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In-Residence, Multiple Route Exposures to Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon Estimated By Indirect Method Models

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Abstract: One of the objectives of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) is to estimate exposures to several pollutants in multiple media and determine their distributions for the population of Arizona. This paper presents modeling methods used to estimate exposure distributions of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in the residential microenvironment using the database generated in Arizona (NHEXAS-AZ). A four-stage probability sampling design was used for sample selection. Exposures to pesticides were estimated using the indirect method of exposure calculation by combining measured concentrations of the two pesticides in multiple media with questionnaire information such as time subjects spent indoors, dietary and non-dietary items they consumed, and areas they touched. Most distributions of in-residence exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon were lognormal or nearly lognormal. Exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon vary by pesticide and route as well as by various demographic characteristics of the subjects. Comparisons of exposure to pesticides were investigated among subgroups of demographic categories, including gender, age, minority status, education, family income, household dwelling type, year the dwelling was built, pesticide use, and carpeted areas within dwellings. Residents with large carpeted areas within their dwellings have higher exposures to both pesticides for all routes than those in less carpet-covered areas. Depending on the route, several other determinants of exposure to pesticides were identified, but a clear pattern could not be established regarding the exposure differences between several subpopulation groups.

Preparation of this document has been funded wholly or part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Contract 68-D-99-003 to the University of Arizona. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Moschandreas, D. J., Y. Kim, S. Karuchit, H. Ari, M. D. Lebowitz, M. K. O'rourke, S. M. Gordon, and G. L. Robertson. In-Residence, Multiple Route Exposures to Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon Estimated By Indirect Method Models. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 35(12):2201-2213, (2001).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Human Expsoure Research Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 04/01/2001
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta) Border Project a Comparison of the Arizona Border Population With the State Population
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Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
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