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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2009

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2009, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 111 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Pharmaceuticals and Sustainability: Concerns and Opportunities Regarding Human Health and the Environment 03/01/2009
DAUGHTON, C. G. AND I. RUHOY. Pharmaceuticals and Sustainability: Concerns and Opportunities Regarding Human Health and the Environment. Chapter 1, A Healthy Future- Pharmaceuticals in a Sustainable Society. Stockholm County Council (Stockholms läns landsting), Stockholm, Sweden, 14-39, (2009).
Abstract: The design of pharmaceuticals and the practices surrounding the lifecycle of their usage are central for minimizing their impacts on the environment and increasing the sustainability of healthcare. Cradle-to-cradle design, as conceptualized by McDonough and Braungart, could play a key role in redesigning healthcare and reducing its environmental footprint (Daughton 2003). Of great significance, however, in the process of reducing environmental liabilities, significant advancements and improvements in medical and economic outcomes for healthcare could be natural collateral benefits. Key questions include: Can environmental sustainability be designed into the existing pharmacopeial, pharmacy, and healthcare systems so that considerations of potential environmental impacts feed back into improvements for healthcare and human well being? What are the major factors that will mold the sustainability of healthcare for the future? A confluence of advancements is currently at work in bringing ustainability in quality healthcare closer to reality. These include information technology, personalized medicine, medical genetics (and epigenetics), green chemistry (e.g., applied to drug design, formulation, manufacturing, and packaging), targeted drug delivery, and the worldwide initiatives called “medications management” and “pharmaceutical care.” Together, these areas will largely dictate the shape and size of the environmental footprint for tomorrow’s armamentarium of medications.

COMMUNICATION PRODUCT The Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystems in California 11/23/2009
Raheem, N., J. Talberth, S. Colt, E. Fleishman, P. Swedeen, K. J. Boyle, M. Rudd, R. D. LOPEZ, T. O'Higgins, C. Willer, AND R. M. Boumans. The Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystems in California. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/F-09/046, 2009.
Abstract: The status of marine ecosystems affects the well being of human societies. These ecosystems include but are not limited to estuaries, lagoons, reefs, and systems further offshore such as deep ocean vents. The coastal regions that connect terrestrial and marine ecosystems are of particular relevance to human societies. Marine, terrestrial, and coastal ecosystems all provide --ecosystem services that are essential to human survival.

EXTRAMURAL DOCUMENT Completion of the National Land Cover Database (Nlcd) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product 04/15/2009
Fry, J. A., M. J. Coan, C. G. Homer, D. K. Meyer, AND J. D. WICKHAM. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (Nlcd) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 2009.
Abstract: The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992–2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992–2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a “from-to” class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

JOURNAL Microbial-Induced Heterogeneity in the Acoustic Properties of Porous Media 12/01/2009
Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, E. A. Atekwana, D. D. WERKEMA, AND M. E. Haugen. Microbial-Induced Heterogeneity in the Acoustic Properties of Porous Media. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 36:21405-21410, (2009).
Abstract: Acoustic wave data were acquired over a two-dimensional region of a microbial-stimulated sand column and an unstimulated sand column to assess the spatiotemporal changes in a porous medium caused by microbial growth and biofilm formation. The acoustic signals from the unstimulated sample were relatively uniform over the 2D scan region. The data from the biologically stimulated sample exhibited a high degree of spatial variation in the acoustic amplitude measurements, with some regions of the sample exhibiting an increase in attenuation while other regions exhibited a decrease. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed apparent differences in the structure/texture of biofilm between regions of increased and decreased acoustic wave amplitude. We conclude from these observations that variations in microbial growth and biofilm structure causes heterogeneity in the elastic properties of porous media. Our results suggest that acoustic measurements may provide a semi-quantitative approach for the validation of bioclogging models and numerical simulations. INDEX TERMS: 5102 Acoustic properties, 0416 Biogeophysics, 0463 Microbe/mineral interactions.

JOURNAL Longitudinal Mercury Monitoring Within the Japanese and Korean Communities (United States): Implications for Exposure Determination and Public Health Protection 11/30/2009
Tsuchiya, A., T. A. HINNERS, F. Krogstad, J. W. White, T. M. Burbacher, E. M. Faustman, AND K. Marien. Longitudinal Mercury Monitoring Within the Japanese and Korean Communities (United States): Implications for Exposure Determination and Public Health Protection. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, NC, 117(11):1760-1766, (2009).
Abstract: Background: Estimates of exposure to toxicants are predominantly obtained from single timepoint data. Fishconsumption guidance based on these data may be incomplete as recommendations are unlikely to consider impact from factors such as intraindividual variability, seasonal differences in consumption behavior and species consumed. Objectives/Methods: We estimated mercury exposure based on fish intake and hairmercury levels within Korean (N=108) and Japanese (N=106) populations at two and three timepoints, respectively. Goals were twofold: examine changes in hairmercury levels, fish intake behavior and Hg bodyburden over time, and determine if data from multiple timepoints could improve guidance. Results/Conclusion: More than 50 fish species are consumed with 8 species representing ≈3/4 of fish consumed by the Japanese and 10 species representing ≈4/5 of fish intake by the Koreans. Fish species responsible for most mercury intake did not change over time;<10 species accounted for most of the mercury bodyburden in each population. Longitudinal variability of hairmercury levels changed slowly across the study period. Japanese with hairmercury levels >1.2ppm (mean=2.2ppm) consumed ≈150% more fish than those ≤1.2ppm (mean=0.7ppm). However, the nutritional benefits of fish can be obtained as even those ≤1.2ppm consumed substantial fish amounts. A 2fold difference in fish intake was observed between openended and twoweek recall fishconsumption surveys. Openended survey data better represent mercury intake as determined from hairHg levels. Single timepoint fish intake data appear to be adequate for deriving guidance, but caution is warranted as study is required to determine the significance of the different outcomes observed using the two survey time-frames.

JOURNAL A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning 11/15/2009
NORTON, D. J., J. D. WICKHAM, T. G. WADE, K. Kunert, J. V. THOMAS, AND P. Zeph. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 44:356-368, (2009).
Abstract: Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and priority decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters’ recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, methodology and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential.

JOURNAL Integration of Air Quality Modeling and Monitoring Data for Enhanced Health Exposure Assessment 10/15/2009
Denby, B., V. Garcia, D. M. HOLLAND, AND C. Hogrege. Integration of Air Quality Modeling and Monitoring Data for Enhanced Health Exposure Assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 46-49, (2009).
Abstract: In order to assess the environmental impact of air pollution on human health it is necessary to establish the concentrations to which the population is exposed. The obvious way to determine this is to measure these quantities. However, given the limited number of monitoring stations available, how is it possible to provide spatially distributed pollution concentrations far from monitoring sites in order to assess the exposure of an entire population? Traditionally ground based monitoring has been used to provide air quality information since it is expected to give the best estimate. This may be suitable when a very limited area is to be assessed, e.g. in occupational health studies, or when monitoring data is representative of a large area, e.g. in rural regions, but generally such monitoring has a limited spatial representativeness. This can be problematic in urban areas since there can be significant variation in air quality due to the heterogeneity of the emissions sources and the complex flow patterns caused by urban morphology.

JOURNAL A Multi-Scale Method of Mapping Urban Influence 10/10/2009
WADE, T. G., J. D. WICKHAM, N. Zacarelli, AND K. Riitters. A Multi-Scale Method of Mapping Urban Influence. ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING AND SOFTWARE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 24(10):1252-1256, (2009).
Abstract: Urban development can impact environmental quality and ecosystem services well beyond urban extent. Many methods to map urban areas have been developed and used in the past, but most have simply tried to map existing extent of urban development, and all have been single-scale techniques. The method presented here uses a clustering approach to look beyond the extant urban area at multiple scales. The result is a single, synoptic multi-scale map of urban influence that should be useful in urban, regional and environmental planning efforts.

JOURNAL A Review of Effectiveness of Vegetative Buffers on Sediment Trapping in Agricultural Areas 09/25/2009
YUAN, Y., R. L. Bingner, AND M. A. Locke. A Review of Effectiveness of Vegetative Buffers on Sediment Trapping in Agricultural Areas. ECOHYDROLOGY AND HYDROBIOLOGY. Foreign Trade Enterprise Ars Polona, Warsaw, Poland, 2(3):321-336, (2009).
Abstract: In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, evaluating the effectiveness of riparian buffer systems on a watershed scale is complex, and watershed models have limited capabilities for simulating riparian buffer processes. Thus, the overall objective of this paper is to develop an understanding of riparian buffer processes towards water quality modeling/monitoring and nonpoint source pollution assessment. The paper provides a thorough review of relevant literature on the performance of vegetative buffers on sediment reduction. It was found that although sediment trapping capacities are site-specific and vegetation-specific, and many factors influence the sediment trapping efficiency, the width of a buffer is important in filtering agricultural runoff and wider buffers tended to trap more sediment. Sediment trapping efficiency is also affected by slope, but the overall relationship is not consistent among studies. Overall, sediment trapping efficiency did not vary by vegetation type and grass buffers and forest buffers have roughly the same sediment trapping efficiency. This analysis can be used as the basis for planning future studies on watershed scale simulation of riparian buffer systems, design of effective riparian buffers for nonpoint source pollution control or water quality restoration and design of riparian buffer monitoring programs in watersheds.

