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Office of the Director Publications: 2007

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Office of the Director for the year 2007, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 10 Matching Entries.

See also Office of the Director citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Janice Sims - (706)-355-8011 or sims.janice@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
PRESENTATION Experiences With Using Probabilistic Exposure Analysis Methods in the U.S. EPA 12/09/2007
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Experiences With Using Probabilistic Exposure Analysis Methods in the U.S. EPA. Presented at Society for Risk Analysis 2007 Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, December 09 - 12, 2007.
Abstract: Over the past decade various Offices and Programs within the U.S. EPA have either initiated or increased the development and application of probabilistic exposure analysis models. These models have been applied to a broad range of research or regulatory problems in EPA, such as evaluation of human exposures to air toxics or criteria air pollutants (e.g., Particulate Matter and Ozone) or assessing the impacts from exposures to multimedia pollutants, such as pesticides and toxic metals in the environment or in the diet. Predominantly, probabilistic exposure models have been developed by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), as well as, by the various Program offices of EPA, such as the Office of Air (OAR), Office of Pesticides Programs (OPP), and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). Most of the probabilistic analysis techniques used in modeling personal or population exposures combine human time activity or food consumption survey data with distributional information, on: pollution or contaminant concentrations in the relevant media and microenvironments; release or application rates, and; exposure factors data (e.g., inhalation or contact rates, uptake rates). These models were often applied to quantify the magnitude and the drivers of exposures and risks at various upper percentiles of regulatory concern. This presentation provides an overview of the different probabilistic exposure modeling methodologies considered by the different Programs/Offices in EPA, along with some illustrative examples. The impetus for using probabilistic modeling tools in Agency research or policy evaluations will be addressed. Finally, this presentation will also discuss the principal reasons for successful use of probabilistic exposure methods by the EPA, as well as some of the key challenges facing for its broader use in the future.

PRESENTATION Meeting in Paris: Mutual Recognition of Environmental Performance Verification (Epv) Systems 11/28/2007
JOHNSON, L. S. AND J. Neate. Meeting in Paris: Mutual Recognition of Environmental Performance Verification (Epv) Systems. Presented at 3rd International Environmental Performance Verification Forum, Paris, FRANCE, November 28, 2007.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Mutual Recognition of Environmental Performance Verification (Epv) Systems 11/27/2007
JOHNSON, L. S. AND J. Neate. Mutual Recognition of Environmental Performance Verification (Epv) Systems. Presented at European Forum on Eco-Innovation, Paris, FRANCE, November 26 - 27, 2007.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Human-Ecosystem Interactions: the Case of Mercury 10/17/2007
MANGIS, D. R., C. D. KNIGHTES, AND D. A. VALLERO. Human-Ecosystem Interactions: the Case of Mercury. Presented at 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, Durham, NC, October 14 - 18, 2007.
Abstract: Human and ecosystem exposure studies evaluate exposure of sensitive and vulnerable populations. We will discuss how ecosystem exposure modeling studies completed for input into the US Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to evaluate the response of aquatic ecosystems to changes in mercury deposition will be used to improve human exposure modeling for methylmercury. Results from the five freshwater case studies showed that most freshwater systems will achieve 90% of the benefits of the mercury emissions reductions as the result of CAMR in 2-3 decades. Some systems may respond faster (5-10 years), and watershed dominated systems will likely take 50 years or more to respond. Attenuation of methylmercury after load reductions are calculated for northern pike and yellow perch by size class to illustrate body burdens across species and size classes that are cost prohibitive to sample effectively. The time lag in ecosystem response has a major effect on the benefits of regulations and how quickly these benefits are translated into human health benefits. By coupling ecosystem process models developed to evaluate the impacts of mercury reductions on sensitive ecosystems with atmospheric source models, and human consumption models, we can improve our human exposure risk analyses of mercury control scenarios, and better evaluate the impacts of local mercury hotspots to ecosystems and local fish consumptive human populations. The next step is to take this to the coastal and oceanic systems to determine how much reduction of mercury is needed to protect coastal and ocean ecosystems, and humans, since most mercury exposure comes from ocean fish consumption.

PRESENTATION The US EPA's Multidisciplinary Approach to Examining the Links Between Biodiversity and Human Health 10/17/2007
PONGSIRI, M. AND D. R. MANGIS. The US EPA's Multidisciplinary Approach to Examining the Links Between Biodiversity and Human Health. Presented at 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, Durham, NC, October 14 - 18, 2007.
Abstract: Changes in biodiversity can profoundly impact the ability of ecosystems to provide clean water, energy, food, recreation and other services that contribute to human well-being. In addition, changes in biodiversity can affect the transmission of infectious disease to humans, particularly vector-borne diseases such as malaria, West Nile virus and Lyme disease. Characterizing the relationship between biodiversity and health can reveal the root causes of disease emergence and spread, modifiable environmental factors that contribute to disease, and opportunities for managers to intervene along the causal chain. EPA has developed a new interdisciplinary initiative to better understand the dynamics and mechanisms underlying the relationship between anthropogenic stressors, changes in biodiversity, and disease transmission to humans. EPA's initiative is unique in its interdisciplinary approach; its focus on systems where changes in biodiversity are hypothesized to be important drivers of risks to human health; and in encouraging the coordination of earth observations with field data. Through the sponsorship of long-term research studies and pilot projects in and outside of the U.S., EPA is particularly interested in testing the relationships between biodiversity change and incidence of vector-borne diseases; deforestation and increased risk of vector-borne diseases such as malaria; and potential effects of climate change on biodiversity and human health. Expected results from our initiative include the development of new approaches to analyze the vulnerability of biodiversity and human health to anthropogenic drivers such as climate change, land-use change, and biological invasions; and the development of tools that can help forecast risks to ecosystem services that directly impact human health.

PRESENTATION Determinants of Human Exposures to Air Toxics and Associated Health Effects 10/14/2007
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Determinants of Human Exposures to Air Toxics and Associated Health Effects. Presented at 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, Durham, NC, October 14 - 18, 2007.
Abstract: Individuals are exposed to wide variety of air toxics in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of their daily activities. Sources of emissions include a wide variety of indoor and outdoor sources, including stationary and mobile sources, building materials and consumer products. Contributions to personal exposures from sources that have indoor or outdoor components may be estimated using information from available monitoring studies and predictions from human exposure models (e.g., SHEDS, HAPEM, APEX). A number of recent field studies (e.g., RIOPA, TEACH studies) have shown the importance of residential, near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to air toxics. Results from a modeling-based analysis conducted as part of USEPA's recent NATA study, also showed the distribution of some of the ratios of personal to ambient air toxics concentrations to be skewed, indicating the importance of both microenvironmental and personal mobility factors. However, the variation in exposures to different outdoor air toxics has been found to be pollutant, site and activity dependent, and influenced by major or roadway emission sources. Thus, the complexity in the spatial and microenvironmental variation of exposures among the different population subgroups, especially in the context inter- and intra-urban analysis of air toxics health effects, could pose several challenges. However, recent advances in exposure modeling tools and better information on time-activity, commuting and exposure factors data provide unique opportunities for improving the assignment of exposures during the course of future community air toxics studies. This presentation will review the relevant findings from recent air toxics exposure and health studies, and discuss the limitations of existing measurement and modeling data that may hamper the investigation of health effects of exposures to air toxics.

PRESENTATION A Tiered Approach to Performing Uncertainty Analysis in Conducting Exposure Analysis for Chemicals 10/14/2007
OZKAYNAK, H. A. A Tiered Approach to Performing Uncertainty Analysis in Conducting Exposure Analysis for Chemicals. Presented at 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, Durham, NC, October 14 - 18, 2007.
Abstract: The WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment provides guidance on recommended strategies for conducting uncertainty analysis as part of human exposure analysis. Specifically, a tiered approach to uncertainty analysis is recommended. A tiered approach refers to a process in which the exposure or risk assessment uncertainties progress systematically from a relatively simple to more complex. An important feature of a tiered analysis is that the uncertainty analyses may be refined in successive iterations. Lowest-tier analyses are often performed in screening-level regulatory and preliminary research applications. Intermediate-tier analyses are often considered during regulatory evaluations when screening-level analysis either indicates a level of potential concern or is not suited for the case at hand. The highest-tier analyses are often performed in response to regulatory compliance needs or for informing risk management decisions on suitable alternatives or trade-offs. According to the WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document, Tier 0 uncertainty analyses incorporates appropriate conservative assumptions or default safety factors. Higher-tier assessments (i.e., Tiers 1-3) do not require the quantification of every uncertainty and are targeted on the uncertainties which have most influence on the assessment outcome. These begin with qualitative approaches (Tier 1), and progressing to deterministic (Tier 2) or probabilistic approaches (Tier 3). Some Tier 3 analyses may separate contributions of variability and uncertainty to overall assessment uncertainties. However, uncertainties may be treated at different tiers within a single exposure assessment depending on the particulars of that assessment. This presentation will provide further details on the recommended approaches for conducting tiered uncertainty analyses for exposure assessment along with illustrative examples.

