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Associations Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Phoenix, 1995-1997

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Abstract: We evaluated the association between mortality outcomes in elderly individuals and particulate matter (PM) of varying aerodynamic diameters (in micrometers) [PM10, PM2.5, and PMCF (PM10 minus PM2.5)], and selected particulate and gaseous phase pollutants in Phoenix, Arizona, using 3 years of daily data (1995-1997). Although source apportionment and epidemiologic methods have been previously combined to investigate the effects of air pollution on mortality, this is the first study to use detailed PM composition data in a time-series analysis of mortality. Phoenix is in the arid Southwest and has approximately 1 million residents (9.7% of the residents are > 65 years of age). PM data were obtained from the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory Platform in central Phoenix. We obtained gaseous pollutant data, specifically carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide data, from the EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System
Database. We used Poisson regression analysis to evaluate the associations between air pollution and nonaccidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Total mortality was significantly associated with CO and NO2 (p < 0.05) and weakly associated with
SO2, PM10, and PMCF (p < 0.10). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly associated with CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, PM10, PMCF (p < 0.05), and elemental carbon. Factor analysis revealed that both combustion-related pollutants and secondary aerosols (sulfates) were associated with cardiovascular mortality. Key words: cardiovascular, composition, factor analysis, particulate matter, PM2.5, PM10, sources.

This publication was made possible in part by grant 5T32 ES07262 from the NIEHS, NIH. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development partially funded and collaborated in the research described here under assistance agreement R827355 to the University of Washington. The contents of this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. This paper has been subjected to EPA review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Mar, T. F., G. A. Norris, J. Q. Koenig, and T. V. Larson. Associations Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Phoenix, 1995-1997. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES 108(4):347-353, (2000).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Source Apportionment & Characterization Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 04/01/2000
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