JOURNAL Comparison of Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion for the Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Accumulation in Tadpoles 09/25/2009
Stanley, K., S. Simonich, D. F. BRADFORD, C. Davidson, AND N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL. Comparison of Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion for the Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Accumulation in Tadpoles. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, 28(10):2038-2043, (2009).
Abstract: Analytical methods capable of trace measurement of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) are necessary to assess the exposure of tadpoles to contaminants as a result of long-range and regional atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study compares the results of two methods, one using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and the other using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), for the trace measurement of over 70 SOCs belonging to 10 chemical classes, including current-use pesticides, in tadpole tissue. The MSPD method resulted in improved analyte recoveries and precision of most SOCs compared to the PLE method. The MSPD method also required less time, solvent consumption, and was able to detect a larger number of SOCs than the PLE method.

JOURNAL Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment 09/09/2009
JONES-LEPP, T. L., D. A. Alvarez, B. Englert, AND A. BATT. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment. R A Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory, and Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons Incorporated, New York, NY, 75(1):1-59, (2009).
Abstract: Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown though, at this time, what ecotoxicological effects can be had from pharmaceuticals and hormones that are essentially designed for one purpose (e.g., treatment of human and domestic livestock for illness and disease) and their possible adverse effects on terrestrial wildlife, aquatic organisms, bacteria, and ultimately humans, through unintentional environmental exposure. One of the challenges the analytical chemistry community faces is the development of robust and standardized analytical methods and technologies that can easily be transferred to laboratories worldwide. While today’s analysts can detect pg L-1 and ng L-1 concentrations of numerous pharmaceuticals, hormones, and their metabolites, in a variety of environmental matrices, there are still analytical gaps that are necessary to fill. We hope that this article will add to the body of knowledge of environmental analytical chemistry techniques regarding pharmaceuticals and hormones; giving environmental scientists a good overview of those analytical techniques that are currently available, and where possible, improvements and new methodologies that can be developed in support of this important, and relevant, environmental issue.

JOURNAL Rapid Semi-Quantitative Surface Mapping of Airborne-Dispersed Chemicals Using Mass Spectrometry 09/09/2009
GRANGE, A. H. Rapid Semi-Quantitative Surface Mapping of Airborne-Dispersed Chemicals Using Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Forensics Journal 10(3):183-195, (2009).
Abstract: Chemicals can be dispersed accidentally, deliberately, or by weather-related events. Rapid mapping of contaminant distributions is necessary to assess exposure risks and to plan remediation, when needed. Ten pulverized aspirin or NoDozTM tablets containing caffeine were dispersed across a concrete driveway using the exhaust port of a shop vacuum cleaner. Water-soaked, cotton swabs were used to collect wipe samples from 100 cm2 areas within a 7 x 12 grid pattern to map the caffeine distribution. An autosampler/Direct Analysis in Real Time (DARTTM)/ time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to acquire ion chromatograms for the [M+H]+ semi-quantitation ion (m/z 195). Prior to analysis, unheated, non-energized helium gas was blown across the swabs to remove debris that could plug the cone orifice. Carry over was mitigated by interspersing wipe sample swabs with water-soaked swabs to provide hot water vapor to clean the region around the cone orifice into the mass spectrometer between sample swabs. Carry over was further reduced relative to the ion abundances from analyte peaks by acquiring data a second time. Remaining carry over was seen as ion abundance plateaus in ion chromatograms before and after each analyte peak. The higher plateau was treated as the baseline for each analyte peak by a macro procedure written in Lotus 123TM. A second macro procedure plotted multi-color, semi-quantitation maps for high, moderate, low, and non-detect levels of caffine.

JOURNAL Temporal Geophysical Signatures Due to Contaminant Mass Remediation 08/25/2009
Vukenkeng, C., E. Atekwana, E. Atekwana, W. Sauck, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Temporal Geophysical Signatures Due to Contaminant Mass Remediation. GEOPHYSICS. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 74(4):1-11, (2009).
Abstract: Geophysical surveys acquired over a ten year period are used to document changes in bulk electrical conductivity associated with the attenuation of hydrocarbon contaminants at the former fire training facility (FT-02) Wurtsmith Air Force base (WAFB), Oscoda, MI, USA. Initial investigations at the site in 1996 showed that known areas of contamination were characterized by higher bulk electrical conductivity, positive self potential (SP) anomalies, and attenuated ground penetrating radar (GPR) reflections. The geophysical signatures were attributed to the intrinsic bioremediation of the hydrocarbon contaminants, consistent with the conductive plume model. However, repeated geophysical surveys in 2003 and 2007 over the FT-02 site documented changes in the geophysical signatures. By 2007, the conductive anomaly over the plume had reverted to uncontaminated conductivities; the positive SP anomaly had become more negative and zones of attenuated GPR reflections showed increased signal strength. The significant changes in the geophysical signatures between 1996 and 2007 suggested that significant attenuation of the contaminant mass or complete remediation of the site had occurred over the past years. We attribute these changes to the installation of a soil vapor extraction system in 2001 which resulted in the removal of several thousand kilograms of hydrocarbons. We hypothesize that removal of the source reduced the amount of hydrocarbons available for microbial metabolism and therefore reduced the level of microbial activity. Our electrical resistivity (ER) results did not show a 3 m thick conductive plume associated with the intrinsic bioremediation of the dissolved phase plume in the saturated zone. We infer from forward modeling results that the apparent bulk conductivity of the plume in the saturated zone has to be at least 4-5 times greater than background conductivities for it to be imaged by electrical resistivity surveys. Therefore we conclude that the contaminant mass reduction by natural bioremediation or enhanced engineered (bio)remediation can be effectively imaged using geophysical surveys especially if the contamination exists in the vadose zone.

JOURNAL National Urban Database and Access Protal Tool 08/15/2009
CHING, J. K., M. Brown, S. Burian, F. Chen, R. Cionco, A. Hanna, T. Hultgren, D. Sailor, H. Taha, AND D. J. WILLIAMS. National Urban Database and Access Protal Tool. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 90(8):1157-1168, (2009).
Abstract: Current mesoscale weather prediction and microscale dispersion models are limited in their ability to perform accurate assessments in urban areas. A project called the National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool (NUDAPT) is beginning to provide urban data and improve the parameterization of urban boundary-layer processes (Ching, 2007). The impetus for NUDAPT came from results of an American Meteorological Society Board of Urban Environment survey and recommendations from the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology’s Urban Environment Workshop (2005). Recognizing the need to address issues ranging from the prediction of exposure to a deadly toxic release to the assessment of health risk from poor air quality in urban areas, NUDAPT was initiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and supported by several Federal and State agencies and private and academic institutions. NUDAPT will fill a critical gap to provide refined and specialized information to fulfill the as yet unmet accuracy requirements for urban applications.

JOURNAL Chemicals from the Practice of Healthcare: Challenges and Unknowns Posed By Residues in the Environment 08/14/2009
DAUGHTON, C. G. Chemicals from the Practice of Healthcare: Challenges and Unknowns Posed By Residues in the Environment. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, 28(12):2490-2494, (2009).
Abstract: Medications have unique signatures - real and metaphorical fingerprints, footprints, and shadows. Signatures imparted by manufacturers use distinctive combinations of shapes, colors, and imprints. These serve as rough first tests to aid in visually identifying the types and quantities of active ingredients (except for counterfeits). While these obvious attributes are quickly destroyed once a medication is consumed or discarded to sewers, in reality each medication also leaves footprints in the environment - formed by traces of their unique active (and inactive) ingredients. Although many of these footprints have been revealed by environmental scientists, others persist in the shadows. Many avenues could be pursued in illuminating the unknowns, but how do we decide on the most efficient route?

JOURNAL Errors in Representing Regional Acid Deposition With Spatially Sparse Monitoring: Case Studies of the Eastern US Using Model Predictions 06/15/2009
SICKLES, II, J. E., D. Shadwick, J. V. KILARU, AND J. Grimm. Errors in Representing Regional Acid Deposition With Spatially Sparse Monitoring: Case Studies of the Eastern US Using Model Predictions. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43(18):2855-2861, (2009).
Abstract: The current study uses case studies of model-estimated regional precipitation and wet ion deposition to estimate errors in corresponding regional values derived from the means of site-specific values within regions of interest located in the eastern US. The mean of model-estimated site-specific values for sites within each region was found generally to overestimate the corresponding model-estimated regional wet ion deposition. On an annual basis across four regions in the eastern US, these overestimates of regional wet ion deposition were typically between 5 and 25% and may be more exaggerated for individual seasons. Corresponding overestimates of regional precipitation were typically <5%, but may also be more exaggerated for individual seasons. Using 5-year periods, period-to-period relative changes determined from the mean of site-based modeled deposition for the current regional ensembles of sites generally overestimated the beneficial effect of pollutant emissions reductions in comparison to changes based on modeled regional estimates. Spatial heterogeneities of the wet ion deposition fields with respect to the sparse monitoring site locations prevented the monitoring sites considered in the current study from providing regionally representative results. Since the current case studies consider only those eastern US site locations that have supported concurrent wet and dry deposition monitoring, similar errors may be expected for dry and total deposition using results from the same monitoring site locations. Current case study results illustrate the approximate range of potential errors and suggest caution when inferring regional deposition from a network of sparse monitoring sites.

JOURNAL The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush) 05/22/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. AND M. S. Watt. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush). Botanical Review. Springer, New York, NY, 1-34, (2009).
Abstract: Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become an important component in horticulture and human culture. Despite its popularity as a landscape plant, B. davidii is considered problematic because of its ability to naturalize outside of gardens and rapidly invade and dominate disturbed natural areas across a wide range of physical conditions. The primary goal of this paper is to synthesize what is known about B. davidii in order to understand the impacts caused by the continued presence of B. davidii in gardens and natural landscapes. We also address management of B. davidii and discuss the repercussions of management strategies and policies currently implemented to protect or remove B. davidii from natural ecosystems.

JOURNAL The Development and Inter-Laboratory Verification of LC-MS Libraries for Organic Chemicals of Environmental Concern 05/15/2009
ROSAL, C. G., L. D. BETOWSKI, J. Romano, J. Neukom, D. Wesolowski, AND L. Zintek. The Development and Inter-Laboratory Verification of LC-MS Libraries for Organic Chemicals of Environmental Concern. TALANTA. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 79:810-817, (2009).
Abstract: The development, verification, and comparison study between LC-MS libraries for two manufacturers’ instruments and a verified protocol are discussed. The LC-MS library protocol was verified through an inter-laboratory study that involved Federal, State, and private laboratories. The results demonstrated that the libraries are transferable between the same manufacturer’s product line, and have applicability between manufacturers. Although ion abundance ratios within mass spectra were shown to be different between the manufacturers’ instruments, the NIST search engine match probability was at 96 percent or greater for 64 out of 67 compounds evaluated.

JOURNAL Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media 05/06/2009
Ellefsen, K., D. Croize, A. MAZZELLA, AND J. McKenna. Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media. Journal of Geophysics. Springer, New York, NY, 74(3):J13-J22, (2009).
Abstract: Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, but not in the y direction. Wave propagation in the x and z directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y direction is simulated with the discrete wavenumber method. The accuracy of these numeric Green’s functions is assessed by comparing them to analytic Green’s functions: For a homogeneous model, the errors range from -4.16% to 0.44% for the magnitude and from -0.06% to 4.86% for the phase. Numeric Green’s functions may be used to calculate traces for either surface radar data (i.e., ground-penetrating radar data) or crosswell radar data, and they may be used to calculate traveltimes and amplitudes for the first-arriving wave in crosswell radar data. In addition, numeric Green’s functions may be used for waveform inversion, traveltime inversion, or amplitude inversion.

JOURNAL Evaluation of a Moderate Resolution, Satellite-Based Impervious Surface Map Using An Independent, High-Resolution Validation Dataset 04/30/2009
Jones, J. W. AND S. JARNAGIN. Evaluation of a Moderate Resolution, Satellite-Based Impervious Surface Map Using An Independent, High-Resolution Validation Dataset. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 14(4):369-376, (2009).
Abstract: Given the relatively high cost of mapping impervious surfaces at regional scales, substantial effort is being expended in the development of moderate-resolution, satellite-based methods for estimating impervious surface area (ISA). To rigorously assess the accuracy of these data products high quality, independently derived validation data are needed. High-resolution data were collected across a gradient of development within the Mid-Atlantic region to assess the accuracy of National Land Cover Data (NLCD) Landsat-based ISA estimates. Absolute error (satellite predicted area-- “reference area”) and relative error (satellite (predicted area-- “reference area”)/ reference area”) were calculated for each of 240 sample regions that are each more than 15 Landsat pixels on a side. The ability to compile and examine ancillary data in a geographic information system environment provided for evaluation of both validation and NLCD data and afforded efficient exploration of observed errors. In a minority of cases, errors could be explained by temporal discontinuities between the date of satellite image capture and validation source data in rapidly changing places. In others, errors were created by vegetation cover over impervious surfaces and by other factors that bias the satellite processing algorithms. On average in the Mid-Atlantic region, the NLCD product underestimates ISA by approximately 5%. While the error range varies between 2 and 8%, this underestimation occurs regardless of development intensity. Through such analyses the errors, strengths, and weaknesses of particular satellite products can be explored to suggest appropriate uses for regional, satellite-based data in rapidly developing areas of environmental significance.

JOURNAL Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals the Significance of Factors Beyond Direct Excretion to Sewers 04/21/2009
DAUGHTON, C. G. AND I. RUHOY. Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals the Significance of Factors Beyond Direct Excretion to Sewers. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, 28(12):2495-2521, (2009).
Abstract: The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondary route - - one that does not contribute significantly to overall environmental loadings. This paper presents the first comprehensive examination of secondary routes of API release to the environment. These include: (a) bathing, washing, and laundering, all of which release APIs remaining on skin from use of high-content topical and transdermal applications or from excretion to skin via sweating, and (b) disposal of unused and partially used high-content devices. Also discussed are the health hazards associated with: (i) partially used devices, (ii) medication disposal practices of consumers, and (iii) interpersonal dermal transfer of API residues. Understanding these secondary routes is important from the perspective of pollution prevention, as actions can be designed more easily for reducing the environmental impact of APIs compared with the route of direct excretion (via urine and feces), as well as for reducing the incidence of unintentional and purposeful poisonings of humans and pets and for improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare. Exposure to APIs for humans via these routes is possibly more significant than exposure via drinking water.

JOURNAL Estimating the Breakdown and Accumulation of Emergent Macrophyte Litter: A Mass-Balance Approach 03/16/2009
CHRISTENSEN, J. R., W. Crumpton, AND A. van der Valk. Estimating the Breakdown and Accumulation of Emergent Macrophyte Litter: A Mass-Balance Approach. WETLANDS. The Society of Wetland Scientists, McLean, VA, 29(1):204-214, (2009).
Abstract: Litter accumulation within emergent macrophyte marshes may significantly influence abiotic conditions and biota but litter is rarely considered in emergent macrophyte studies. Litter is defined here as the standing and fallen dead plant material that can be collected using harvest methods in the field. Litter accumulation can be predicted by combining annual production with litter breakdown rates. Breakdown rates are typically measured using litter bag studies but these rates may also be measured using a mass-balance approach. A five year study conducted in Delta Marsh, Manitoba measured annual standing crop and harvested accumulated litter of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., Typha glauca Godr., and Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link. These species differ in their level of refractory material and hence the amount of litter that is expected to accumulate. Using annual estimates of standing crop and initial litter estimating emergent litter breakdown rates mass, a mass-balance model was used to estimate the litter breakdown 1 rate for each species at three water levels. Mass-balance derived rates for Phragmites and Typha were significantly different (F1,14=5.07, p=.03) and also differed across water depths (F2,14=4.35, p=.04). For both species, predicted annual accumulation of litter tracked observed litter values. The mass-balance approach, however, was not suitable for Scolochloa because there is no litter carry over from year to year. When compared to observed litter accumulations, estimates of litter accumulation made using litter bag breakdown rates consistently overestimated annual litter accumulation. In short, the mass-balance breakdown rates can be used to make more accurate estimates of annual litter accumulation for emergent species with recalcitrant litter.

JOURNAL Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant 03/15/2009
Loganathan, B., M. Phillips, H. Mowery, AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant. CHEMOSPHERE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 75:70-77, (2009).
Abstract: Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (< 19 mega liters day-1) wastewater treatment plant in southwestern Kentucky. The concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, methamphetamine and ecstasy in wastewater samples varied widely, ranging from non-detects to 300 ng L-1. Among the macrolide antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L-1 (uncorrected for matrix recovery) in the effluent, estimated discharge of azithromycin was 215 mg/day (range 63 to 398 mg day-1). Removal efficiency of the analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: MDMA > urobilin > methamphetamine > azithromycin with percentages of removal of 100%, 99.9%, 54.5% and 47% respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters.

JOURNAL A Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Radiative-Transfer Solutions for Plane Albedo of Natural Waters 03/06/2009
Sokoletsky, L., O. Nikolaeva, V. Budak, L. Bass, R. S. LUNETTA, V. Kuznetsov, AND A. Kokhanovsky. A Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Radiative-Transfer Solutions for Plane Albedo of Natural Waters. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer. ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, Holland, 110(13):1132-1146, (2009).
Abstract: Three numerical algorithms were compared to provide a solution of a radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo (hemispherical reflectance) in semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel layer. Algorithms were based on the invariant imbedding method and two different variants of the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Parameters for these algorithms (single-scattering albedo ω0 and solar zenith angle) were selected across all possible ranges, but with a special emphasis on natural waters. All computations were made for two scattering phase functions; which included an almost isotropic Rayleigh phase function and double-peaked Fournier-Forand-Mobley phase function. Models were validated using quasi-single-scattering (QSSA) and exponential approximations to represent the extreme cases of ω0 > 0 and ω0 > 1, respectively. All methods yielded relative differences within 1.8% for modeled natural waters. However, a combination of DOM with a modified spherical harmonics method (MSH) provided both high accuracy and minimal computational complexity. An analysis of plane albedo behavior resulted in the development of a new extended QSSA approximation, which when applied in conjunction with the extended Hapke approximation gives a maximum relative error of 2.7%. The study results demonstrated that for practical applications, the estimation of inherent optical properties from observed reflectance can best be achieved using an extended Hapke approximation.

JOURNAL Book Review: Large-Scale Ecosystem Restoration: Five Case Studies from the United States 02/25/2009
LOPEZ, R. D. Book Review: Large-Scale Ecosystem Restoration: Five Case Studies from the United States. M. Doyle and C.A. Drew (ed.), LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY. Springer, New York, NY, (24):579-580, (2009).
Abstract: Broad-scale ecosystem restoration efforts involve a very complex set of ecological and societal components, and the success of any ecosystem restoration project rests on an integrated approach to implementation. Editors Mary Doyle and Cynthia Drew have successfully synthesized many of these factors in their comprehensive volume entitled, Large-Scale Ecosystem Restoration: Five Case Studies from the United States, which is part of The Society for Ecological Restoration International’s series, The Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration.

JOURNAL Improved Space-Time Forecasting of Next Day Ozone Concentrations in the Eastern U.S. 02/15/2009
Sahu, S., S. Yip, AND D. M. HOLLAND. Improved Space-Time Forecasting of Next Day Ozone Concentrations in the Eastern U.S. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 43:494-501, (2009).
Abstract: There is an urgent need to provide accurate air quality information and forecasts to the general public and environmental health decision-makers. This paper develops a hierarchical space-time model for daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentration (O3) data covering much of the eastern United States. The model combines observed data and forecast output from a computer simulation model known as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Eta Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) forecast model in a very exible,yet computationally fast way, so that the next day forecasts can be computed in real-time operational mode. The proposed model adjusts for spatio-temporal biases in the Eta-CMAQ forecasts and avoids a change of support problem often encountered in data fusion settings where real data have been observed at point level monitoring sites but the forecasts from the computer model are provided at grid cell levels. The proposed model is validated with a large amount of set-aside data and is shown to provide much improved forecasts of daily O3 patterns in the Eastern United States.

JOURNAL Quantifying Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery (1) 01/23/2009
HALL, R. K., R. L. Watkins, D. T. HEGGEM, K. B. Jones, P. R. Kaugmann, S. B. Moore, AND S. J. Gregory. Quantifying Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery (1). ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. Springer, New York, NY, 1-21, (2009).
Abstract: Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity, and riparian vegetation cover and structure. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is designed to assess the status and trends of ecological resources at different scales. High resolution remote sensing provides unique capabilities in detecting a variety of features and indicators of environmental health and condition. LIDAR is an airborne scanning laser system that provides data on topography, channel dimensions (width, depth), slope, channel complexity (residual pools, volume, morphometric complexity, hydraulic roughness), riparian vegetation (height and density), dimensions of riparian zone, anthropogenic alterations and disturbances, and channel and riparian interaction. Hyperspectral aerial imagery offers the advantage of high spectral and spatial resolution allowing for the detection and identification of riparian vegetation and natural and anthropogenic features at a resolution not possible with satellite imagery. When combined, or fused, these technologies comprise a powerful geospatial data set for assessing and monitoring lentic and lotic environmental characteristics and condition.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa) Tool 10/15/2009
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. Semmens, M. Hernandez, AND D. C. Goodrich. Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa) Tool. In Proceedings, 3rd Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Estes Park, CO, September 08 - 11, 2008. USGS, Corvallis, OR, 79-84, (2009).
Abstract: Envisioning and evaluating future scenarios has emerged as a critical component of both science and social decision-making. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our ecosystem services now and into the future. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial-analysis technologies have been used to develop landscape information that can be integrated with hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. Two diverse case studies in northwest Oregon (Willamette River basin) and Southeastern Arizona (San Pedro River) were examined in regard to future land-use scenarios relative to their impact on surface-water conditions (e.g., sediment yield and surface runoff) using hydrologic models associated with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The base reference grid for land cover was modified in both study locations to reflect stakeholder preferences twenty to sixty years into the future and the consequences of landscape change were evaluated relative to the selected future scenarios. The two studies provide examples of integrating hydrologic modeling with a scenario analysis framework to evaluate plausible future forecasts and understand the potential impact of landscape change on ecosystem services.

PRESENTATION A Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Approach to Predicting Flow in Ungauged Basins 12/19/2009
GRONEWOLD, A., I. Alameddine, AND R. Anderson. A Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Approach to Predicting Flow in Ungauged Basins. Presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 19, 2009.
Abstract: Recent innovative approaches to identifying and applying regression-based relationships between land use patterns (such as increasing impervious surface area and decreasing vegetative cover) and rainfall-runoff model parameters represent novel and promising improvements to predicting ow from ungauged basins. In particular, these approaches allow for predicting flows under uncertain and potentially variable future conditions due to rapid land cover changes, variable climate conditions, and other factors. Despite the broad range of literature on estimating rainfall-runoff model parameters, however, the absence of a robust set of modeling tools for identifying and quantifying uncertainties in (and correlation between) rainfall-runoff model parameters represents a sig- nificant gap in current hydrological modeling research. Here, we build upon a series of recent publications promoting novel Bayesian and probabilistic modeling strategies for quantifying rainfall-runoff model parameter estimation uncertainty. Our approach applies alternative measures of rainfall-runoff model parameter joint likelihood (including Nash-Sutcliffe effciency, among others) to simulate samples from the joint parameter posterior probability density function. We then use these correlated samples as response variables in a Bayesian hierarchical model with land use coverage data as predictor variables in order to develop a robust land use-based tool for forecasting flow in ungauged basins while accounting for, and explicitly acknowledging, parameter estimation uncertainty. We apply this modeling strategy to low-relief coastal watersheds of Eastern North Carolina, an area representative of coastal resource waters throughout the world because of its sensitive embayments and because of the abundant (but currently threatened) natural resources it hosts. Consequently, this area is the subject of several ongoing studies and large-scale planning initiatives, including those conducted through the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) total maximum daily load (TMDL) program, as well as those addressing coastal population dynamics and sea level rise. Our approach has several advantages, including the propagation of parameter uncertainty through a non-parametric probability distribution which avoids common pitfalls of fitting parameters and model error structure to a redetermined parametric distribution function. In addition, by explicitly acknowledging correlation between model parameters (and reflecting those correlations in our predictive model) our model yields relatively effcient prediction intervals (unlike those in the current literature which are often unnecessarily large, and may lead to overly-conservative management actions). Finally, our model helps improve understanding of the rainfall-runoff process by identifying model parameters (and associated catch- ment attributes) which are most sensitive to current and future land use change patterns.

PRESENTATION Broadband Geoelectrical Signatures of Water and Ethanol Solutions in Ottawa Sand 12/18/2009
Henderson, R. D., D. D. WERKEMA, R. J. Horton, AND J. W. Lane. Broadband Geoelectrical Signatures of Water and Ethanol Solutions in Ottawa Sand. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 Conference, Las Vegas, NV, December 14 - 18, 2009.
Abstract: Ethanol is fast becoming the most widely used and distributed biofuel since its introduction as a fuel oxygenate to replace MTBE in gasoline and the rise in use of “Flex Fuel” vehicles. Distilleries create and store vast quantities of ethanol, which is then shipped in large quantities across the country to be mixed into gasoline at refineries. With greater use and distribution, ethanol has become an environmental contaminant through unintended releases to the subsurface. Ethanol was introduced because it had similar combustion properties to formerly used oxygenates and is considered to be relatively harmless, but increased use has had unintended secondary environmental consequences. Where ethanol is included in gasoline as a fuel oxygenate, subsurface releases have resulted in increased solubility and the transport of harmful BTEX compounds. Additionally, ethanol is preferentially degraded by microbial communities in the subsurface. In the case of neat ethanol spills (pure or slightly denatured), large quantities of ethanol may initially reduce microbial populations, exacerbate pre-existing subsurface contamination in soil and groundwater, and potentially form explosive conditions through methanogenesis. Rapid assessment of subsurface releases may allow for quick remedial action. In many cases, surface and borehole geophysical studies can provide timely and reliable results to assess the extent of a release. Here, we measure the broadband geoelectrical signature of various ethanol and water mixtures in a matrix of Ottawa sand to determine select geoelectrical parameters which may be applied to field scale studies. In the lower frequency range (mHz to kHz), resistivity and induced polarization parameters were measured and compared to the well known Cole-Cole model. At high frequencies (MHz to GHz), the dielectric constant of several ethanol and water solutions was measured. We use the empirical complex refractive index model (CRIM) to compare measured and predicted values of the dielectric constant. Results suggest geoelectrical field measurements would be useful to delineate an ethanol release in the environment soon after a spill, unless site specific conditions preclude the application of these methods. Based on ethanol’s propensity for biodegradation, however, more work is needed to assess the temporal evolution of an ethanol spill in complex environments.

PRESENTATION Environmental and Landscape Remote Sensing Using Free and Open Source Image Processing Tools 12/18/2009
PILANT, A. N., L. D. WORTHY, AND D. Wilhelm. Environmental and Landscape Remote Sensing Using Free and Open Source Image Processing Tools. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 18, 2009.
Abstract: As global climate change and human activities impact the environment, there is a growing need for scientific tools to monitor and measure environmental conditions that support human and ecological health. Remotely sensed imagery from satellite and airborne platforms provides a geospatial foundation for environmental mapping. Remotely sensed imagery is becoming increasingly abundant, and increasingly accessible through virtual globes, web mapping services and other online services. Can we increase users’ capacity to utilize remotely sensed imagery with free and open source software tools? In this presentation, we present examples of environmental landscape mapping using imagery derived from NASA World Wind using the EPA Data Export Plug-in, and processed using open source software plug-ins.

PRESENTATION Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation 12/18/2009
Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, E. A. Atekwana, D. D. WERKEMA, AND M. E. Haugen. Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 Conference, Las Vegas, NV, December 14 - 18, 2009.
Abstract: Previous studies have examined the effect of biogenic gases and biomineralization on the acoustic properties of porous media. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves and complex conductivity in sand columns. A control column (non-biostimulated) and a biostimulated column were studied in a 2D acoustic scanning apparatus, and a second set of columns were constructed with Ag-AgCl electrodes for complex conductivity measurements. At the completion of the 29-day experiment, compressional wave amplitudes and arrival times for the control column were observed to be relatively uniform over the scanned 2D region. However, the biostimulated sample exhibited a high degree of spatial variability within the column for both the amplitude and arrival times. Furthermore, portions of the sample exhibited increased attenuation (~ 80%) concurrent with an increase in the arrival times, while other portions exhibited decreased attenuation (~ 45%) and decreased arrival time. The acoustic amplitude and arrival times changed significantly in the biostimulated column between Days 5 and 7 of the experiment and are consistent with a peak in the imaginary conductivity (σ”) values. The σ” response corresponds to different stages of biofilm development. That is, we interpret the peak σ” with the maximum biofilm thickness and decreasing σ” due to cell death or detachment. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging confirmed microbial cell attachment to sand surfaces in the biostimulated columns, showed apparent differences in the morphology of attached biomass between regions of increased and decreased attenuation, and indicated no mineral precipitation or biomineralization. The heterogeneity in the elastic properties arises from the differences in the morphology and structure of attached biofilms. These results suggest that combining acoustic imaging and complex conductivity techniques can provide a powerful tool for assessing microbial growth or biofilm formation and the associated changes in porous media, such as those that occur during bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, this study suggests microbial growth and biofilm development can yield a detectable geophysical response without biomineralization effects.

PRESENTATION Broadband Geoelectrical Signatures of Water-Ethanol Solutions in Ottawa Sand 12/18/2009
Henderson, R. D., D. D. WERKEMA, R. J. Horton, AND J. W. Lane. Broadband Geoelectrical Signatures of Water-Ethanol Solutions in Ottawa Sand. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 18, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation material

PRESENTATION Spatial and Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation 12/18/2009
Davis, C. A., L. Pyrak-Nolte, E. Atekwana, D. D. WERKEMA, M. Haugen, AND D. R. Glaser. Spatial and Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall 2009 Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 18, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation material

PRESENTATION Biomass Burning Emissions – the Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decision; An EPA Perspective 12/17/2009
SZYKMAN, J., J. KORDZI, G. POULIOT, T. E. PIERCE, T. PACE, AND S. T. RAO. Biomass Burning Emissions – the Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decision; An EPA Perspective. Presented at AGU Fall 2009, San Francisco, CA, December 17, 2009.
Abstract: Biomass burning emissions from wildland and prescribed fires can have far reaching impacts in several of EPA’s regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act, ultimately affecting decisions on actions taken under State Implementation Plans (SIPs), and programs such as Visibility and Regional Haze, Interstate Transport and Conformity. In most instances the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory (NEI), which is developed in conjunction with other federal, state, local, and tribal agencies is a cornerstone used to support air quality decision making. Over the past several years estimated wildland and prescribed fire emissions in the NEI have evolved from a crude, state-based, climatology to fire-specific, daily-resolved estimates primarily through the use of satellite measurements. In addition to research within EPA, external research partners are providing improved knowledge in areas such as chemical composition of smoke, plume rise measurements via satellites, and the development of improved emission algorithms. Accurate inputs to characterize and model the daily and hourly biomass burning emissions across the US are necessary to reduce the uncertainty in characterizing the emissions, transport, and transformation of gases and particles from their source, with the end goal of categorizing biomass burning emissions within the EPA’s regulatory structure. Reducing the uncertainty will lead to improved decision making as this information is used to support the development and implementation of EPA’s air regulatory programs. This is especially true under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) where averaging times for particulate matter (PM), ozone, and the new proposed NO2 standard are at 24 hours or less, where accurate resolution of fire emissions is critical in understanding receptor impacts. This talk will highlight the impacts of wildland and prescribed fires within EPA’s regulatory program and importance of continued research to reduce the uncertainly in the areas of chemical speciation, emission factors, plume rise, fuel loading, and fire behavior modeling.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science 12/09/2009
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Pharmaceutical Waste - Connect Four! 44th ASHP Midyear Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, December 09, 2009.
Abstract: Over the last decade, a new dimension to environmental pollution has become evident C one involving the actions, behaviors, and activities of the individual consumer as a source of chemical pollutants. A major focus on consumer-use chemicals has been directed at the numerous types of chemicals formulated into thousands of different pharmaceutical products. The ubiquitous worldwide use of pharmaceuticals has led for the first time to the realization that the seemingly insignificant contributions from multitudes of individuals can combine to result in measurable levels of newly recognized pollutants in the environment. These countless, individual point sources result in measurable environmental loadings of a wide spectrum of chemicals (active pharmaceutical ingredients: APIs), most of which are designed to have biochemical activity at relatively low concentrations; in general, however, the potential for adverse impacts on non-target organisms by trace levels of APIs is not known. This new dimension to understanding chemical pollution is unique in that many of the substances involved are widely viewed as being desirable or beneficial C and sometimes essential C to the health, well-being, and at times survival of humans and domestic animals. The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. A footprint extends from pharmaceuticals to the environment in the form of unique combinations of trace contaminants. Multitudes of diverse APIs enter the environment passively and actively by a variety of routes C primarily from excretion but also via several secondary routes. Sewers and trash serve as the primary conduits. Depending on the pharmacokinetics of the individual API, excreted residues of ecologic significance can include the unchanged parent API, bioactive metabolites, or products of reversible metabolism such as conjugates; the latter can serve as hidden reservoirs of the parent API, which can be released upon hydrolysis in the environment. While excretion is the primary focus of environmental scientists, disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has gained the majority of attention from the public and healthcare communities. Disposal, however, has been viewed by scientists as a minor route C one that purportedly does not contribute substantially to overall environmental loadings of APIs. This, however, is an assumption, with little supporting evidence. A closely related route is disposal of unused and partially used high-content medical devices (used patches being a prime example). Other routes that have been little investigated include bathing, washing, and laundering, which are all influenced by sweat (a secondary and poorly understood route of excretion for many APIs). Each of these routes can lead to ecologic exposures (primarily for the aquatic environment). They can also lead to unintentional human exposure (such as by the recycling of APIs in potable water derived from the environment) as well as intentional exposure (e.g., diversion of improperly disposed or stored drugs). Other risks include unintended poisonings of humans (especially children), pets, and scavengers (especially raptors such as eagles and vultures) feeding on carcasses of animals that had undergone therapeutic treatments. Understanding the magnitude of all routes to the environment is important from the perspective of source reduction and pollution prevention, as well as for reducing the incidence of diversion and unintentional (and purposeful) poisonings of humans and pets. One critical aspect of the overall problem has only been recently delineated. Measures designed to reduce the release of APIs to the environment can have major collateral consequences with regard to improving the quality, cost-effectiveness, and efficacy of healthcare. Unused, leftover medications essentially represent wasted healthcare resources and missed opportunities to achieve optimal care. In a perfect system, medications would never go unused. Understanding the numerous causes for unused medications is the key to solving the disposal issue.

PRESENTATION The Latest Emerging Contaminant: Nanomaterials as Personal Care Products and Their Environmental Impact 11/23/2009
VARNER, K. E., S. Kikandi, AND O. A. Sadik. The Latest Emerging Contaminant: Nanomaterials as Personal Care Products and Their Environmental Impact. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, New Orleans, LA, November 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Evaluation of Enhanced Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Recalcitrant Polychlorinated Biphenyl Isomers 11/23/2009
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. AND G. SOVOCOOL. Evaluation of Enhanced Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Recalcitrant Polychlorinated Biphenyl Isomers. Presented at Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North American 2009 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: The separation of some recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in extracts from environmental compartments has been a daunting task for environmental chemists. Summed quantitation values for coeluting PCB isomers are often reported. This composite data obscures the actual concentration and toxicity of the more toxic isomer. Using the individual 209 PCB congeners as analytes of interest, this research evaluated the current state of development of a comprehensive 2-D GC coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GCxGC/TOFMS). A sequence of 1-D and 2-D modes of separation was adopted after a series of experimental GC/TOFMS and GCxGC/TOFMS runs. In two chromatographic runs, 196 PCB congeners were distinguished, including 43 of the 46 pentachlorobiphenyl isomers. Some individual chlorinated biphenyls that could not be resolved chromatographically from others were distinguished using the “ortho effect,” when only they were present. The “ortho effect” can distinguish PCBs having 2,2’-; 2,2’6-; and 2,2’,6,6’- chlorine substituted positions from other congeners without these substitutions. Although not all 209 PCB congeners were separated, a cost effective tool for a better front-end separation of PCB-specific congeners and isomers has been demonstrated. It has the potential to acquire more accurate data for human and environmental exposure risk assessments.

PRESENTATION Recent Applications of Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma for Metal-Based Nanomaterial Determinations in Surface Water 11/23/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Recent Applications of Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma for Metal-Based Nanomaterial Determinations in Surface Water. Presented at SETAC North America Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 23, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Development of US EPA's National Atlas of Ecosystem Services and Implications for Human Health and Wellbeing (1) 11/23/2009
NEALE, A. C. Development of US EPA's National Atlas of Ecosystem Services and Implications for Human Health and Wellbeing (1). Presented at GEOSS Workshop XXXI, Using Earth Observation for Health, Washington, DC, November 12 - 13, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Analysis of 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the 1-D Mode Followed By the 2-D Mode 11/20/2009
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. AND G. SOVOCOOL. Analysis of 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the 1-D Mode Followed By the 2-D Mode. Presented at Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 20, 2009.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials

PRESENTATION Investigating Ecosystems Services in the Arid Southwest 11/12/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G., D. W. EBERT, C. L. ERICKSON, W. G. KEPNER, R. D. LOPEZ, Y. YUAN, AND M. WEBER. Investigating Ecosystems Services in the Arid Southwest. Presented at American Water Resources Association, Seatle, DC, November 09 - 12, 2009.
Abstract: The Southwest Ecosystem Services Project (SwESP) is an integrated, multi-disciplinary, multi-agency project focused on how to identify, characterize, and quantify the ecosystem services in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The southwestern landscape is highly diverse with substantial portions of shrub- and grass-lands, agriculture, urban, forest, and deserts (i.e., Great Basin, Mohave, Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Colorado Plateau). Over the past 90 years, urban areas in the Southwest have increased in size by 1,500 percent, placing pressure on the region’s ecosystem services. The provisioning of clean water is the dominant ecosystem service explored within SwESP. Due to prolonged drought, rapid human population growth, and economic destabilization, the continued availability of water is at risk. Reduced water availability will have significant negative impacts on natural and human-dominated landscapes. Other ecosystem services such as climate and water regulation, food, forage and fiber production, recreation and cultural lands provisioning will also be investigated. In the early stages of implementation, SwESP has focused on identifying and quantifying ecosystem services and their indicators drawing from past and current land cover, vegetation, soils, and other data. The project is evaluating two model frameworks to facilitate decision-making: 1) Ecosystem Portfolio Model framework – a geographic information system based multi-criteria decision support Internet-based tool and 2) the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Tool framework – a spatially explicit modeling tool that predicts the consequences of land-use and land-cover change on the production of multiple ecosystem services. SwESP is a starting point for developing a suite of procedures and tools to be used in the assessment of the benefits humans derive from ecosystem function and structure in arid environments.

PRESENTATION Pharmecovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals 11/11/2009
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Pharmecovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals. Presented at APHA 137th Annual Meeting 7 Exposition, Philadelphia, PA, November 07 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Fullerene Nanoparticle Counter Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance 11/11/2009
VARNER, K. E., S. Kikandi, AND O. Sadik. Fullerene Nanoparticle Counter Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Presented at 2009 EPA Nano STAR Grantee Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, November 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Pharmecovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals 11/11/2009
RUHOY, I. S. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Pharmecovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals. Presented at APHA 137th Annual Meeting & Exposition, Philadelphia, PA, November 07 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The healthcare industry has an environmental footprint because the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals enter the environment as pollutants by a variety of routes, primarily from excretion, bathing, and disposal. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondary route - - one that does not contribute substantially to overall environmental loadings. This presentation presents an examination of secondary routes of API release to the environment and for direct but unintentional human exposure. These routes include: (a) bathing, washing, and laundering, and (b) disposal of unused and partially used high-content medical devices. Understanding these secondary routes is important from the perspective of pollution prevention, as well as for reducing the incidence of unintentional and purposeful poisonings of humans and pets, and for improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare. A broad spectrum of actions can be taken by physicians and the healthcare community at large to reduce the release and introduction of medication ingredients to the environment. Most significantly, however, nearly any action taken to reduce their introduction to the environment can also have collateral benefits regarding the cost and quality of healthcare and therapeutic outcomes. Existing pharmacovigilance monitoring programs designed to detect and prevent adverse drug reactions could be expanded to also focus on the adverse impacts from drugs in the environment. Such a program has been termed pharmEcovigilance (doi: 10.2165/0002018-200831120-00004). A major reason for the medical community to implement a pharmEcovigilance program - - beyond reducing its environmental footprint - - could be the previously unforeseen benefits in optimization of delivery, effectiveness, and cost of healthcare.

PRESENTATION Effects of Stream and Elevation Resolution on Riparian Metrics and Restoration Identification 11/09/2009
CHRISTENSEN, J. AND D. W. EBERT. Effects of Stream and Elevation Resolution on Riparian Metrics and Restoration Identification. Presented at American Water Resources Association, Seattle, WA, November 09, 2009.
Abstract: Even though riparian areas attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale, best management practices and locations for restoring riparian areas should be determined at watershed scales. Riparian metrics (e.g., percent forest within 100m of stream) applied at watershed scales can be related to water quality but fail to account for the spatial location and the flow paths through riparian and contributing sources areas (e.g., agriculture). Additional metrics have been developed using GIS models that incorporate spatial location and flow paths. One utility of spatially-explicit metrics is to identify potential riparian restoration sites. However, the resolution of the stream and elevation data from which these metrics are derived may bias the metrics and hence the identification of potential restoration sites. We compared metrics at different stream and elevation resolutions in a watershed in North Carolina that has high densities of confined animal feedlot operations (CAFOs). Potential riparian restoration sites were selected that would intersect with flowpaths from agricultural fields adjacent to CAFOs. Stream resolutions of 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 and potential flowpaths that would incorporate agricultural ditching were used. Elevation resolutions included 30m, 10m and 6m grids. We found that increases in stream resolution resulted in a decrease in the extent of buffered agriculture and an increase in agriculture-to-buffer ratios, which then altered the identification of restoration sites. These patterns were most prominent when agricultural drainage was included. The extent of buffered areas decreased slightly with increasing elevation resolution but had minimal effects on restoration selection. More pronounced effects might be seen in areas of less relief. This study demonstrated the importance of including constructed extensions to stream networks (e.g., ditching and tiling) when considering the relationship of the stream network, riparian areas, and agricultural lands. Spatial data about ditches and tiles are currently limited and therefore the extent and location of such hydrologic modifications should be estimated and predicted in order to produce improved riparian metrics and restoration plans. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Preliminary Results from a Feasibility Study of the Geoelectrical Response to Select Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix 11/09/2009
WERKEMA, D. D., R. Joyce, AND E. Atekwana. Preliminary Results from a Feasibility Study of the Geoelectrical Response to Select Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix. Presented at NCER Nano Grantees Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, November 09, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION The National Atlas of Ecosystem Services: Spatially Explicit Characterization of Ecosystem Services 11/05/2009
NEALE, A. C. AND R. D. LOPEZ. The National Atlas of Ecosystem Services: Spatially Explicit Characterization of Ecosystem Services. Presented at 20th Biennial Conference, Estuaries and Coasts in a Changing World - 2009, Portland, OR, November 01 - 05, 2009.
Abstract: The US EPA’s Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is conducting transdisciplinary research to develop tools to enable decision-makers at all levels of governance to proactively conserve ecosystem services. One of these tools is a National Atlas of Ecosystem Services which is being developed in collaboration with other organizations including the USGS and the National Geographic Society. The Atlas will use the principles of landscape ecology and spatial analyses in order to display the production and beneficiaries of ecosystem services. A good illustrative example of the production/beneficiary paradigm is the retention of nutrients by inland wetlands and riparian buffers. The beneficiaries of these services are located at many points downstream of the service production and include drinking water recipients; recreational and commercial fishing industries, and consumers of food from the sea that depends upon wetland and upstream habitat to support fisheries. A key outcome of the Atlas will be the ability to view or “stack” multiple ecosystem services simultaneously, which will allow decision-makers to visualize trade-offs when making decisions. Ecosystem services to be included in the Atlas fall into the broad benefit categories of water quality, quantity, and timing; climate regulation; food, fiber, and fuel; storm surge and wave/tidal energy protection; aquatic and terrestrial habitat; and human health, cultural values, and recreation. The Atlas will be an Internet-based product; relevant at multiple spatial units and scales; inclusive of historical perspectives, as well as future scenarios; and continuously updated as new spatial data become available and as the science of ecosystem services matures. The presentation provides an overview of the Atlas design and implementation, including coastal wetland research for the program, and applications of landscape ecology to mapping of coastal wetland change and ecosystem services.

PRESENTATION Detecting Seismic Characteristics of Select Engineered Nanomaterials in Granular Media 11/02/2009
Rajabdeen, N., B. Luke, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Detecting Seismic Characteristics of Select Engineered Nanomaterials in Granular Media. Presented at UNLV Civil Engineering Department, Las Vegas, NV, November 02, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Approaches to Mapping Nitrogen Removal: Examples at a Landscape Scale 10/23/2009
CHRISTENSEN, J. Approaches to Mapping Nitrogen Removal: Examples at a Landscape Scale. Presented at ESRP Programic Meeting, Athens, GA, October 23, 2009.
Abstract: Wetlands can provide the ecosystem service of improved water quality via nitrogen removal, providing clean drinking water and reducing the eutrophication of aquatic resources. Within the ESRP, mapping nitrogen removal by wetlands is a service that incorporates the goals of the nitrogen group, wetland group, and is being conducted in various place-based programs. Three approaches to nitrogen removal are currently being considered and tested. There are many other valid approaches that will not be considered here. Approach 1) Use existing denitrification values for wetland types and apply them to current and future wetlands acreage. This approach has been done in estuarine, brackish, and freshwater tidal wetlands of Georgia to determine the influence of sea level rise on potential denitrification. Sea level rise effects on wetland types are currently beginning in the Coastal Carolinas and the approach above can be applied to the modeled areas. Approach 2) Potential nitrogen removal via riparian wetlands can be estimated using a GIS analysis developed to identify the connectivity of agricultural land with riparian buffers via flow-paths. The GIS tool was developed in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay and is currently being tested in the Willamette valley and watersheds in North and South Carolina. Input data resolution testing has been conducted and outputs from the GIS tool have been included in an over-simplified model to estimated potential nutrient removal. 3) Potential nitrogen removal of sited wetlands (Iowa CREP-style) at a large scale has also been done for the Upper Mississippi river and Ohio River basins. The method will now be applied to wetlands of North and South Carolina. Currently, nitrogen data is being compiled in order to determine flow-weighted average nitrate concentrations. Modeling of nitrogen removal will attempt to incorporate climatic variability and wetland performance variability. Challenges and limitations of each approach will also be discussed.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Subsurface Drainage and Fertilizer Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Loadings Using Annagnps 10/23/2009
YUAN, Y., R. L. Bingner, M. A. Locke, F. D. Theurer, AND R. J. BRUINS. Assessment of Subsurface Drainage and Fertilizer Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Loadings Using Annagnps. Presented at The Second EPA ESRP Meeting, Athens, GA, October 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: The Future Midwest Landscape (FML) project is part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s new Ecological Service Research Program (ESRP), undertaken to examine the variety of ways in which landscapes that include crop lands, conservation areas, wetlands, lakes, and streams affect human well-being. The goal of the FML project is to quantify current and future landscape services across the region and examine changes expected to occur as a result of the growing demand for biofuels. This study is one of several pilots taking place under the umbrella of the FML research project. The overall objective of this study is to assess the agricultural management alternatives for nutrient loading reduction. To achieve the overall objective of this study, USDA Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, which is located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. This watershed is also part of the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Special Emphasis effort with the objective to assess the effects of agricultural conservation practices on water quality. The 85,812-ha watershed drains to Lake Erie, which has serious eutrophication problems due to high nutrient loadings to the lake from several watersheds. Reducing nutrient loadings from agricultural fields is important for water quality improvement. In this study, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from the watershed first were simulated based on current landuse and projected future landuse conditions; and then the effects of various subsurface drainage and fertilizer management practices on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings were assessed. Drainage and fertilizer management practices can be used to reduce nutrient loadings from the watershed based on AnnAGNPS’s evaluation.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Subsurface Drainage Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Loadings Using Annagnps 10/23/2009
YUAN, Y., R. L. Bingner, M. A. Locke, AND F. D. Theurer. Assessment of Subsurface Drainage Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Loadings Using Annagnps. Presented at Second EPA ESRP Meeting, Athens, GA, October 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation

PRESENTATION Development of Site Specific Climate Scenarios for River and Sediment Discharge Using Macrophysical Climate Models: An Example from Puerto Rico 10/22/2009
ALLEN, P. AND S. Kaplan. Development of Site Specific Climate Scenarios for River and Sediment Discharge Using Macrophysical Climate Models: An Example from Puerto Rico. Presented at Geological Society of America, Portland, OR, October 16 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Climate change and land use change are the primary drivers of changes in ecosystem services globally. Global climate models suggest that in the future Puerto Rico and other small islands in the Caribbean will experience changes in rainfall seasonality. It is anticipated that water demands during low-rainfall periods may not be met, and an overall increase in river discharge due to greater amounts of rainfall during wet periods will cause increased damage from flooding and landslides. Land derived sources of sediment and nutrients carried to the marine environment by streams may also increase significantly. Changes in stream flow due to climate change may have profound effects on the downstream production of ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. Global climate models cannot predict the site specific changes in rainfall. However, site specific rainfall data is precisely what is needed in order to assess the potential localized impacts of increased stream flow on reefs and other benthic communities providing essential ecosystem services to island populations. The Bryson Macrophysical Climate Model (MCM) was used to model average monthly temperature, rainfall and its seasonality, and river and sediment discharge for nine USGS gauging stations in Puerto Rico for the past 14,000 years. Temperature and rainfall was calibrated to NOAA HCDN 1961-1990 climate normals. River and sediment discharge was calibrated to USGS gauging station data downloaded from their website. We provide an example from one of our modeled river basins, of how site specific climate scenarios may be developed from MCM output. Hydrologic models such as SWAT, SEDMOD/RUSLE, or AnnAGNPS use daily rainfall data as model input. We chose the wettest and driest years (highest and lowest rainfall years) from the MCM results for the Guanajibo River near Hormigueros. As these data are monthly averages, we used the ratio of average daily rainfall to total monthly rainfall for the 30 year climate normals to derive daily rainfall datasets for use in hydrologic models. Stream and sediment discharge for the basin was modeled using modern rainfall data and compared to model runs using the derived rainfall data (wet and dry scenarios).

PRESENTATION Using Itree Model in Clark County, Nevada 10/22/2009
Hammond, A. AND N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL. Using Itree Model in Clark County, Nevada. Presented at ESRP Annual Meeting, Athens, GA, October 20 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Ecosystem services are the services and benefits that human populations obtain from nature. Whether surrounded by a forested, coastal, or urban area, ecosystems provide recreation, food, shelter, cleaner air and water. As the climate and environment change due to human activity, an understanding of the existing natural resources becomes paramount. By utilizing local budget information, public tree inventory data and iTree software, the ecosystem services provided by the urban forests of Clark County, Nevada are becoming quantified and tangible. iTree is a free, peer-reviewed software suite developed by the USDA forest service that can provide information on species distribution and the monetary benefits of an urban forest in the categories of energy, storm water, air quality, carbon dioxide, carbon stored, and aesthetic value. Results for Wards 1, 3, and 5 of the Clark County area suggest an annual net monetary gain from maintaining the current urban forest, though the most prevalent species in the sampled area is the Mexican Fan Palm. Future studies will focus on utilizing the different iTree modules for a more detailed understanding of the entire Clark County, Nevada urban forest. In the future, the Ecosystem Services Research Program, ESRP, will be able to utilize urban forest data to develop tools for resource managers to assess, maintain, and develop their local urban forest and provide the public with educational resources to make informed decisions regarding their urban environment.

PRESENTATION Emerging Contaminants: Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest 10/13/2009
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Emerging Contaminants: Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest. Presented at Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists, Las Vegas, NV, October 13, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION A Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Radiative-Transfer Solutions for Plane Albedo in Natural Waters 09/12/2009
Sokoletsky, L. G., V. P. Bukak, AND R. S. LUNETTA. A Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Radiative-Transfer Solutions for Plane Albedo in Natural Waters. Presented at Optics of Natural Waters ( ONW 2009), St. Petersburg, RUSSIA, September 08 - 12, 2009.
Abstract: Several numerical and analytical solutions of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo were compared for solar light reflection by sea water. The study incorporated the simplest case, that being a semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel absorbing and scattering homogeneous layer illuminated by a monodirectional light beam. Inelastic processes (i.e., Raman scattering and fluorescence), polarization and air-water surface refraction-reflection effects, were not considered. Algorithms were based on the invariant imbedding method and two different variants of the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Calculations were performed using parameters across all possible ranges including single-scattering albedo ω0 and refracted solar zenith angle θ1, but with a special emphasis on natural waters. All computations were made for two scattering phase functions, which included an almost isotropic Rayleigh phase function and strongly anisotropic double-peaked Fournier-Forand-Mobley phase function. Models were validated using quasi-single-scattering (QSSA) and exponential approximations to represent the extreme cases of ω0 --> 0 and ω0 --> 1, respectively. All methods yielded relative differences within 1.8% for modeled natural waters. An analysis of plane albedo behavior resulted in the development of a new extended QSSA approximation, which when applied in conjunction with the extended Hapke approximation developed earlier, resulted in a maximum relative error of 2.7%. The study results demonstrated that for practical applications, the estimation of inherent optical properties from observed reflectance can best be achieved using an extended Hapke approximation.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Components Using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis for the Conterminous United States 08/21/2009
WICKHAM, J. D., K. H. Riitters, T. G. WADE, AND P. Vogt. Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Components Using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis for the Conterminous United States. Presented at INTECOL, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA, August 16 - 21, 2009.
Abstract: Green infrastructure is a widely used framework for conservation planning in the United States and elsewhere. The main components of green infrastructure are hubs and corridors. Hubs are large areas of natural vegetation, and corridors are linear features that connect hubs. Within the United States, assessments of green infrastructure: 1) use classical GIS routines (e.g., overlay, buffer) to map hubs and corridors; 2) are temporally static, lacking information on change and; 3) mainly undertaken by states or more local-scale jurisdictions (e.g., metropolitan areas). In this study, we use Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) to define hubs and corridors using ca. 1992 and 2001 land-cover data from the U.S. National Land-cover Database (NLCD). MSPA uses image segmentation applied to one or more focal land-cover classes (e.g., all natural vegetation) to identify hubs, corridors, and other classes relevant to green infrastructure assessments. We describe and report on the use MSPA to map hubs and corridors for the conterminous United States, with an emphasis on detection of temporal change in those components. Using MSPA, we identified approximately 4,000 networks - disjunct hubs connected by corridors - for the conterminous United States. Approximately 10 percent of the networks crossed state boundaries. Comparing MSPA results for ca. 1992 and ca. 2001 data indicated a net loss of 1.72 x 106 ha of hubs and 1.76 x 106ha of corridors. Our national assessment can be used by states and other local jurisdictions as a template to extend conservation planning beyond their own borders.

PRESENTATION Targeting and Evaluating Conservation Investments for on-Site and Off-Site Benefits Using Data Envelopment Analysis 08/14/2009
MACPHERSON, A. AND R. Iovanna. Targeting and Evaluating Conservation Investments for on-Site and Off-Site Benefits Using Data Envelopment Analysis. Presented at Camp Resources XVI Environmental Economics Workshop, Asheville, NC, August 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation

PRESENTATION Comparison of Sub-Pixel Classification Approaches for Crop-Specific Mapping 08/14/2009
Shao, Y. AND R. S. LUNETTA. Comparison of Sub-Pixel Classification Approaches for Crop-Specific Mapping. Presented at 2009 Geoinformatics, Fairfax, VA, August 12 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data has been increasingly used for crop mapping and other agricultural applications. Phenology-based classification approaches using the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 16-day composite (250 m) data product is among the most promising for automated processing. Most MODIS-NDVI crop mapping applications to date have focused on per-pixel classification methods; while the sub-pixel crop patterns and proportions have not been thoroughly exploited. The objective of this paper was to implement and compare three sub-pixel classification approaches for estimating sub-pixel crop proportions using MODIS-NDVI data. The sub-pixel unmixing approaches included: (a) Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) regression algorithm, (b) Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classification algorithm, and (c) Regression tree. The sub-pixel proportions were estimated for three major crop types including corn, soybean, and wheat; throughout the entire 480,000 km2 Laurentian Great Lakes Basin. Accuracy assessments were conducted using the cropland data layer (CDL) developed by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to provide reference data corresponding to calendar year 2007. The performances of the three sub-pixel classification approaches were compared based on a number of factors including the size of the training set, model complexity, and the generalization potential over large geographic regions. We found that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) regression algorithm provided the best overall performance and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classification algorithm the poorest. The implementations of MLP classification approaches were time-consuming compare to the Regression tree approach. Also, the Regression tree had greater interpretability; especially when smaller regression trees were employed.

