Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Exposure Research
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Research & Development > Exposure Research > Publications/Presentations > End Hierarchical Links

 

Experimental Methodologies and Preliminary Transfer Factor Data for Estimation of Dermal Exposures to Particles

spacer
spacer
Abstract: Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate for housedust and a uniform surface dust deposition chamber to permit estimation of particle mass transfer for selected dust size fractions. Particle transfers to both wet and dry skin were quantified for contact events with stainless steel, vinyl, and carpeted surfaces that had been pre-loaded with the tagged test dust. To better understand the representativeness of the test dust, a large housedust sample was collected and analyzed for particle size distribution by mass, and several metals (Pb, Mn, Cd, Cr, and Ni). The real housedust sample was found to have multi-modal size distributions (in mg/g) for particle-phase metals.

The fluorescein tagging provided surface coatings of 0.11 to 0.36 ng fluorescein/g dust. The predominant surface location of the fluorescein tag would best represent simulated mass transfers for contaminant species coating the surfaces of the particles. The computer-controlled surface deposition chamber provided acceptably uniform surface coatings with known particle loadings on the contact test panels.

Significant findings for the dermal transfer factor data were: (a) only about 1/3 of the projected hand surface typically came in contact with the smooth test surfaces during a press, (b) the fraction of particles transferred to the skin decreased as the surface roughness increased, with carpeting transfer coefficients averaging only one-tenth those of stainless steel, (c) hand dampness significantly increased the particle mass transfer, (d) consecutive presses decreased the particle transfer by a factor of three as the skin surface became loaded, requiring ~100 presses to reach an equilibrium transfer rate, and (e) an increase in metals concentration with decreasing particle size, with levels at 25 um typically two or more times higher than those at 100 um - consistent with the earlier finding of Lewis et al., 1999 for the same sample for pesticides and PAH's.

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development partially funded, assisted in the management, and collaborated in the research described here under contract 68-D5-0040-WA023 to the Research Triangle Institute. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
spacer
Citation:Rodes, C. E., R. J. Newsome, R. W. Vanderpool, J. T. Antley, and R. G. Lewis. Experimental Methodologies and Preliminary Transfer Factor Data for Estimation of Dermal Exposures to Particles. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 11(2):123-139, (2001).
spacer
spacer
Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
spacer
Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
spacer
Branch: Exposure Methods & Monitoring Branch
spacer
Product Type: Journal
spacer
Published: 06/21/2001
spacer
Related Entries:
spacer
Bullet Item Development and Application of Methods to Assess Human Exposure to Pesticides
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
spacer
spacer
spacer

 

ORD Home | Search EPA | Search NERL | Search EIMS | Contacts | Help

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us

Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov