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Distribution of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Floor Dust Throughout Homes Following Homeowner and Commerical Lawn Applications: Quantitative Effects of Children, Pets, and Shoes

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Abstract: Transport of lawn-applied 2,4-D into 13 actual homes was measured following both homeowner and commercial application of this herbicide to residential lawns. Collection of floor dust in five rooms of each house, corresponding to an entryway, living room, dining room, kitchen, and a child's bedroom, both prior to and after application, indicated that turf residues are transported indoors and that the gradient in 2,4-D dust loading (ug/m2) through the house follows the traffic pattern from the entryway. Removal of shoes at the door and the activity level of the children and pets were the most significant factors affecting residue levels indoors after application. Spray drift and fine particle intrusion accounted for relatively little of the residues on
floors. Prior to application, the median 2,4-D bulk floor dust loading was 0.5 ug/m2; one week after application, the median 2,4-D floor dust level in the living room was 6 ug/m2, with a range of 1-228 ug/m2 on all carpeted floors in occupied homes, and 0.5-2 ug/m2 in unoccupied homes. The 2,4-D loadings on the carpet surface (dislodgeable residue/dust) were highly correlated with the 2,4-D bulk dust loadings. From these data we estimate that approximately 1% of the bulk dust is on the carpet surface, and it is this surface dust that may be readily available for dermal contact.

The information in this paper has been wholly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Cooperative Agreement CR-822082 to Battelle. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Nishioka, M. G., H. M. Burkholder, and M. C. Brinkman. Distribution of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Floor Dust Throughout Homes Following Homeowner and Commerical Lawn Applications: Quantitative Effects of Children, Pets, and Shoes. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 33(9):1359-1365, (1999).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Exposure Methods & Monitoring Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 05/01/1999
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