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Chlordanes in the Indoor and Outdoor Air of Three U.S. Cities

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Abstract: Indoor and outdoor concentrations of six Chlordane components (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans- nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane and MC5) were measured at 157 residences, all of which were inhabited by non-smoking individuals, in three urban areas during June 1999-May 2000. The analyses were conducted on a subset of 48 hour integrated samples collected in Los Angeles County, CA, Houston, TX, and Elizabeth, NJ within the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. Both particle bound (PM2.5; quartz fiber filter) and vapor phase (PUF sorbant) chlordane concentrations were separately measured by GC / EI MS after solvent extraction. The outdoor (gas + particle) total Chlordane (trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane + trans-nonachlor + cis-nonachlor) concentrations ranged from 0.036 to 4.27 ng m-3 in Los Angeles County, from 0.008 to 11.00 ng m-3 in Elizabeth, and from 0.062 to 1.77 ng m-3 in Houston. The corresponding indoor total chlordane concentrations ranged from 0.037 to 112.0 ng m-3 in Los Angeles County, from 0.260 to 31.80 ng m-3 in Elizabeth, and from 0.410 to 38.90 ng m-3 in Houston study homes. Geometric mean concentrations were higher in indoor air than outdoor air (1.98 vs. 0.58 ng m-3 in CA; 1.30 vs. 0.17 ng m-3 in NJ; 4.18 vs. 0.28 ng m-3 in TX), which suggests there are significant indoor sources of Chlordane species in a subset of homes in each of the three cities. Calculated source strengths relate to home age, with the highest apparent indoor source strengths occurring in unattached single-family homes built during the period from 1945 to 1959. Principle indoor sources of chlordanes likely include volatilization from residues of indoor application of chlordanes and infiltration from sub-surface and foundation application of chlordane-containing termiticides during home construction.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency partially funded the research described here. This work has been subjected to Agency review and has been cleared for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Offenberg, J., Y. Y. Naumova, B. Turpin, S. Eisenreich, M. T. Morandi, T. Stock, S. D. Colomes, A. M. Winer, D. M. Spektor, J. Zhang, and C. P. Weisel. Chlordanes in the Indoor and Outdoor Air of Three U.S. Cities. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 38(10):2760-2768, (2004).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Process Modeling Research Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 04/13/2004
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Bullet Item Chlordanes in the Indoor and Outdoor Air of Three U.S. Cities
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Laboratory and Computational Chemistry Investigations of the Gas Phase Atmospheric Chemistry of Air Toxic Compounds
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