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Office of the Director Publications: 2004

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Office of the Director for the year 2004, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 23 Matching Entries.

See also Office of the Director citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Janice Sims - (706)-355-8011 or sims.janice@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
JOURNAL EPA Research Highlights - Models-3/Cmaq Offers Comprehensive Approach to Air Quality Modeling 09/01/2004
McKim, B P. EPA Research Highlights - Models-3/Cmaq Offers Comprehensive Approach to Air Quality Modeling. EM: AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS MAGAZINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS (September):12, (2004).
Abstract: Regional and global coordinated efforts are needed to address air quality problems that are growing in complexity and scope. Models-3 CMAQ contains a community multi-scale air quality modeling system for simulating urban to regional scale pollution problems relating to tropospheric ozone, acid/nutrient deposition, visibility, and fine particulate matter. Models-3 CMAQ allows integration of scientific and technology advancements of other federal agencies, academia, and research institutions, thereby allowing a more unified and comprehensive approach to environmental simulation modeling. Computer simulation of atmospheric processes related to criteria pollutants and air toxics is essential for an effective air quality management system. The Models-3 CMAQ system is the latest example of the state-of-the-science product. In addition to the use of the Models-3 CMAQ modeling system as an assessment tool, it is also emerging as a tool for forecasting pollution levels. Scientists from NOAA and EPA recently initiated a program to develop and test numerical models to provide real-time forecasts of pollutant concentrations over the continental United States. The pilot program uses a forecast version of EPA's Models-3 CMAQ system to forecast the next-day ozone concentrations across the northeastern United States.

PRESENTATION Exposures to Environmental Agents 12/09/2004
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Exposures to Environmental Agents. Presented at Time-Use Data for the National Children's Study Workshop, Arlington, VA, December 09 - 10, 2004.
Abstract: The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how can we best determine children's exposures to various environmental agents by different life stages?; which locations, sources, media, routes and pathways contribute greatest to exposures of interest?; what activities and behaviors influence the pollutant transfer rates, exposures, uptake and dose?, and; what are the measures of exposures of health relevance (e.g., duration, intensity, timing, frequency). Administering well-designed time-activity data, supplemented with household questionnaires, is an important aspect of the exposure analysis component of the NCS. Time-activity data are intended to provide information on the types and locations of sources of exposures and allows estimation of exposure durations and delivered dose using physiological data and exertion level information. In conjunction with microenvironmental concentration measurements, time-activity data enables estimation of exposure concentrations and time-sequence of personal exposures. Types of time-use data collection instruments include: self-reported diaries; video and camera techniques; voice recording devices; combined technologies (e.g. GPS for time and location, motion sensors for activity level, miniature cameras for location and microactivity), and; questionnaires for gathering specific information on subjects and households, consumer product use, building factors, etc. This presentation will give examples of typical time-activity diary formats used in exposure field studies and how they are used in calculating route-specific exposure estimates and total dose for children exposed to pollutants indoors and outdoors.
This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

