Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Exposure Research
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Research & Development > Exposure Research > Publications/Presentations > End Hierarchical Links

 

A Pilot Study to Determine the Water Volume Injested By Recreational Swimmers

spacer
spacer
Abstract:The volume of water ingested by recreational swimmers is unknown. Previous estimates by a number of investigators range from 10mL to 100mL. These estimates, however, are unsupported by empirical data. Many outdoor swimming pools are disinfected using cyanuric acid stabilized chlorine. This compound, when ingested by a swimmer, is not metabolized by the human body and is excreted quantitatively in the urine. The volume of water ingested can be calculated by collecting 24-hour urine sample, and subsequently determining the total concentration of the stabilizer in the sample and in the swimming pool water. A pilot study, involving about 100 swimmers, was conducted to evaluate: (1) the study design, (2) the analytical method for quantifying the chlorine stabilizer, and (3) the response of the study population. The results of the pilot study indicate that a full-scale study using current design may, in part, address key questions relating water quality to swimmer illnesses.
spacer
Citation:Evans, O. M., R. Cantu, T. D. Behymer, D. D. Kryak, and A. P. Dufour. A Pilot Study to Determine the Water Volume Injested By Recreational Swimmers. Presented at Society for Risk Analysis 2001 Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, December 2-5, 2001.
spacer
spacer
Contact: Mary P. O'Bryant - (919)-541-4871 or obriant.mary@epa.gov
spacer
Division: Microbiological & Chemical Exposure Assessment Division
spacer
Branch: Immediate Office
spacer
Product Type: Abstrct/Oral
spacer
Presented: 12/02/2001
spacer
Related Entries:
spacer
Bullet Item Measurement of Water Ingestion By Swimmers
spacer Relationship Reason:   A Project of the Product
spacer
spacer
spacer

 

ORD Home | Search EPA | Search NERL | Search EIMS | Contacts | Help

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us

Last Updated on Monday, October 22, 2007
URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov