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Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division Publications: 2009

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division for the year 2009, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 36 Matching Entries.

See also Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Ground-Based Measurement of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation 02/06/2009
HALL, E. S. Ground-Based Measurement of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. 2009.Chapter A-Z, David Blumel, Stefan Malmoli, Jessa Netting (ed.), McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY, 150-155, (2009).
Abstract: The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a research program between 1996 and 2004 to measure UV at 21 unique locations through out the U.S. The program conducted long-term monitoring of UV to detect trends due to changes in the amount of stratospheric O3.

JOURNAL Mass Fraction Spatiotemporal Geostatistics and Its Application to Map Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons After 9/11 12/01/2009
Allshouse, W. B., J. D. PLEIL, S. M. Rappaport, AND M. L. Serre. Mass Fraction Spatiotemporal Geostatistics and Its Application to Map Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons After 9/11. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment . Springer Science + Business Media, New York, NY, 23(8):1213-1223, (2009).
Abstract: Extensive research has been conducted on effects resulting from exposure to ambient particulate matter. Particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory problems, and reproductive effects. A large body of work on particulate matter focuses on atmospheric particles less than 10 microns in size (PM10); more recently, research has been extended to investigation of fine particulate matter (particles less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5), which travel deeper into the lungs and increase the risks of health effects.

JOURNAL Summary of the Workshop on Methodologies for Environmental Public Health Tracking of Air Pollution Effects 12/01/2009
Matte, T. D., A. Cohen, F. DIMMICK, J. M. SAMET, J. SARNAT, F. Yip, AND N. Jones. Summary of the Workshop on Methodologies for Environmental Public Health Tracking of Air Pollution Effects. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Springer Netherlands, , Netherlands, 2(4):177-184, (2009).
Abstract: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program to support state and local projects to compile, link, analyze, and disseminate environmental and health data thereby engaging stakeholders and guiding actions to improve public health.

JOURNAL The Design and Field Implementation of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study 11/01/2009
WILLIAMS, R. W., A. W. REA, A. F. VETTE, C. W. CROGHAN, D. A. WHITAKER, C. D. STEVENS, S. R. MCDOW, R. C. FORTMANN, L. S. SHELDON, H. WILSON, J. Thornburg, M. P. PHILLIPS, P. Lawless, C. E. RODES, AND H. DAUGHTREY. The Design and Field Implementation of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 19(7):643-659, (2009).
Abstract: The primary goal of the study was to evaluate and describe the relationship between air toxics, particulate matter (PM), PM constituents, and PM from specific sources measured at a central site monitor with those from the residential and personal locations.

JOURNAL Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol Using Positive Matrix Factorization (Pmf) of Molecular Markers 11/01/2009
Zhang, Y., R. J. SHEESLEY, J. J. SCHAUER, M. LEWANDOWSKI, MOHAMMAD JAOUI, J. H. OFFENBERG, T. E. KLEINDIENST, AND E. O. EDNEY. Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol Using Positive Matrix Factorization (Pmf) of Molecular Markers. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(34):5567-5574, (2009).
Abstract: Monthly average ambient concentrations of more than eighty particle-phase organic compounds, as well as total organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), were measured from March 2004 through February 2005 in five cities in the Midwestern United States. A multi-variant source apportionment receptor model, positive matrix factoriztion (PMF), was applied to explore the average source contributions to the five sampling sites using molecular markers for primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA, SOA).

JOURNAL Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish (lepomis Macrochirus) Fillets 11/01/2009
DELINSKY, A., M. STRYNAR, S. F. Nakayama, J. L. VARNS, X. Ye, P. McCann, AND A. B. LINDSTROM. Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish (lepomis Macrochirus) Fillets. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, 109(8):975-984, (2009).
Abstract: Limited information is known about the environmental distributions of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in part due to a lack of well characterized analytical methods that can be used to accurately measure these contaminants in key environmental matrices. In this work, a rigorous SPE/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 10 PFCs in fish fillets is described and applied to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) fillets collected from selected areas of Minnesota and North Carolina. The 4 PFC analytes that were routinely detected in bluegill fillets were PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (C11), and perflurododecanoic acid (C12). Measures of method accuracy and precision for these compounds showed that calculated concentrations of PFCs in spiked samples differed by less than 20% from their theoretical values and that the %RSD for these measurements were also less than ± 20%. The Minnesota samples show increasing concentrations of the 4 detectable PFCs on the Mississippi River in proximity to known potential PFC sources and low levels of PFCs in the St. Croix River, which receives minimal known industrial inputs. Bluegill from Lake Calhoun, located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, had higher levels of PFCs than were found in the Mississippi River near known potential PFC sources. PFOS was the most prevalent PFC found in Minnesota samples, with median concentrations of 47.0 – 102 ng/g in locations along the Mississippi River, 2.08 ng/g in the St. Croix River, and 275 ng/g in Lake Calhoun. North Carolina samples, which were collected from two rivers with no known historical PFC sources, had PFC concentrations that were well above the limit of quantitation (LOQ). PFOS was the predominant analyte in fish taken from the Haw and Deep Rivers in the Cape Fear River Basin, with median concentrations of 30.3 and 62.2 ng/g, respectively. Mean concentrations of C10, C11, and C12 in NC samples were among the highest reported in the literature, with respective median values of 9.08, 23.9, and 6.60 ng/g in fish from the Haw River and 2.90, 9.15, and 3.46 ng/g in fish from the Deep River. Application of this method suggests that PFC contamination occurs in some U.S. freshwater fish and may not be limited to areas with historical PFC inputs.