PRESENTATION Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Exposures and Sources 11/07/2004
OZKAYNAK, H. A. Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Exposures and Sources. Presented at 132nd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, November 06 - 10, 2004.
Abstract: Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more time indoors, and outdoors near residences, than the rest of the population. Sources of pollutants that contribute to ambient pollution include stationary, mobile and area sources of particulates, gaseous pollutants such as, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and air toxics (e.g., ozone). Pollutants released outdoors also penetrate indoors, and thus, indoor microenvironments may be a significant locus of exposure for outdoor pollutants. In indoor environments, household cooking and heating sources, building materials, consumer products and human activities result in intermittent or continuous emissions of many classes of pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter and biological agents. All these different indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution contribute to air pollution concentrations in microenvironments where people spend most of their time during the course of each day. Understanding the potential risks from exposures to either indoor or outdoor pollution sources requires knowledge of the physical and chemical factors that determine microenvironmental pollutant concentrations of pollutants of concern, and the time-activity patterns of individuals by age and gender category, which influence the amount of personal contact with these various pollutants. This presentation elaborates further on these exposure-related issues important to aging populations.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Exposures and Sources 11/06/2004
Ozkaynak, A H. Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Exposures and Sources. Presented at American Public Health Association 132nd Annual Meeting and Exposition, Washington, DC, November 6-10, 2004.
Abstract: Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more time indoors, and outdoors near residences, than the rest of the population. Sources of pollutants that contribute to ambient pollution include stationary, mobile and area sources of particulates, gaseous pollutants such as, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and air toxics (e.g., ozone). Pollutants released outdoors also penetrate indoors, and thus, indoor microenvironments may be a significant locus of exposure for outdoor pollutants. In indoor environments, household cooking and heating sources, building materials, consumer products and human activities result in intermittent or continuous emissions of many classes of pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter and biological agents. All these different indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution contribute to air pollution concentrations in microenvironments where people spend most of their time during the course of each day. Understanding the potential risks from exposures to either indoor or outdoor pollution sources requires knowledge of the physical and chemical factors that determine microenvironmental pollutant concentrations of pollutants of concern, and the time-activity patterns of individuals by age and gender category, which influence the amount of personal contact with these various pollutants. This presentation elaborates further on these exposure-related issues important to aging populations.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publications, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION An Overview of the Advantages and Limitations of Probabilistic Exposure and Risk Assessment Methods Used in Evaluating Health Impacts of Environmental Chemicals 10/17/2004
Ozkaynak, A H. An Overview of the Advantages and Limitations of Probabilistic Exposure and Risk Assessment Methods Used in Evaluating Health Impacts of Environmental Chemicals. Presented at 2004 14th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis (ISEA), Philadelphia, PA, October 17-21, 2004.
Abstract: Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Each component of the source-concentration-exposure-dose-effects human health risk paradigm has inherent variability and uncertainty due to complexity of the underlying environmental and biological systems. Consequently, probabilistic human exposure and toxicity assessment methods are often used in human health risk assessments to quantify explicitly the contributions of variability and uncertainty in inputs to the risk assessment to the estimated range of possible health effects. This ISEA session on Probabilistic Exposure and Risk Assessment begins by first introducing the commonly used probabilistic human exposure and risk assessment methods in the field, followed by discussions of specific examples demonstrating applications of probabilistic uncertainty analysis tools typically used for environmental emissions, concentrations, personal exposures and toxicity characterizations. Current methods for derivation of non-cancer risk values will be reviewed and situations when probabilistic estimates of potency were found to be useful will be described in the session. Each presenter has been invited to provide their insights into the limitations of current methods and underlying information in order to reliably assess human exposures and risks to environmental toxicants. This presentation summarizes the principal conclusions of the session, in terms of strengths and limitations of current probabilistic techniques, and provides a synthesis of the recommended future research activities, which will be identified by the session presenters.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Cumulative Risk Assessment Issues 08/04/2004
