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Formation of Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin for Potential Use as Biomarkers of Exposure

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Abstract:The high use of nitro musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) as fragrances, and their persistence and bioaccumulation potential make them ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The 4-amino-MX (AMX) and 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolites have been detected in trout fish hemoglobin (Hb) samples by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twelve Hb samples prepared from rainbow trout that were exposed to MX and MK, over a period of 24 and 72 h, were analyzed. Amino metabolites were liberated by basic hydrolysis and extracted from the fish Hb into n-hexane. The extract was concentrated, analyzed, and spiked with a standard solution (80 pg/uL) of AMX or AMK and reanalyzed. Concentrations of AMX from 10 to 24.7 ng/g were detected in Hb from fish taken 24 and 72 h after MX exposure. At 24 and 72 h after MK exposure, the concentration of AMK was found to be 25.1 to 51, and 9.5 to 25.1 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of AMK in Hb from two of the three trout were substantially lower after 72 h compared with 24 h exposure. The AMX and AMK metabolites were not detected in four control samples. Average recoveries exceeding 89 and 86% could be achieved for AMX and AMK, respectively, with a coefficient of variation (CV) around 5%.
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Citation:Mottaleb, M. A., X. Zhao, L. R. Curtis, and G. W. Sovocool. Formation of Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin for Potential Use as Biomarkers of Exposure. AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 67(4):315-324, (2004).
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Contact: Chris Siebert - (702) 798-2234 or siebert.christopher@epa.gov
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Division: Environmental Sciences Division
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Branch: Environmental Chemistry Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 05/12/2004
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Addressing Emerging Issues in Water Quality Through Environmental Chemistry
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