JOURNAL Impact of Mining Waste on Airborne Respirable Particulates in Northeastern Oklahoma, United States 11/01/2009
Zota, A., R. WILLIS, R. Jim, G. A. NORRIS, J. P. SHINE, R. M. DUVALL, L. A. Schaider, AND J. D. SPENGLER. Impact of Mining Waste on Airborne Respirable Particulates in Northeastern Oklahoma, United States. JOURNAL OF AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 59(11):1347-1357, (2009).
Abstract: Atmospheric dispersion of particles from mine waste is potentially an important route of human exposure to metals in communities close to active and abandoned mining areas. In this study, we assessed sources of mass and metal concentrations in two size fractions of respirable particles using positive matrix factorization (Environmental Proteciton Agency [EPA] 3.0.

JOURNAL Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways 11/01/2009
OLSON, D. A., D. HAMMOND, R. L. SEILA, J. M. BURKE, AND G. A. NORRIS. Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(35):5647-5653, (2009).
Abstract: Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC (traffic volume of approximately 125,000 vehicles/day). Levels of VOCs generally decreased exponentially with perpendicular distance from the roadway 10-100m). The EPA Chemical Mass Balance (CMB8.2) was used to apportion VOCs into four sources (motor vehicles, natural gas, propane gas, evaporative gasoline).

JOURNAL Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous Vocs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust 11/01/2009
HUBBARD, H., J. SOBUS, J. D. PLEIL, M. C. MADDEN, AND S. Tabucchi. Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous Vocs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY: B BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 877(29):3652-3658, (2009).
Abstract: Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and can be expressed as a change in the patterns of the PVOCs. Under controlled or monitored conditions it may be possible to directly attribute changes to external sources. Results of these controlled exposures could then be used to assess unknown exposures in population based studies.

JOURNAL A Review of Advancements in Particulate Matter Sampling and Analysis and Its Application to Identifying Source Impacts at Receptor Locations 11/01/2009
SOLOMON, P. A. AND N. FRANK. A Review of Advancements in Particulate Matter Sampling and Analysis and Its Application to Identifying Source Impacts at Receptor Locations. Air Quality and Climate Change. Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand, Olinda, Australia, 43(4):35-42, (2009).
Abstract: Time-integrated (typically 24-hr) filter-based methods (historical methods) form the underpinning of our understanding of the fate, impact of source emissions at receptor locations (source impacts), and potential health and welfare effects of particulate matter (PM) in air. Over the last 40 years, many of these methods have been thoroughly evaluated and there is reasonable confidence with what they measure and associated uncertainties. These methods require transport of samples collected in the field to a laboratory for analysis of PM properties of interest. Over the last decade, significant progress has occurred in the development and evaluation of continuous and semi-continuous methods that combine the collection and chemical or physical property analysis into one instrument. These methods are placed in the field, providing often near-real time data, most with hourly time-resolution or better from bulk to single practical information from a few nanometers to 10 μm. Many of the continuous chemical property methods developed and tested still require additional evaluation and comparison between themselves and to historical methods. The latter are the primary basis for comparison since in-the-field tests, through the inlet reference standards are not available for most PM components. Despite lesser confidence in these methods relative to historical methods, data generated from these methods have greatly enhanced the application of approaches to link and quantify the impact of source emissions at receptor sites and to associate PM with health effects, as well as significantly advancing our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and the fate of PM in air. This paper briefly reviews the two primary modeling methods for estimating source contributions at receptor locations and current measurement methods with a focus on continuous measurements.

JOURNAL Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biogenic Precursor Hydrocarbons 10/15/2009
OFFENBERG, J. H., M. LEWANDOWSKI, E. O. EDNEY, T. E. KLEINDIENST, AND MOHAMMAD JAOUI. Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biogenic Precursor Hydrocarbons. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 43(20):7742-7747, (2009).
Abstract: Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and dynamics may be important factors for the role of aerosols in adverse health effects, visibility and climate change. Formation of SOA occurs when a parent volatile organic compound is oxidized to create products that form in a condensed phase. The suit of major precursor compounds is not fully known, though several precursor compounds are currently thought to contribute to ambient SOA.

JOURNAL Enhancing Air Pollution Exposure Assessment in the 21st Century By Measurement and Modeling 10/01/2009
LIOY, P. J., T. H. WATKINS, AND G. ALLEN. Enhancing Air Pollution Exposure Assessment in the 21st Century By Measurement and Modeling. EM: AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS MAGAZINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, (10/2009):42-45, (2009).
Abstract: Exposure assessments may be conducted using measurement data, modeling results, or through a combination of measurements and models. Models are required to estimate exposure when measurement data is insufficient due to spatial or temporal gaps (e.g., for refined local scale assessments) or if an estimate of exposure is required when no measurements exist (e.g., 10 evaluate alternative risk management options). However, the advanced modeling tools needed for exposure assessments in the future require measurement data for both their development, including exposure information to evaluate models the estimate exposures and dose for similar conditions. This article discusses why current and future air quality management issues require enhanced exposure assessment approaches, the role of exposure assessment in past monitoring studies, what measurements are needed to enhance exposure models, and new measurement and modeling approaches for estimating human exposures to air pollution.

JOURNAL The Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Isoprene + Oh Reaction in the Absence of NOx 09/10/2009
KLEINDIENST, T. E., M. LEWANDOWSKI, J. H. OFFENBERG, M. JAOUI, AND E. O. EDNEY. The Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Isoprene + Oh Reaction in the Absence of NOx. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, 9(17):6541-6558, (2009).
Abstract: The reaction of isoprene (C5H8) with hydroxyl radicals has been studied in the absence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to determine physical and chemical characteristics of the secondary organic aerosol formed. Experiments were conducted using a smog chamber operated in a steady-state mode permitting measurements of moderately low aerosol levels. GC-MS analysis was conducted to measure methyl butenediols in the gas phase and polyols in the aerosol phase. Analyses were made to obtain several bulk aerosol parameters from the reaction including values for the organic mass to organic carbon ratio, the effective enthalpy of vaporization (Δ Heff >vapeff), the organic peroxide fraction, and the aerosol yield.

JOURNAL Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured With a New Coarse Particulate Sampler During the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study 09/01/2009
Thornburg, J., C. E. RODES, P. A. Lawless, AND R. W. WILLIAMS. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured With a New Coarse Particulate Sampler During the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(28):4251-4258, (2009).
Abstract: The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spatial distribution of PM10-2.5 concentrations during Summer 2006 and Winter 2007 were investigated using data collected with the newly developed coarse particle exposure monitor (CPEM). These data allowed the representativeness of the community monitoring site to be assessed for the greater Detroit metro area. Multiple CPEMs collocated with a dichotomous sampler determined the precision and accuracy of the CPEM PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 data. CPEM PM2.5 concentrations agreed with the dichotomous sampler data. The slope was 0.97 and the correlation coefficient was 0.91. CPEM PM10-2.5 concentrations had an average 23% negative bias and correlation coefficient of 0.81. The directional nature of the CPEM sampling efficiency probably caused the negative CPEM concentration bias. Coarse particle concentrations were observed to vary spatially and temporally across Detroit, reflecting the seasonal impact of local sources. Summer PM10-2.5 concentrations were 5 μg/m3 higher in the two industrial areas near downtown than the average concentrations in other areas of Detroit. An area impacted by vehicular traffic had concentrations 8 μg/m3 higher than the average concentrations in other parts of Detroit in the winter due to the suspected suspension of road salt. Pearson correlations for PM10-2.5 concentrations between monitoring locations varied from 0.03 to 0.76. All summer PM10-2.5 concentration correlations were greater than 0.28 and statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). Winter PM10-2.5 concentration correlations greater than 0.33 were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). The PM10-2.5 correlations found to be insignificant were associated with the area impacted by mobile sources during the winter. The suspected suspension of road salt from the Southfield Freeway, combined with a very stable atmosphere, caused PM10-2.5 concentrations to be greater in this area compared to other areas of Detroit. These findings indicated that PM10-2.5 concentrations, although correlated in some instances, vary in magnitude sufficiently that a central monitoring site may not adequately represent the population exposure in a complex urban airshed.

