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Relating Personal PM and PM-Associated Elemental Carbon Exposures to Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Symptoms in a High-Risk Subpolulation

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Abstract: Sensitive subpopulations such as COPD patients have been shown to be especially susceptible to the effects of PM exposure. Proximity to traffic has been shown to be a predictor of PM effects in susceptible populations. Elemental carbon (EC) has been demonstrated to be a good indicator of combustion emissions, and in urban PM is a useful indicator of the diesel traffic contribution to PM concentrations. Extremely little personal EC exposure data exists, even though diesel exhaust exposure has been linked to cancer and the exacerbation and even onset of asthma.

In this study, the personal exposures of COPD patients to PM10 and EC were monitored over 12 days during winter and summer. Simultaneous measurements of cardiovascular and pulmonary change indicators (pulse rate, blood oxygen content and lung function) were also made in order to relate particle concentrations with cardio-respiratory disease symptoms. A group of eight individuals were monitored during summer and winter sampling campaigns in 2000-2001. Personal exposures to PM10 and EC were measured using both personal sampling pumps to monitor 24 hour means on Teflon filters, and personal photometer (DataRAMs [pDRs], MIE Inc.) to identify short-term PM peaks. Co-located pDRs compared very favorably to central station TEOM monitors in identifying short-term peak concentrations. Teflon filters were subsequently analyzed using a light reflectance method (EEL reflectometer) to identify personal elemental carbon concentrations, following construction of a reflectance-absorption coefficient calibration curve. Time activity and symptom diaries were also filled in by all participants in order to identify micro-environments in which participants spent the majority of time, and to identify where peak PM concentrations coincided with specific activities or locations. Indoor and outdoor PM10 concentrations were also measured.

Personal PM10 concentrations were higher than indoor micro-environmental PM10 concentrations. EC was a significant proportion of the personal PM samples. Filter and pDR sampler results were correlated, but correlations varied from subject-to-subject and depended on specific activities. pDR samplers identified specific peak exposures during the sampling periods, which, in some cases, could be related to specific activities. Relationships between PM concentrations and health indicators were complex and no clear pattern emerged within this group.

This work was funded by EPA cooperative agreement #CR827164. This abstract has been reviewed by EPA and approved for publication.
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Citation:Kendall, M., S. I. Hsu, P. Lopez, L. A. Wallace, and M. Lippmann. Relating Personal PM and PM-Associated Elemental Carbon Exposures to Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Symptoms in a High-Risk Subpolulation. Presented at International Society of Exposure Analysis 2002 Conference, Vancouver, Canada, August 11-15, 2002.
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Contact: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov
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Division: Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
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Branch: Human Exposure Analysis Branch
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Product Type: Abstrct/Oral
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Presented: 08/11/2002
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Related Entries:
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Bullet Item Exposure Relationship of Personal Exposure of High-Risk Subpopulations to Ambient Concentrations of Fine Particles.
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
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