Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Exposure Research
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Research & Development > Exposure Research > Publications/Presentations > End Hierarchical Links

 

The Influence of Human Activity Patterns on Personal PM Exposure: A Comparative Analysis of Filter-Based and Continuous Particle Measurements

spacer
spacer
Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) exposure data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored 1998 Baltimore and 1999 Fresno PM Exposure Studies were analyzed to identify important microenvironments and activities that may lead to increased particle exposure for select elderly (>65 years old) subjects. Integrated 24-hour filter-based PM2.5 and/or PM10 mass measurements (using Personal Environmental Monitors or PEMs) included personal, indoor and outdoor residential measurements, and measurements at a central indoor site and a community monitoring site. A subset of the participants in each study wore passive nephelometers that continuously measured (1 -min averaging time) particles ranging in size from 0.1 to ~10 um. Significant activities and locations were identified by a statistical mixed model (p<0.01) for each study population based on the measured PM2.5 or PM10 mass and time activity data. Elevated PM concentrations were associated with traveling (car or bus), commercial locations (store, office, mall, etc.), restaurants, and working. The modeled results were compared to continuous PM concentrations determined by the nephelometers while participants were in these locations. Overall, the nephelometer data agreed within 6% of the modeled PM2.5 results for the Baltimore participants and ~20% for the Fresno participants (variability was due to zero drift associated with the nephelometer). The nephelometer did not agree as well with the PM10 mass measurements, most likely because the nephelometer optimally responds to fine particles (0.3-2 um). Approximately half (54 + or - 31%; mean + or - std. dev. from both studies) of the average daily PM2.5 exposure occurred inside residences, where the participants spent an average of 83 + or - 10% of their time. These data also showed that a significant portion of PM2.5 exposure occurred in locations where participants spent only 4-13% of their time.

The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency through Contract #68-D5-0040 to the Research Triangle Institute. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use.
spacer
Citation:Rea, A. W., M. J. Zufall, R. W. Williams, L. S. Sheldon, and C. Howardreed. The Influence of Human Activity Patterns on Personal PM Exposure: A Comparative Analysis of Filter-Based and Continuous Particle Measurements. JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 51(9):1271-1279, (2001).
spacer
spacer
Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
spacer
Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
spacer
Branch: Human Exposure Analysis Branch
spacer
Product Type: Journal
spacer
Published: 09/01/2001
spacer
Related Entries:
spacer
Bullet Item Outdoor Vs. Human Exposure: NERL PM Exposure Panel Studies
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
spacer
spacer
spacer

 

ORD Home | Search EPA | Search NERL | Search EIMS | Contacts | Help

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us

Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov