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Determination of a Standard Food Item for Analysis of Pesticide Consumption in the Dietary Intake of Young Children

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Abstract:The objective of this study was to establish a standard food item for the collection of residential use pesticides from household surfaces commonly encountered by young children while eating. The amount of a pesticide that young children ingest during eating is influenced by the residue in/on foods and the excess intake caused by food handling. The latter is not easily measured. If a young child allows food to contact hands, tabletops, or flooring, pesticides may transfer to the food and then be ingested by the child. A standard food item will create a uniform measure of excess food contamination from child handling with known transfer characteristics for target pesticides from multiple surfaces.
Three food items (bologna, cheese, and fruit roll-up) were evaluated for transfer of pesticides from three types of pesticide-treated surfaces (hardwood flooring, vinyl flooring, and a plastic high chair tray). Seven pesticides (permethrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) were mixed in an aqueous solution and uniformly sprayed across the various surfaces. Each food item was placed on the three surfaces. All surfaces were wiped with isopropanol moistened gauze pads following the removal of the food items or after a similar time period for unchallenged surfaces. A GC/MS-based analytical method was established for the extraction and analysis of the foods and wipes. Transfer efficiencies were based on the amount of the pesticides in the foods as compared to the amount wiped off the surfaces. Transfer efficiencies of bologna, cheese, and fruit roll-ups ranged from less than 1% to 23% of the applied concentration for the three surfaces. Bologna transferred the organophosphate pesticides (5% - 22%) more efficiently than the pyrethroids (1% - 7%). Cheese showed consistent transfer efficiencies for the pesticides on all surfaces; pyrethroids at ~3% and the organophosphates at ~7%. Fruit roll-ups transferred all classes of pesticides with similar efficiency (3% - 7%), with the exception of the vinyl flooring where values were less than 1% for 4 of the 7 pesticides. Based on the transfer results, all three choices would be acceptable for use as a standard food item.

This study was funded by EPA contract 68D-99-012, Task 8. The EPA has not reviewed the results of this study. The use of trade names does not imply official endorsement.
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Citation:Raymer, J., T. Marrero, G. G. Akland, Y. Hu, M. Berry, C. E. Bernard, and L. J. Melnyk. Determination of a Standard Food Item for Analysis of Pesticide Consumption in the Dietary Intake of Young Children. Presented at ISEA Meeting, Stresa, Italy, September 21-25, 2003.
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Contact: Mary P. O'Bryant - (919)-541-4871 or obriant.mary@epa.gov
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Division: Microbiological & Chemical Exposure Assessment Division
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Branch: Chemical Exposure Research Branch
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Product Type: Abstrct/Oral
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Presented: 09/21/2003
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Dietary Intake of Young Children
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
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Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
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