JOURNAL Intra-and Inter-Individual Variability in Location Data for Two U.S. Health-Compromised Elderly Cohorts 08/20/2009
Frazier, E. L., T. R. MCCURDY, R. W. WILLIAMS, W. S. LINN, AND B. J. GEORGE. Intra-and Inter-Individual Variability in Location Data for Two U.S. Health-Compromised Elderly Cohorts. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 19(6):580-592, (2009).
Abstract: This study provides descriptive statistical data on daily time spent in three locations of exposure assessment interest for two panel studies of health-compromised elderly individuals > 65 y old having multi-days of human activity data. The panel studies include individuals living in Los Angeles CA and Baltimore MD in various housing types.

JOURNAL Epoxying Isoprene Chemistry 08/07/2009
KLEINDIENST, T. E. Epoxying Isoprene Chemistry. SCIENCE. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC, 325(5941):687-688, (2009).
Abstract: It seems that every few months we read about another missing aspect of atmospheric chemistry: missing products, missing reactivity, missing sources, missing understanding. Thus, it is with some relief that we read in this issue the paper of Paulot et al. The paper provides more answers then questions on a topic of considerable interest to atmospheric scientists, the formation of gas- and aerosol-phase products from the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene.

JOURNAL Spatial Analysis and Land Use Regression of Vocs and No2 from School-Based Urban Air Monitoring in Detroit-Dearborn, USA 08/01/2009
MUKERJEE, S., L. SMITH, M. M. JOHNSON, L. M. NEAS, AND C. STALLINGS. Spatial Analysis and Land Use Regression of Vocs and No2 from School-Based Urban Air Monitoring in Detroit-Dearborn, USA. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 407(16):4642-4651, (2009).
Abstract: Passive ambient air sampling for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and volatioe organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at 25 schools and two compliance sites in Detroit and Dearborne, Michigan. Geographic Information System (GIS) data were calculated at each of 116 schools. The 25 selected schools were monitored to assess and model intra-urban gradients of air pollutants to evaluate impact of traffic and urban emissions on respiratory effects in children.

JOURNAL Library Optimization in Edxrf Spectral Deconvolution for Multi-Element Analysis of Ambient Aerosols 07/01/2009
KELLOGG, R. AND R. WILLIS. Library Optimization in Edxrf Spectral Deconvolution for Multi-Element Analysis of Ambient Aerosols. X-ray Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 38(4):283-286, (2009).
Abstract: In multi-element analysis of atmospheric aerosols, attempts are made to fit overlapping elemental spectral lines for many elements that may be undetectable in samples due to low concentrations. Fitting with many library reference spectra has the unwanted effect of raising the analytical uncertainty of over lapping elements. By carefully choosing the order of elemental processing, library reference spectra can be omitted for non-analyte lines of undetected elements without loss of information, thus lowering the number of library spectra needed for the fit and thereby reducing the uncertainty. The magnitude of the reduction so achieved is shown for blanks and a sample for 64 elements.

JOURNAL Spatial Variability of Mercury Wet Deposition in Eastern Ohio: Summertime Meteorological Case Study Analysis of Local Source Influences 07/01/2009
White, E. M., G. J. KEELER, AND M. S. LANDIS. Spatial Variability of Mercury Wet Deposition in Eastern Ohio: Summertime Meteorological Case Study Analysis of Local Source Influences. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 43(13):4946-4953, (2009).
Abstract: Extensive exploration of event precipitation data in the Ohio River Valley indicates that coal combustion emissions play an important role in mercury (Hg) wet deposition. During July-September 2006, an intensive study was undertaken to discern the degree of local source influence. Source-receptor relationships were explored by establishing a near field network of wet deposition sites in and around Steubenville, Ohio with sample collection on an event basis. For the three month period of study, volume weighted mean Hg concentrations observed at the eight network sites range from 10.2 to 22.3 ng L-1, but this range increases drastically on an event basis with a maximum concentration of 89.4 and a minimum of 4.1 ng L-1. A subset of nine individual events was explored in depth and the degree of Hg concentration variability among concurrently collected samples is linked to the degree of local source enhancement. Samples collected at sites approximately one km from the base of coal fired utilities exhibited up to 72% Hg enhancement over regionally representative samples on an event basis. Overall, precipitation depth was found to account for only 7% of Hg concentration variability and only events that exhibited regionally well mixed characteristics and low sample variability among the sites demonstrated a significant depth/concentration relationship. Air mass transport and precipitating cell histories were traced in order to evaluate relationships between local point sources and the receptor sites. It was found that the interaction of several dynamic atmospheric parameters combined to favor local Hg concentration enhancement versus a more regional signature. When significant meteorological factors (wind speed during maximum rain rate, wind speed 24 hours prior to precipitation, mixing height and observed ceiling) are explored, it is estimated that near field precipitation in and around Eastern Ohio was 42% enhanced in Hg concentration by local sources compared to regionally representative samples collected over the three month intensive period

JOURNAL American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes. 06/15/2009
STOUT, D. M., K. D. BRADHAM, P. P. EGEGHY, P. A. JONES, C. W. CROGHAN, P. Ashley, E. Pinzer, W. Friedman, M. C. BRINKMAN, M. G. Nishioka, AND D. Cox. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 43(12):4294-4300, (2009).
Abstract: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of resodential homes. Multistage sampling with clustering was used to select the 1,131 homes of which a subset of 500 randomly selected homes were included in the study forhe collection of hard surface floor wipes . Samples were collected by trained field technicians between June, 2005

JOURNAL Analysis of Pfoa in Dosed Cd1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups 06/01/2009
Reiner, J. L., S. F. Nakayama, A. DELINSKY, J. STANKO, S. E. FENTON, A. B. LINDSTROM, AND M. J. STRYNAR. Analysis of Pfoa in Dosed Cd1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 27(3-4):365-372, (2009).
Abstract: The number of studies involving the analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has 33 increased recently because PFOA is routinely detected in human blood samples from around the world. Recent studies with mice have shown that dosing pregnant dams with PFOA during gestation gives rise to a dose-dependent mortality in the litters, a reduction in neonatal body weight for the surviving pups, and subsequent deficits in mammary gland development when compared to control animals. The actual body burdens of PFOA in dams and pups associated with these endpoints have not been determined, in part due to a lack of robust analytical methods for these matrices. The goal of the current study was to develop reliable methods with acceptable performance characteristics for the analysis of PFOA in several matrices relevant to pregnant mouse studies. Dam and pup serum, amniotic fluid, urine, milk, mammary tissue, and whole mouse pups were isolated for method development and analysis. The resulting method provided excellent accuracy (92.1%-111%) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation 4.3%-21%) making them very useful for future studies. These methods were then applied to dosed animal fluids and tissues in order to conduct a thorough evaluation of the pharmacokinetics in utero. Resulting tissue specific measurements of PFOA in serum, amniotic fluid, urine, milk, mammary tissue, and whole pup homogenate will be used to more completely describe the dose-response relationships for the most sensitive health outcomes and inform pharmacokinetic models that are being developed and evaluated.

JOURNAL Source Region Identification Using Kernel Smoothing 06/01/2009
HENRY, R. C., G. A. NORRIS, R. VEDANTHAM, AND J. R. Turner. Source Region Identification Using Kernel Smoothing. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 43(11):4090-4097, (2009).
Abstract: As described in this paper, Nonparametric Wind Regression is a source-to-receptor source apportionment model that can be used to identify and quantify the impact of possible source regions of pollutants as defined by wind direction sectors. It is described in detail with an example of its application to SO2 data from East St. Louis, IL. The model uses nonparametric kernel smoothing methods to apportion the observed average concentration of a pollutant to sectors defined by ranges of wind direction and speed.

JOURNAL Near Roadway Concentrations of Organic Source Markers 06/01/2009
OLSON, D. A. AND S. R. MCDOW. Near Roadway Concentrations of Organic Source Markers. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(18):2862-2867, (2009).
Abstract: Recent epidemiological and health studies have shown an association between roadway traffic and health effects. It is likely that specific size fractions of chemical components may be more indicative of near-road related health effects than PM2.5 or PM2.5-10 mass. The objective of this study is to quantify spatial differences in organic source markers near a highway.

JOURNAL The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks 05/01/2009
SCHEFFE, R., P. A. SOLOMON, R. Husar, T. HANLEY, M. SCHMIDT, M. Koerber, AND M. Gilroy. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks. JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 59(5):579-590, (2009).
Abstract: A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated instruments to produce multiple pollutant characterizations across a range of representative urban and rural locations in a new network referred to as the National Core Monitoring Network (NCore). The NCore parameters include carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), reactive nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3), and ammonia (NH3) gases and the major fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aerosol components (ions, elemental and organic carbon fractions, and trace metals). The addition of trace gas instruments, deployed at existing chemical speciation sites and designed to capture concentrations well below levels of national air quality standards, is intended to support both long-term epidemiological studies and regional-scale air quality model evaluation. In addition to designing the multiple pollutant NCore network, steps were taken to assess the current networks on the basis of spatial coverage and redundancy criteria, and mechanisms were developed to facilitate incorporation of continuously operating particulate matter instruments.

