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Children's Exposure Assessment: A Review of Factors Influencing Children's Exposure and the Data Available to Characterize and Assess That Exposure

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Abstract: We review the factors influencing children's exposure to environmental contaminants and the data available to characterize and assess that exposure. Children's activity pattern data requirements are demonstrated in the context of the algorithms used to estimate exposure by inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion. Currently, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to adequately assess multimedia exposures to environmental contaminants. As a result, regulators use a series of default assumptions and exposure factors when conducting exposure assessments. Data to reduce uncertainty in the assumptions and exposure estimates are needed to ensure chemicals are regulated appropriately to protect children's health. To improve the database, advancement in the following general areas of research is required: identification of appropriate age/developmental benchmarks for categorizing children in exposure assessment; development and improvement of methods for monitoring children's exposures and activities; collection of activity pattern data for children (especially young children) required to assess exposure by all routes; collection of data on concentrations of environmental contaminants, biomarkers, and transfer coefficients that can be used as inputs to aggregate exposure models.

This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. EPA peer and administrative review policies and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
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Citation:Cohenhubal, E. A., V. Zartarian, L. S. Sheldon, T. R. Mccurdy, M. L. Rigas, M. R. Berry Jr., J. M. Burke, and N. G. Freeman. Children's Exposure Assessment: A Review of Factors Influencing Children's Exposure and the Data Available to Characterize and Assess That Exposure. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES 108(6):475-486, (2000).
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Human Exposure Analysis Branch
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Product Type: Journal
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Published: 06/01/2000
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Human Exposure Measurements Children's Focus
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
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Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
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