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Distribution of 2,4-D in Air and on Surfaces Inside Residences Following Lawn Applications: Comparing Exposure Estimates for Young Children from Various Media

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Abstract: Indoor air, surface wipes (floors, table tops and window sills) and floor dust samples were collected at multiple locations within 11 occupied and 2 unoccupied homes both prior to and following lawn application of the herbicide 2,4-D. Residue measurements were made over periods of 1 week pre- and post-application. Collected samples were used to determine transport routes of 2,4-D from the lawn into the homes, its subsequent distribution between the indoor surfaces, and air concentration as a function of airborne particle size. Residue measurements were used to estimate potential exposures within these homes. Following the lawn application, 2,4-D was detected in indoor air and on all surfaces throughout all homes. Track-in by an active dog and the homeowner applicator were the most significant factors for intrusion. Resuspension of floor dust was the major source of 2,4-D in indoor air, with highest levels of 2,4-D found in the particle size range of 2.5 um to10 um. Resuspended floor dust was also a major source of 2,4-D on tables and window sills. Estimated post-application indoor exposure levels for young children from non-dietary ingestion may be 1-10 ug/day from contact with floors, and 0.2-30 ug/day from contact with table tops. These are estimated to be about 10 times higher than the pre-application exposures. By comparison, dietary ingestion of 2,4-D is approximately 1.3 ug/day.

The U.S. EPA, through its Office of Research and Development, funded and collaborated in the research described here under Cooperative Agreement CR-822082. It has been subjected to agency review and has been approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Nishioka, M. G., R. G. Lewis, M. C. Brinkman, H. M. Burkholder, C. E. Hines, and J. R. Menkedick. Distribution of 2,4-D in Air and on Surfaces Inside Residences Following Lawn Applications: Comparing Exposure Estimates for Young Children from Various Media. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES 109(11):1185-1191, (2001).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Exposure Methods & Monitoring Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 11/01/2001
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Development and Application of Methods to Assess Human Exposure to Pesticides
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Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
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