JOURNAL Factorial Based Response Surface Modeling With Confidence Intervals for Optimizing Thermal Optical Transmission Analysis of Atmospheric Black Carbon 03/09/2009
Conny, J. M., G. A. NORRIS, AND T. R. Gould. Factorial Based Response Surface Modeling With Confidence Intervals for Optimizing Thermal Optical Transmission Analysis of Atmospheric Black Carbon. ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 635(2):144-156, (2009).
Abstract: We demonstrate how thermal-optical transmission analysis (TOT) for refractory light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric particulate matter was optimized with empirical response surface modeling. TOT employs pyrolysis to distinguish the mass of black carbon (BC) from organic carbon (OC); however, it does not physically separate them. The optimization compared response surface for the cross sections, which revealed the effects of varying instrument conditions, in particular, the high-temperature pyrolysis step in helium.

JOURNAL Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor 02/01/2009
BARZYK, T. M., B. J. GEORGE, A. F. VETTE, R. W. WILLIAMS, C. W. CROGHAN, AND C. D. STEVENS. Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(4):787-797, (2009).
Abstract: The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of w130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies.

JOURNAL Reconstructing Population Exposures to Environmental Chemicals from Biomarkers: Challenges and Opportunities 02/01/2009
GEORGOPOULOS, P. G., A. F. Sasso, S. ISUKAPALLI, P. J. LIOY, D. A. VALLERO, M. S. OKINO, AND L. W. REITER. Reconstructing Population Exposures to Environmental Chemicals from Biomarkers: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 19(2):149-171, (2009).
Abstract: A conceptual/computational framework for exposure reconstruction from biomarker data combined with auxiliary exposure-related data is presented, evaluated with example applications, and examined in the context of future needs and opportunities. This framework employs Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic (PBTK) modeling in conjunction with numerical “inversion” techniques. In order to quantify the value of different types of exposure data “accompanying” biomarker data, a study was conducted focusing on reconstructing exposures to chlorpyrifos, from measurements of its metabolite levels in urine. The study employed biomarker data as well as supporting exposure-related information from the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), Maryland, while the MENTOR-3P system (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk with Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic modeling for Populations) was used for PBTK modeling. Recently proposed, simple numerical reconstruction methods were applied in this study, in conjunction with PBTK models. Two types of reconstructions were studied using: (a) just the available biomarker and supporting exposure data, and (b) synthetic data developed via augmenting available observations. Reconstruction using only available data resulted in a wide range of variation in estimated exposures. Reconstruction using synthetic data facilitated evaluation of numerical inversion methods and characterization of the value of additional information, such as study-specific data that can be collected in conjunction with the biomarker data. Although the NHEXAS data set provides a significant amount of supporting exposure-related information, especially when compared to national studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), this information is still not adequate for detailed reconstruction of exposures under several conditions, as demonstrated here. The analysis presented here provides a starting point for introducing improved designs for future biomonitoring studies, from the perspective of exposure reconstruction; identifies specific limitations in existing exposure reconstruction methods that can be applied to population biomarker data, and suggests potential approaches for addressing exposure reconstruction from such data.

JOURNAL Rapid New Methods for Paint Collection and Lead Extraction 01/02/2009
Gutknecht, W. F., S. L. HARPER, W. Winstead, K. Sorrell, D. A. Binstock, C. A. Salmons, C. Haas, M. McCombs, W. Studabaker, C. V. Wall, AND C. Moore. Rapid New Methods for Paint Collection and Lead Extraction. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, Uk, 11(1):166-173, (2008).
Abstract: Chronic exposure of children to lead (Ph) can result in permanent physiologic impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with Pb-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to Ph. In January 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new requirements that would reduce exposure to Ph hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb Ph-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of Pb-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting Pb from paint samples for subsequent Pb determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high revolutions-per-minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the Pb in less than 3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently greater than 95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and Pb determination, may enable the development of a Pb paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the proposed EPA rule.

JOURNAL Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring 01/01/2009
THOMA, E. D., C. SECREST, E. S. HALL, D. L. Jones, R. C. SHORES, M. MODRAK, R. HASHMONAY, AND P. Norwood. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(3):753-757, (2009).
Abstract: This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of 2006. The optical remote sensing (ORS) area source measurement method EPA OTM 10 was used to provide Hg0 flux data for the site. These results are reported and compared with cell room roof vent monitoring data acquired by the facility for similar time periods. The 24-hour extrapolated mercury emission rate estimates determined by the two monitoring approaches are shown to be similar with overall averages in the 400 g/day range with maximum values around 1,200 g/day. Results from the OTM 10 measurements, which include both cell room emissions and potential fugitive sources outside the cell room, are shown to be approximately 10% higher than cell room monitoring results indicating that fugitive emissions from outside the cell room produce a small but measurable effect for this site.

JOURNAL Efficiency of Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media: Implications for Exposure Assessment 01/01/2009
VALLERO, D. A., J. R. Kominsky, M. E. BEARD, AND O. S. Crankshaw. Efficiency of Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media: Implications for Exposure Assessment. JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE. Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA, 6(1):62-72, (2009).
Abstract: To measure airborne asbestos and other fibers, an air sample must represent the actual number and size of fibers. Typically, mixed cellulose ester (MCE, 0.45 or 0.8 µm pore size) and to a much lesser extent, capillary-pore polycarbonate (PC, 0.4 µm pore size) membrane filters are used to collect airborne asbestos for count measurement and fiber size analysis. In this research study chrysotile asbestos (fibers both shorter and longer than 5 µm) were generated in an aerosol chamber and sampled by 25-mm diameter MCE filter media to compare the fiber retention efficiency of a 0.45 µm pore size filters versus 0.8 µ pore size filter media. In addition, the effect of plasma etching times on fiber densities was evaluated. This study demonstrated a significant difference in fiber retention efficiency between 0.45 µm and 0.8 µm pore size MCE filters for asbestos aerosols (structures longer than or equal to 0.5 µm length). The fiber retention efficiency of a 0.45 µm pore size MCE filter is statistically significantly higher than that of the 0.8 µm pore size MCE filter. However, for asbestos structures longer than 5µm, there is no statistically significant difference between the fiber retention efficiencies of the 0.45 µm and 0.8 µm pore size MCE filters. The mean density of asbestos fibers (longer than or equal to 0.5 µm) increased with etching time. Doubling the etching time increased the asbestos filter loading in this study by an average of 13%. The amount of plasma etching time had no effect on the filter loading for fibers longer than 5 µm. Many asbestos exposure risk models attribute health effects to fibers longer than 5 µm. In these models, both the 0.45 µm and 0.8 µm pore size MCE filter can produce suitable estimates of the airborne asbestos concentrations. However, some models suggest a more significant role for asbestos fibers shorter than 5 µm. Exposure monitoring for these models should consider only the 0.45 µm pore size MCE filters as recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AHERA protocol and other methods.

JOURNAL Field Comparison of Passive Air Samplers With Reference Monitors for Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide Under Week-Long Integrals 01/01/2009
MUKERJEE, S., K. OLIVER, R. L. SEILA, H. JACUMIN, C. W. CROGHAN, H. DAUGHTREY, L. M. NEAS, AND L. A. Smith. Field Comparison of Passive Air Samplers With Reference Monitors for Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide Under Week-Long Integrals. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, Uk, 11(1):220-227, (2008).
Abstract: This study evaluates performance of nitrogen dioxide NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOC) passive samplers with corresponding reference monitors at two sites in the Detroit, Michigan area during the summer of 2005.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS Water Quality Analysis in An Environmental Justice Community in Durham, Nc 06/12/2009
ADAIR, B., J. J. BANG, Y. B. ANDERSON, S. F. DELAUDER, M. BRADSHAW, M. LAMBERT, F. MEHEUX, R. MALHOTRA, R. C. FORTMANN, P. P. EGEGHY, R. W. WILLIAMS, AND D. A. WHITAKER. Water Quality Analysis in An Environmental Justice Community in Durham, Nc. In Proceedings, 3rd National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Greensboro, NC, September 12 - 14, 2007. Springer, New York, NY, 55-60, (2009).
Abstract: Environmental Justice Communities are usually minority communities of low socio-economic status with a concern of increased risk from point source pollution not present in other communities. A priority of the U.S. EPA is to empower these communities to advocate for themselves. Toward that end, EPA has entered into a cooperative agreement with the Department of Environmental Earth and Geospatial Sciences at North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, to perform preliminary community based participatory studies and to establish the infrastructure for long-term interactions with environmental justice communities. In central Durham, housing and commercial properties are intermingled creating a concern for increased pollution and poor water quality in area creeks. To determine if current or past commercial practices impacted creeks, organochlorines (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were quantified in water and sediment samples collected during the summer of 2007 from nine creeks located in six parks in the study area. Water quality measurements and contaminant concentrations were compared to regulatory values. To date, few water quality and no contaminant concentrations were above regulatory levels. The results are being shared with members of community organizations at community functions.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS The Impact of Social Capital on Environmental Risk Reduction in Moncure 06/12/2009
BANG, J. J., Y. B. ANDERSON, S. F. DELAUDER, M. BRADSHAW, F. MEHEUX, R. MALHOTRA, R. C. FORTMANN, P. P. EGEGHY, R. W. WILLIAMS, AND D. A. WHITAKER. The Impact of Social Capital on Environmental Risk Reduction in Moncure. In Proceedings, 3rd National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Greensboro, NC, September 12 - 14, 2007. Springer, New York, NY, 61-66, (2009).
Abstract: Despite rigorous efforts to understand and resolve environmental justice (EJ) issues, the complexity of the issues associated with many of these EJ communities continues to bring challenges to community residents and environmental researchers. Moncure, NC, located in northern Chatham County, is a rural community proximal to a cluster of several major industries. While the presence of these industries has helped the local residents maintain higher than average household incomes, it has also created environmental concerns (air quality and potential respiratory illness) for the community. In this study, the authors examine the impact of social capital in the form of a community coalition called the Southeastern Chatham Citizens Advisory Council (SCCAC) on the resolution of EJ issues in Moncure. EJ issues in Moncure have been investigated by examining trends in archived data from the U.S. EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and by addressing residents' pollution concerns, identified in Town Hall meetings, by designing a field monitoring study. Monitoring for the field study was conducted during one week periods in January and June of 2007. Preliminary results from the January sampling was compared with regulatory standard values, TRI data, and with results from a modeling study conducted by NC DENR Division of Air Quality (DAQ). Data indicate that the levels of released pollutants from local industries have been reduced during the overlapping time period when the SECCA has been active in trying to resolve the pollution issues, illustrating the potential impact of social capital on EJ risk reduction.