Cupitt, L T. Cumulative Risk Assessment Issues. Presented at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Air Toxics Symposium, Dedham, MA, August 4, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Estimating Health Effects from Exposures to Outdoor and Indoor Sources of Air Pollution 08/02/2004
Ozkaynak, A H. Estimating Health Effects from Exposures to Outdoor and Indoor Sources of Air Pollution. Presented at 16th Annual Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), New York City, NY, August 1-4, 2004.
Abstract: Individuals are exposed to wide variety of pollutants in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of a typical day. Sources of pollution in various indoor and outdoor locations produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants with different physical and chemical characteristics, which may, in turn, result in different health responses. Thus, to fully understand the relationships between exposures to environmental pollutants and various health outcomes, personal exposures to principal sources of toxic chemicals have to be characterized. Proper quantification of the magnitude and timing of personal exposures to these sources will then require identification of key microenvironments, media, routes and pathways of exposure that contribute most to an individual's exposure. Source apportionment techniques can provide a useful method for determining personal exposure to PM and air toxics from specific sources. Contributions to personal exposures from sources that have only outdoor, indoor or both indoor and outdoor components can be developed for generating either personal or population-level source-specific exposure estimates, for use in epidemiologic analyses. A number of epidemiological studies have already evaluated the relationship between health outcomes and sources of ambient particulate matter and co-pollutants. These studies suggest the importance of examining sources and constituents of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM and other criteria pollutants. However, limitations of existing measurement data on indoor, outdoor and personal measurements to pollutants of concern (e.g., PM and its constituents or air toxics) and longitudinal time-activity data on susceptible population groups, hamper the investigation of health impacts of specific air pollution sources and its components. Future community health studies need to collect better information on indoor and outdoor sources of personal exposures to PM, PM species and various toxic co-pollutants.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Human Exposure Modeling for Air Toxics Using Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (Sheds) 06/08/2004
Ozkaynak, A H., S E. Graham, AND J M. Burke. Human Exposure Modeling for Air Toxics Using Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (Sheds). Presented at EPA Regions/States/Local Modelers Workshop, Boston, MA, June 8-11, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Overview of Exposure Factors Research at EPA Office of Research and Development National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) 06/07/2004
Ozkaynak, A H. Overview of Exposure Factors Research at EPA Office of Research and Development National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Presented at Exposure Factors Program Peer Involvement Workshop, Washington, DC, June 7-8, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Environmental Science Portal a Pillar of the Center of Excellence for Environmental Computational Science 06/01/2004
Grady, T M. Environmental Science Portal a Pillar of the Center of Excellence for Environmental Computational Science. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Partnering With Doe to Apply Advanced Biological, Environmental, and Computational Science to Environmental Issues 06/01/2004
Garcia, V C., G P. Toth, K L. Schere, AND E R. Smith. Partnering With Doe to Apply Advanced Biological, Environmental, and Computational Science to Environmental Issues. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the environment and fostering a secure, reliable, and economically sustainable energy system. This poster will describe three areas of collaboration: gene sequencing, high performance computing, and decision tools for sustainability.
Using approaches derived from modern computational methods, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and systems biology, computational biology allows us to address the questions of "when and how" to test specific chemicals for hazards and for improving quantitative risk assessments of chemicals and microbial human pathogens. Gene sequencing holds the potential to reveal molecular pieces of the toxicity pathway, which is critical to answering these questions. This is particularly important for sub-mammalian species, for which such information lags considerably behind mammals. The collaboration between EPA and DOE will produce DNA sequence data on organisms of special importance to EPA's effort to apply molecular data to the prediction of toxicity, characterization of exposure, and ultimately integration in ecological risk assessments.

The forward-looking relationship between EPA and DOE is also characterized by high performance computing, a key area of collaboration that will take computational sciences and decision-making tools to a new level of sophistication and utility. High performance computing allows optimization (better, faster, cheaper runs) of environmental models like EPA's Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, enhances data storage and transfer of large data sets, and reduces data duplication. Optimization is targeted to systems used by state and regional agencies that must meet upcoming deadlines on air quality implementation plans in the 2007-2008 timeframe. As EPA and DOE's scientists explore new research areas, networking enhancements will enable more thorough and rapid analysis of complex models and large datasets.

DOE and EPA's collaborative efforts in the area of sustainability will focus on a variety of research tools and modeling activities that contribute to informed decisions and policies in environmental protection, development of new environment and energy technology, sustainable energy use, ecological monitoring, analysis of material flows, and environmental and facilities clean-up. Collaboration led to the development of the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Environmental Decision Toolkit (EDT) - a basic integration and visualization toolkit used by EPA and partners in state and local government to address a suite of assessment questions crucial to reducing ecological risk. Future activities will focus on development and implementation of sensing, data collection, and information synthesis for measuring and tracking the state of the environment, and on the development of data, tools, and analyses relating to how decisions we make today will effect environmental conditions in the future.

Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION The Ord Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students 06/01/2004
Leovic, K W. The Ord Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Evaluating Environmental Quality Using Spatial Data Derived from Satellite Imagery 06/01/2004
Jones, K B., J D. Wickham, A C. Neale, AND T G. Wade. Evaluating Environmental Quality Using Spatial Data Derived from Satellite Imagery. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Spatially explicit identification of status and changes in environmental conditions over large, regional areas is key to targeting and prioritizing areas for potential further study and environmental protection and restoration. A critical limitation to this point has been our ability to integrate field-based measures of environmental conditions, such as those being collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), with spatially continuous landscape and biophysical data. Relatively new spatial data derived from satellite imagery and other sources, the development of statistical approaches and models, and geographic information systems make it possible to evaluate environmental quality at multiple scales over broad geographic regions. This presentation describes and demonstrates the use of spatial data derived from remote sensing imagery, especially the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), in conducting environmental assessments.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Increasing Diversity in Environmental Science and Engineering: the Ord Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students 06/01/2004
Leovic, K W. Increasing Diversity in Environmental Science and Engineering: the Ord Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The "Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students" began in 1990 as a collaborative effort between EPA's Office of Research and Development in Research Triangle Park, NC and Shaw University, an Historically Black College/University (HBCU) in Raleigh, NC. The program addresses the under representation of minorities in the fields of environmental science and engineering and is designed to encourage students to pursue advanced degrees in these disciplines. The 4-year program for selected Wake County, NC, high school students has two sessions: the academic year and the summer program. During the academic year, students attend environmental science classes, workshops, and interactive presentations by EPA scientists three Saturdays each month. During the summer, rising 9th, 10th, and 11th-grade students attend 6 weeks of classes, workshops, and field trips coordinated by Shaw University. The rising seniors apprentice under EPA mentors at EPA in Research Triangle Park during the summer. This intensive experience immerses students in scientific research and culminates in a research forum during which each student presents their work to an audience that includes mentors, students, parents, and EPA scientists. As of June 2003, 74 high school students have participated in the program (currently 34). Nine Program alumni have been accepted into the prestigious North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics. At least four students have co-authored peer-reviewed journal articles based on research conducted while working at the EPA, and many students have been hired by EPA in subsequent summers during college. The overall high school grade point average of participants is 3.57 on a 4.0 scale. Most significantly, 100% of those who completed the program entered college, and 90% majored in either science, math, or engineering with the support of over half a million dollars in scholarships and grants. In 2004, a program graduate currently enrolled in Bowman-Gray Medical School was selected as a Research Scholar with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the National Institutes of Health. The program, which selects only 40 students from 200+ applicants, is for medical students interested in biomedical research and is designed to prepare students for careers in academic medicine. The ORD Center for Environmental Education wants to share information about this successful program with other parts of EPA and the public to encourage its replication in other locations.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION EPA's Today's Emerging It Solutions to Collaboratively Transform Tomorrow's Environmental Decision Making 06/01/2004
Grady, T M. AND L M. Petterson. EPA's Today's Emerging It Solutions to Collaboratively Transform Tomorrow's Environmental Decision Making. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Air Quality Characterization for Environmental Health Tracking 06/01/2004
Baldridge, E., F. Dimmick, T. Fitzsimons, D. Mintz, L. Tooly, A B. Gilliland, D M. Holland, J. Szykman, T H. Watkins, V. Boothe, L. Todorov, AND D. Neil. Air Quality Characterization for Environmental Health Tracking. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Grid Services Enabling Better Science Through Partnering 06/01/2004
Petterson, L M. Grid Services Enabling Better Science Through Partnering. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION EPA-Doe Partnerships: Collaboration, Technology, and Results 06/01/2004
Garcia, V C., G P. Toth, K L. Schere, AND E R. Smith. EPA-Doe Partnerships: Collaboration, Technology, and Results. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Use of Thresholds in Landscape Assessments 05/17/2004
Jones, K B., J D. Wickham, AND A C. Neale. Use of Thresholds in Landscape Assessments. Presented at Making the Linkages Through the Use of Environmental Indicators A Regional/State/Tribal and Office of Research and Development Science Topic Workshop, Kansas City, MO, May 17-20, 2004.
Abstract: Identification and use of thresholds are potentially important additions to interpretations of ecological monitoring data. However, there are a number of issues related to defining and using thresholds in interpreting ecological data. Most of these issues center around the paucity of long-term data to establish thresholds or phase transitions in important ecological functions, as well as the fact that ecosystems and their associated processes change over time. In this presentation, we discuss issues related to the establishment of ecological thresholds.
Recent development in landscape assessment approaches provides a way to evaluate ecological conditions where both arbitrary and ecosystem-based thresholds are used. In this presentation, we demonstrate these approaches through case studies from the eastern United States. The approach permits an extension of thresholds developed for streams to the broader watershed or landscape context.

Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (Sheds) Model 05/12/2004
Ozkaynak, A H., V Zartarian, AND J Xue. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (Sheds) Model. Presented at Pyrethroids Working Group Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 12, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Integrating Field-Based Sampling and Landscape Data for Regional Scale Assessments: Examples from the United States Mid-Atlantic Region 05/05/2004
Jones, K B., J D. Wickham, AND A C. Neale. Integrating Field-Based Sampling and Landscape Data for Regional Scale Assessments: Examples from the United States Mid-Atlantic Region. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Spatially explicit identification of status and changes in ecological conditions over large, regional areas is key to targeting and prioritizing areas for potential further study and environmental protection and restoration. A critical limitation to this point has been our ability to integrate field-based measures of ecological conditions, such as those being collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), with spatially continuous landscape and biophysical data. Relatively new spatial data derived from satellite imagery and other sources, the development of statistical approaches and models, and geographic information systems make it possible to evaluate ecological conditions and changes at multiple scales over broad geographic regions. This presentation highlights results of three studies in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States where the aim of each of these studies was a regional scale assessment based on integration of field-based and spatially continuous data.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Earth Observation System Update 04/21/2004
Mangis, D R. AND J G. Lyon. Earth Observation System Update. Presented at First Mediterranean Conference on Earth Observation - Remote Sensing (MeCEO), Serbia-Montenegro, Belgrade, April 21, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Study Design Considerations for the Exposure Component of the National Children's Study 03/21/2004
Ozkaynak, A H., L. Needham, R. Whyatt, AND J J. Quackenboss. Study Design Considerations for the Exposure Component of the National Children's Study. Presented at 43rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Baltimore, MD, March 21-25, 2004.
Abstract: An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metals, pesticides, among others. However, due to the large sample size of the study ( about 100,000 children), it is not feasible to measure every possible exposure of every child in the study. Thus, an important technical and logistical challenge is to develop an appropriate study design with adequate statistical power that will permit detection of exposure-related health effects, based on exposure and biomonitoring measurements on a smaller subset of the target population. Since the study will follow a longitudinal design, a related challenge will be deciding: a) which exposure-related measurements need to be assessed repeatedly over time; b) the timing of such repeated exposure assessments, and c) the appropriate type of direct and/or indirect (e.g., survey based) monitoring methodology to be employed, given various resource and participant burden considerations. The Chemical Exposure Work Group of the NCS project is currently undertaking an evaluation of these issues by utilizing the expertise represented within the group, as well as, those of outside contractors, in evaluating the available information on exposure monitoring in the context of an epidemiological study design. This presentation will summarize the recent findings from this NCS sponsored work group activity regarding potential alternatives for exposure and biological sampling, and inference of subject-specific exposures in the context of an epidemiologic study design.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

 

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