PRESENTATION Role of Environmental and Personal Factors in the Initiation of Asthma in School-Aged Children: Mica Study 06/23/2007
OZKAYNAK, H. A., M. M. JOHNSON, J. E. GALLAGHER, E. E. HUDGENS, AND L. M. NEAS. Role of Environmental and Personal Factors in the Initiation of Asthma in School-Aged Children: Mica Study. Presented at World Asthma Meeting, Istanbul, TURKEY, June 22 - 25, 2007.
Abstract: A number of environmental and personal factors have already been associated with the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma, but many aspects of this association require further research. The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) is an epidemiologic study that is being conducted by the U.S. EPA in order to advance our current understanding of various risk factors and triggers of childhood asthma. This study is gathering and analyzing information during 2006-2009 on biological markers of exposure, early effect, and susceptibility from 100 asthmatic and 100 non-asthmatic children recruited from the Detroit, Michigan Metropolitan area. MICA study participants provide questionnaire data, exhaled nitric oxide and lung function measurements, as well as indoor dust, blood, urine and other biological specimens that are analyzed for various markers of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air monitoring component of MICA (MICA-air) utilizes a participant-based approach in which passive samplers are deployed by parents to collect indoor and outdoor measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), VOCs, PAHs and naphthalene. Monitoring data generated by MICA-air will facilitate evaluation and refinement of current exposure assessment techniques, while the participant-based strategy may provide a cost-effective approach to exposure assessment that can be applied in future community health studies on asthma and other conditions. This presentation provides an overview of the study design, recruitment results and initial findings from the air monitoring component.

PRESENTATION Probabilistic Modeling for Advanced Human Exposure Assessment 06/18/2007
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Probabilistic Modeling for Advanced Human Exposure Assessment. Presented at SRA Europe Meeting, The Hague, NETHERLANDS, June 17 - 19, 2007.
Abstract: Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Probabilistic human exposure models provide an analytic structure for combining these various types data generated from disparate studies in a manner that may make more complete use of the existing information related to exposures to a particular contaminant than is possible by direct study methods. Validated models can then be used to investigate the efficacy of various strategies for managing public health risks associated with exposures due to environmental contaminants of concern. However, each component of the source-concentration-exposure-dose-effects human health risk paradigm has inherent variability and uncertainty due to complexity of the underlying environmental and biological systems. Consequently, probabilistic human exposure methods are used during the course of human health risk assessments to explicitly quantify the variability and uncertainty in the prediction endpoints and to identify the key factors that contribute to these variations or uncertainties. This presentation describes the probabilistic exposure modeling methods used in air pollution and multimedia human exposure assessments, along with specific examples and case-studies demonstrating the application of these tools for characterizing the variability and uncertainty in the predicted population exposure distributions.

PRESENTATION In Pursuit of An International Approach to Quality Assurance for Environmental Technology Verification 06/13/2007
JOHNSON, L. S. In Pursuit of An International Approach to Quality Assurance for Environmental Technology Verification. Presented at 26th Annual Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Cleveland, OH, June 11 - 14, 2007.
Abstract: In the mid-1990's, the USEPA began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in order to provide purchasers of environmental technology with independently acquired, quality-assured, test data, upon which to base their purchasing decisions. From the beginning, a strong program of quality assurance was specifically devised for ETV and was documented in the ETV Quality and Management Plan. During the intervening years, the ETV program and accompanying quality system, has continued to evolve. One feature of the quality system has remained constant: EPA QA staff continue to provide QA oversight for the program. This has created a conundrum for the program as the actual technology testing moves toward economic self-sufficiency (i.e. vendors pay for testing), but QA oversight remains in-house. It has presented a particularly interesting problem for collaborating with other countries where technology verification programs are also being developed and reciprocity is desired. Tapping into existing resources for accreditation and certification in the international conformity assessment arena may be a viable approach, but undoubtedly some infrastructure must be developed to replace the hands-on oversight that has historically been provided by EPA QA staff. Discussion of this approach and other activities related to development of an international approach to environmental technology verification will be the focus of this presentation.

 

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