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Office of the Director Publications: 2005

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Office of the Director for the year 2005, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 17 Matching Entries.

See also Office of the Director citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Janice Sims - (706)-355-8011 or sims.janice@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
JOURNAL Towards a Core Data Set for Landscape Assessments 09/01/2005
JONES, B., J. WALKER, N. ZACCARELLI, W. G. KEPNER, AND G. ZURLINI. Towards a Core Data Set for Landscape Assessments. ECOSYSTEMS. Springer, New York, NY, 11:48-65, (2005).
Abstract: One of the primary goals of the NATO Committee on Challenges to Modern Society (CCMS) Landscape Pilot Study is to further develop, apply, and share landscape assessment technologies and spatial databases among participating countries, with the ultimate aim of sustaining environmental quality and a high quality of life. These assessments cover a range of issues (water quality, landscape condition, biological diversity, urbanization, global climate change) and spatial scales (local to Basin-level).
Based on a general characterization and assessment of the individual projects in the Pilot Study, we conclude that there is no single minimum set of data that meets the needs of all participating countries. However, there is a small set of core data that are being used across most of the projects, including attributes for land cover (Corine data), digital elevation model (DEM) data, and soils. These data are found in most of the individual projects because they are readily available and also capture processes controlling a wide range of environmental endpoints. Because they are being used by many of the projects, and because they are readily available, these core data offer the potential to conduct broad-scale or cross-country assessments in Europe. The primary aim of such a project would be to target and prioritize areas for further study and protection rather than to predict or forecast states (conditions) or responses to management for specific areas. The latter objective is part of some of the individual projects. We provide a review of core data sets used in a wide range of landscape assessments. We also identify a number of potential sources of data and provide some general recommendations for their use.

JOURNAL Exposure Assessment in the National Children's Study-Introduction 08/03/2005
NEEDHAM, L. L., H. A. OZKAYNAK, R. M. WHYATT, D. B. BARR, R. Y. WANG, L. NEAHER, G. C. AKLAND, T. BAHADORI, A. BRADMAN, R. C. FORTMANN, S. LIU, M. T. MORANDI, M. K. O'ROURKE, K. W. THOMAS, J. J. QUACKENBOSS, B. RYAN, AND V. ZARTARIAN. Exposure Assessment in the National Children's Study-Introduction. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. National Environmental Health Association, Denver, CO, 113(8):1076-1082, (2005).
Abstract: The science of exposure assessment is relatively new and evolving rapidly with the advancement of sophisticated methods for specific measurements at the picogram per gram level or lower in a variety of environmental and biologic matrices. Without this measurement capability, environmental health studies rely on questionnaires or other indirect means as the primary method to assess individual exposures. Although we use indirect methods, they are seldom used as stand-alone tools. Analyses of environmental and biologic samples have allowed us to get more precise data on exposure pathways, from sources to concentrations, to routes, to exposure, to doses. They also often allow a better estimation of the absorbed dose and its relation to potential adverse health outcomes in individuals and in populations. Here, we make note of various environmental agents and how best to assess exposure to them in the National Children's Study--a longitudinal epidemiologic study of children's health. Criteria for the analytical method of choice are discussed with particular emphasis on the need for long-term quality control and quality assurance measures.

JOURNAL Exposure Assessment Implications for the Design and Implementation of the National Children's Study 08/01/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A., R. WHYATT, L. L. NEEDHAM, G. G. AKLAND, AND J. J. QUACKENBOSS. Exposure Assessment Implications for the Design and Implementation of the National Children's Study. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, NC, 113(8):1108-1115, (2005).
Abstract: Examining the influence of environmental exposures on various health indices is a critical component of the planned National Children┬┐s Study (NCS). An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the NCS is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biological agents, persistent organics, non-persistent organics (such as pesticides), inorganic chemicals (e.g. metals), and others. However, because of the large sample size of the study (100,000 children), it is not feasible to assess every possible exposure of every child. We envision that cost-effective strategies for gathering the necessary exposure-related information with minimum burden to participants, such as broad administration of product-use questionnaires and diaries, would likely be considered in designing the exposure component of the NCS. In general, a biologic (e.g., blood, urine, hair, saliva) measure could be the dosimeter of choice for many of the persistent and for some of the non-persistent organic pollutants. Biologic specimens, such as blood, can also indicate long term internal dose to various metals, including lead and mercury. Environmental measures, on the other hand, provide pathway/source-specific exposure estimates to many of the environmental agents, including those where biologic measurements are not currently feasible (e.g. for particulate matter and for some gaseous criteria pollutants). However, these may be burdensome and costly to either collect or analyze, and may not actually indicate the absorbed dose. Thus, an important technical and logistical challenge for the NCS is to develop an appropriate study design with adequate statistical power that will permit detection of exposure-related health effects, based on an optimum set of exposure measurement methods. We anticipate that low-cost, low-burden methods, such as questionnaires and screening type assessments of environmental and biologic samples could be employed, when exposures at different critical life stages of vulnerability can be reliably estimated by these simpler methods. However, when reliability and statistical power considerations dictate the need for collecting more specific exposure information, more extensive environmental, biologic and personal exposure measurements should be obtained from various "validation" subsets of the NCS population that include children who are in different life stages. This strategy of differential exposure measurement design may allow the exposure-response relationships to be tested on the whole cohort by incorporating the information on the relationship between different types of exposure measures (i.e., ranging from simple to more complex) derived from the detailed validation sub-samples.

PRESENTATION Measurement of Exposures to Air Pollutants, Metals, and Pesticides 10/06/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Measurement of Exposures to Air Pollutants, Metals, and Pesticides. Presented at 1st International Conference on Environmental Exposure and Health 2005, Atlanta, GA, October 05 - 07, 2005.
Abstract: Estimating children's health risks requires knowledge and understanding of routes and pathways of exposures to environmental agents of concern and information on concentrations of these chemicals in the relevant media or in personal air samples. This presentation summarizes the primary methods that are used for environmental and personal samples for air pollutants, metals and pesticides.

PRESENTATION Measurement of Exposures to Air Pollutants, Metals, and Pesticides 10/05/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Measurement of Exposures to Air Pollutants, Metals, and Pesticides. Presented at 1st International Conference on Environmental Exposure and Health 2005, Atlanta, GA, October 05 - 07, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Future of Air Quality Modeling: Addressing Health Effects 09/28/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. The Future of Air Quality Modeling: Addressing Health Effects. Presented at 4th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, September 26 - 28, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Modeling Children's Exposure to Pesticides: Issues and Challengs 09/27/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Modeling Children's Exposure to Pesticides: Issues and Challengs. Presented at EPA's Workshop on the Analysis of Children's Measurements Data, Research Triangle Park, NC, September 27 - 28, 2005.
Abstract: This presentation provides an overview of issues and challenges encountered in modeling children's exposures to pesticides.

PRESENTATION EPA/Ord National Exposure Research Laboratory Measurement Science Support for Homeland Security 07/27/2005
BOUCHARD, D., J. G. LYON, J. E. DENNE, AND C. R. SIBERT. EPA/Ord National Exposure Research Laboratory Measurement Science Support for Homeland Security. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Washington, DC, July 25 - 27, 2005.
Abstract: This product describes the National Exposure Research Laboratory research and development support for homeland security through the proposed National Exposure Measurements Center (NEMC). Key NEMC functional areas depicted in this poster are: standardized analytical method development, statistical design and sampling, quality assurance, training and technical assistance, and provision of analytical surge capacity for overflow samples.

PRESENTATION EPA-Ord Measurement Science Support for Homeland Security 07/25/2005
BOUCHARD, D., J. G. LYON, AND J. E. DENNE. EPA-Ord Measurement Science Support for Homeland Security. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Washington, DC, July 25 - 27, 2005.
Abstract: This presentation will describe the organization and the research and development activities of the ORD National Exposure Measurements Center and will focus on the Center's planned role in providing analytical method development, statistical sampling and design guidance, quality assurance and proficiency testing, and training and technical assistance.

PRESENTATION Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Geoss) Remote Sensing Information Gateway Demonstration 07/25/2005
GARCIA, V. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Geoss) Remote Sensing Information Gateway Demonstration. Presented at 2005 25th ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 25 - 29, 2005.
Abstract: How do forest fires in a state or country impact the health of residents, living thousands of miles away? How do we better track the effects of heavy urban rain runoff into nearby lakes to provide unprecedented access to and use of global Earth observation information to track, predict, and address threats to the environment?
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has joined forces with NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to integrate satellite and ground-based monitoring and modeling systems to evaluate environmental conditions and predict outcomes of events such as forest fires, population growth, and other developments that are natural and man-made. The initiative is called the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and is a collaborative international effort to share and integrate Earth observation data. The tools that are developed will aid in managing air quality and watersheds, improve drinking water, protect the food supply, and ensure a safe transportation system.

PRESENTATION Model Harmonization Potential and Benefits 06/22/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Model Harmonization Potential and Benefits. Presented at Global Net on Comsumer Exposure Modeling-Workshops on Framework/Policy and Research/Science Issues, Intra-Verbania, ITALY, June 20 - 24, 2005.
Abstract: The IPCS Harmonization Project, which is currently ongoing under the auspices of the WHO, in the context of chemical risk assessment or exposure modeling, does not imply global standardization. Instead, harmonization is thought of as an effort to strive for consistency among approaches and to enhance understanding of the various approaches to chemical risk worldwide (IPCS 2004). Thus, harmonization is defined, in a step-wise fashion, as an understanding of the methods or models and practices used by various countries and organizations so as to develop confidence in, and acceptance of, assessments that use different approaches. It further involves a willingness to work towards convergence of these approaches or models as a longer-term goal. In order to achieve harmonization of approaches a framework is proposed by the EU for comparing information on various elements of risk assessment, including exposure modeling; understanding of the basis for exposure standards for specific chemicals in different countries; savings of time and expense by sharing information, models and avoiding duplication of work; and promoting credible science through better communication among organizations and peer review of assessments and assessment procedures. In the context of exposure modeling, the goal is to ensure performing reliable exposure and risk assessments using models that lead to more effective or targeted risk management decisions, thus promoting protection of human health and the environment within the framework of sustainable development. Principles of exposure model harmonization are intimately tied to basic concepts and determinants of human exposure and how this information is linked with data on environmental conditions and human behavior.

