brenner, AI Panah (ed.), Wildlife Diseases: Landscape Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution and Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology. The Pennsylvania Academy of Science, 330-344, (2005).

Description:

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the various species of marine mammals as well as human public health. Though bacterial infections are frequently considered secondary to other disease states, selected bacterial infections responsible for primary disease are reviewed. The processes by which mycotic infections contribute to morbidity and mortality are reviewed along with a few selected specific infections. Neoplasia in marine mammals is not well understood. Incidence and diagnosis of tumors is reviewed followed by a discussion of possible confounding factors that may influence accurate reporting of tumor incidence. Recommendations to improve scientific understanding of neoplasia in marine mammals include a centralized tumor registry and standardized criteria for diagnosis. Environmental pollution may adversely affect the marine mammals through a variety of mechanisms. Exposure to oil in the marine environment has direct, often deadly impacts. Adverse effects from exposure to chemical pollution is associated primarily with indirect sub-lethal effects including immune suppression and disruption of reproduction

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Start Date: 02/01/2005
Completion Date: 02/01/2005
Record Last Revised: 12/21/2005
Record Created: 12/08/2004
Record Released: 12/08/2004
Record ID: 103964

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB

ATLANTIC ECOLOGY DIVISION

POPULATION ECOLOGY BRANCH