PUBLISHED REPORT A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds 11/01/2009
HIGHSMITH, R., K. W. THOMAS, AND R. W. WILLIAMS. A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/135, 2009.
Abstract: Recycled tire material, or "tire crumb," is used as a component in many recreational fields, including synthetic turf fields and playgrounds. The use of tire crumbs in these applications provides several benefits, including reduced sports injury. The public recently has raised concerns regarding potential human health and environmental risks associated with the presence of and potential exposures to tire crumb constituents in recreational fields, especially with regard to children's exposures. In early 2008, U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 requested that the Agency.consider this issue. A cross-EPA workgroup inventoried and considered the limited available scientific information: some laboratory studies of tire material content, off-gassing, and leaching characteristics and a few European studies describing the extent and availability of tire crumb constituents for potential human exposure. The workgroup recommended that research be conducted to generate additional field monitoring data for potential U.S. environmental conditions and potential exposures.

PUBLISHED REPORT Guidance Document for Pmf Applications With the Multilinear Engine 04/09/2009
NORRIS, G. A., R. VEDANTHAM, K. Wade, P. Zhan, S. Brown, P. Pentti, S. I. EBERLY, AND C. FOLEY. Guidance Document for Pmf Applications With the Multilinear Engine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/032 (NTIS PB2009-107895), 2009.
Abstract: This document serves as a guide for users of the Multilinear Engine version 2 (ME-2) for source apportionment applications utilizing positive matrix factorization (PMF). It aims to educate experienced source apportionment analysts on available ME rotational tools and provides guidance sensitivity analyses. Prior to using ME-2 for PMF, users should be familiar with the PMF model and its applications. Users should also be familiar with the wide body of literature describing PMF and ME-2. In particular, the End User’s Guide (Paatero, 2004) and me2scrip.txt (Paatero, 2002) are useful companions to this document. This document covers technical details and examples using two versions of ME-2. An individual ME-2 license (IL) can be purchased from Pentti Paatero or ME-2 is provided with the EPA distributed PMF 3.0 public license (PL). Both versions of ME-2 have been developed by Pentti Paatero and the version provided with the IL has a more flexible programming format and the PL version has a more restricted structure since it has been developed for EPA PMF software. Presenting two versions of the ME-2 and the associated input files increases the complexity of the document, however, it provides comprehensive explanation and examples of available ME-2 rotational tools.

PUBLISHED REPORT Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessment: Bench-Scale Testing 02/19/2009
VALLERO, D. A., J. R. Kominsky, M. E. BEARD, AND O. Crankshaw. Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessment: Bench-Scale Testing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-08/046 (NTIS PB2009-102750), 2009.
Abstract: Sampling efficiency is essential in exposure assessments of contaminants in air, as well as other matrices. In the measurement of airborne contaminants, it is critical to collect a sample of air containing representative contaminants in the air of concern, that is, contaminant concentration and size distribution in the sampled air must be the same as that of the air of concern.

 

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