PRESENTATION Movement of Mercury in the Northeast Airshed 06/20/2005
SUNDERLAND, E. Movement of Mercury in the Northeast Airshed. Presented at Shared Air Summit, Toronto, ON, CANADA, June 20 - 21, 2005.
Abstract: This presentation package describes mercury in the Northeast airshed and traces the exposure pathway for mercury from emissions to human exposure.

PRESENTATION Background on Existing Research and Modeling Techniques for Estimating Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates 05/24/2005
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Background on Existing Research and Modeling Techniques for Estimating Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates. Presented at Children and Adults Soil/Dust Ingestion and Mouthing Behavior Colloquium, Washington, DC, May 24 - 25, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Council for Regulatory Environmental Modeling (Crem) Pilot Water Quality Model Selection Tool 05/18/2005
SUNDERLAND, E. Council for Regulatory Environmental Modeling (Crem) Pilot Water Quality Model Selection Tool. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2005, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: EPA's Council for Regulatory Environmental Modeling (CREM) is currently supporting the development of a pilot model selection tool that is intended to help the states and the regions implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. This tool will be implemented within the CREM Knowledge Base. The models Knowledge Base is a web-based repository of some of the most frequently used models at the Agency. An enhance inventory of models and tools that support the TMDL program are currently being compiled and the initial version of the model selection tool is now available. The pilot model selection/ranking tool will assist users in selecting the sub-set of models that are most appropriate for their specific application and document the decision process associated with model selection. Input from state and regional modelers on the usability and usefulness of this tool will be critical for moving this pilot into its final stage of development. Features in the selection tool, like report generation to document both the selection process and the chosen model's "pedigree" are expected to reduce resources spent on documenting metadata on commonly used models that support water quality management. CREM's long-term goal is to enhance transparency, scientific defensibility, and, where appropriate, the consistency of models and tools used to throughout the TMDL program in the States and EPA Regions.

PRESENTATION Enhancing Scientific Collaboration Through Quality Assurance 05/16/2005
JOHNSON, L. S., B. CULPEPPER, AND T. WAGNER. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration Through Quality Assurance. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2005, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: The basic features of the Quality Assurance Program have been in existence since the early 1980's, but this poster will highlight some topics that have emerged more recently, in particular the Agency's laboratory competency policy, the information quality guidelines, and scientific ethics.

PRESENTATION Spatial Indicators of Ecological Condition in the Western United States 02/05/2005
JONES, B., D. T. HEGGEM, D. W. EBERT, S. AUGUSTINE, A. SELLE, K. HERMANN, P. LEINENBACH, A. C. NEALE, T. G. WADE, AND R. D. VAN REMORTEL. Spatial Indicators of Ecological Condition in the Western United States. Presented at Society of Rangeland Management Annual Meeting, Special Symposium: Linkages Between Sustainable Rangelands Roundtables (SRR) Criteria and Agency Rangeland Inventory, Monitoring, and Reporting Efforts, Fort Worth, TX, February 05 - 11, 2005.
Abstract: This presentation highlights the development of spatial and landscape indicators by the EPA's Western EMAP Landscape Working group. The presentation highlights work being conducted in EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10. The spatial indicators will be used by ORD, the EPA Regions, and 12 western States to evaluate ecological and watershed conditions, primarily with regards to water quality. The presentation also compares indicators developed by the working group with those recommended by the Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable.

PRESENTATION Developing the Capacity to Make Ecological Forecasts: Issues, Gaps, and Needs 02/03/2005
JONES, B. Developing the Capacity to Make Ecological Forecasts: Issues, Gaps, and Needs. Presented at 5th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Forecasting Environmental Changes, Washington, DC, February 03 - 04, 2005.
Abstract: This presentation highlights results and recommendations of the interagency writing team on ecological forecasting. The writing team is part of the Interagency Working Group on Earth Observations (IWGEO) and involves participants from EPA, NOAA, NASA, USGS, NSF, and the Smithsonian. The goals of the forecasting system are to provide short-term forecasts to the public that are an early warning of potential risks to ecological services and associated human health, and to provide for longer-term forecasts that would help identify more insidious environmental changes leading to potential wide-spread risks and irreversible damage to important ecological services. This presentation discusses current capabilities, gaps, and needs related to a wide range of ecological forecasts.

 

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