PRESENTATION Southwest Ecosystem Services Project 08/08/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. Southwest Ecosystem Services Project. Presented at Ecology Society of America, Albuquerque, NM, August 03 - 08, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Peering Into the Shadows of Chemical Space. Emerging Contaminants and Environmental Science: Is Either Being Served By the Other? 08/07/2009
DAUGHTON, C. G. Peering Into the Shadows of Chemical Space. Emerging Contaminants and Environmental Science: Is Either Being Served By the Other? Presented at Second International Conference on Occurrence, Fate, Effects, and Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, Fort Collins, CO, August 04 - 07, 2009.
Abstract: A decade has passed since the term “emerging” was first formally used to describe the existence of waterpollutants not previously recognized; a 1998 NRC workshop ("Identifying Future Drinking WaterContaminants") and several 1999 reports by USGS were among the first to feature the term "emergingcontaminants." In the larger historical context, however, the issue of emerging contaminants evolvedfrom concerns regarding unregulated trace organic pollutants, a topic of interest to the U.S. EPAbeginning in the 1970s (e.g., see Donaldson, doi:10.1021/es60127a012).This marks an excellent time to reflect on a number of questions surrounding this rather ill-defined butbroadly used term. In describing various aspects of environmental science, has its use served us well? Isit leading us where we need to be in terms of a scientific discipline? What message does it convey to thepublic, legislators, and regulators? Do we share a common understanding as to what an "emerging"contaminant might be? Are we perhaps suffering from its overuse? Used as a modifier for a bewilderingarray of phenomena and activities,"emerging" and some of its allies such as "nano" have becomefrequently used in environmental science - - perhaps sometimes serving merely as obligatory but tokenadjectives adding little value. The published literature on emerging contaminants began to escalate in 2001-2003 and became abona-fide topic of active investigation and discussion in 2003-2005; the numbers of publications nowtotal several thousand - - possibly obeying Moore's Law for exponential growth. Such a rapidlyexpanding literature challenges its in-depth examination even by experts, forcing narrower specializationand less synthesis of the field as a whole. Distilling the published literature into a useful body ofknowledge is a daunting challenge, which unmet greatly increases the risk of duplication of work orfailure to focus on the highest priority needs. Two recent but rare examples of valuable data mining andsynthesis are the compilations of occurrence and waste treatment data for pharmaceuticals and personalcare products by Miège et al. (doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.11.045) and Onesios et al.(doi:10.1007/s10532-008-9237-8).

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in Surface Waters and Potential Transfer to Irrigated Food Crops 08/07/2009
Sanchez, C. A. AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Pharmaceuticals in Surface Waters and Potential Transfer to Irrigated Food Crops. Presented at Second International Conference on Occurrence, Fate, Effects, and Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, Ft. Collins, CO, August 04 - 07, 2009.
Abstract: A number of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of selected pharmaceuticals (macrolidic antibiotics and pseudoephedrine) and illicit drugs (methamphetamine, Ecstasy) in surface waters in the southwestern U.S. and evaluate the potential for food chain trans fer when pharmaceutical containing waters are used for irrigation. Samples were collected spatially and temporally from waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters in the southwestern US. Studies included greenhouse experiments, where selected food crops were irrigated with water spiked with macrolide antibiotics and field experiments, where selected field crops were irrigated with treated waste water effluent containing one or more macrolide antibiotics, pseudoephedrine, and methamphetamine. Water samples were prepared for analysis using an automated extractor (AutoTrace, Caliper Life Sciences) with Oasis MCX cartridges (Waters Corp.), subsequently extracted with 5-mL of 80:20:1 methyl tertbutyl ether/methanol/acetic acid, and 5 mL 99:1 methanol/acetic acid, and reduced to 0.5 mL using an automated evaporator (TurboVap-Zymark, Caliper Life Sciences). Plant materials were extracted using a modified pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique, followed by a rigorous hexane clean-up. Water extracts and plant PLE extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS/MS) in the positive ionization collision induced mode (CID) for greater specificity. One or more of the pharmaceuticals and/or illicit drugs evaluated were found in urban waste streams at concentrations sometimes exceeding 500 ng/L. However, amounts found in the main surface water channels were always below 10 ng/L and most frequently below detection. The results of the greenhouse and field studies indicate the uptake of one or more of the pharmaceuticals evaluated, albeit at very low- levels, into several of the crops species.

PRESENTATION Modeling Ecosystem Services in An Arid Landscape Using the Invest Tool 08/07/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G., C. L. ERICKSON, AND W. G. KEPNER. Modeling Ecosystem Services in An Arid Landscape Using the Invest Tool. Presented at Ecological Society of American Meeting, Albuquerque, NM, August 02 - 07, 2009.
Abstract: In this paper we describe the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Southwest Ecosystem Services Program (SwESP) initial efforts to use the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) tool to quantify and map the values of multiple ecosystem services in the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora, Mexico and spans the U.S. – Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The Basin supports one the most ecologically diverse regions in the world. Nevertheless, several growing communities, the Cananea copper mine (Mexico) and Fort Huachuca (Arizona) rely upon regional groundwater. The InVEST tool is a new spatially explicit modeling tool developed by the Natural Capital Project that runs as script tools in the ArcGIS 9.2 ArcToolBox. Currently, biodiversity, carbon storage and sequestration, managed timber production, water pollution regulation and sediment retention for reservoir maintenance can be modeled using InVEST based upon various data types (e.g., land use /land cover, nutrient loading coefficients, soil depth) and expert input. InVEST is designed for use as part of an active decision-making process where models are used to estimate the amount and value of ecosystem services that are available on the current landscape or under future scenarios (i.e., alternative land uses and/or climatic conditions). The development of InVEST is ongoing and has just been recently released for public use in “beta form”. The beta version has been applied in several sites globally yet has not been implemented in an arid region such as the San Pedro Basin. We will discuss the efficacy of using the InVEST tool using data that is currently available through the San Pedro Geo-Data browser.

PRESENTATION Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? 08/07/2009
Alvarez, D. AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? Presented at EMCON2009, Fort Collins, CO, August 04 - 07, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation

PRESENTATION Mapping Coastal Wetland Change in Louisiana's Gulf Coast 07/30/2009
Lin, J. T., J. CHRISTENSEN, AND R. D. LOPEZ. Mapping Coastal Wetland Change in Louisiana's Gulf Coast. Presented at 5th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images, Groton, CT, July 27 - 30, 2009.
Abstract: Tidal wetlands and estuaries carry out several specific and unique ecosystem functions, which provide humans with goods and services that contribute to their wellbeing. In areas of natural adjacent land cover, tidal marshes can incrementally move inland as sea levels gradually rise, resulting in no net loss. However, tidal marshes abut human-developed areas are unable to expand/develop further inland and wetlands acreage is lost. Anthropogenic coastal areas can also result in the loss of wetlands through infilling, dredging, and increasing erosion rates due to boat traffic. Analyses of change from the 1970’s through present are performed using Landsat satellite MSS, TM, and ETM data from each decade with coverage of the Louisiana’s gulf coast. NOAA C-CAP database are also used to aid the identification of tidal wetland and estuary classes of coastal Louisiana. These images and the database would determine the percent change in wetlands and estuaries for this time period. Large changes in wetland and adjacent land cover/use, including urbanization and agricultural development, would be an important component in the determination of change since the 1970’s. Finer scale analysis using airborne multispectral/hyperspectral data would be used to map details of the adjacent land cover/use. Selected wetlands along several biophysical gradients would then be investigated to determine correlations between land cover/use and wetland quality. Initial findings showed a significant decrease in size of coastal wetland since the 1970’s. Increased risk or vulnerability of coastal areas to storm surge can be further explored using these historical analyses of wetland change and land cover change of areas adjacent to coastal wetlands as wetlands are often cited as capable of reducing storm surges. Empirical data for storm surge reduction are few, and may be dependent on the magnitude of the storm. Hurricane-storm surge models explored the difference in storm surge height if the same storm were to hit a portion of the Louisiana coast in 1950, (largest extent of wetlands) versus 1990 and 2020 (based on current trends of wetland loss).

PRESENTATION Assessing the Accuracy of Modis-Ndvi Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin 07/30/2009
IIAMES, J. S. AND R. S. LUNETTA. Assessing the Accuracy of Modis-Ndvi Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at Fifth International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-temporal Data (MultiTemp 2009), Groton, CT, July 29 - 30, 2009.
Abstract: This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Traditional hyperspectral image classification techniques were applied to perform the GLB time-series based classification. To optimize results the GLB was stratified across 12 ecoregions, ten in the United States and two in Canada (Omernik, 1987) (Figure 1). The multi-temporal NDVI images were used as inputs to hyperspectral classification algorithms taking advantage of the phenological response of various cover types to segment the GLB into six broad land-cover classes (i.e. impervious, water, agriculture, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, and annual grasses) (Knight and Lunetta, 2009). The water and impervious classes, however, had proven problematic to classify in a previous study (Knight et al., 2006). Therefore, both were classified using alternative methods and then masked to the MODIS-NDVI composite. The water mask was created using multiple Landsat ETM+ scenes mosaiced over the entire GLB region. A simple binary water versus non-water mask was derived from individual band reflectance thresholds. The impervious and agricultural (row crops only) classes were generated from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) by scaling the 30 m resolution to the 250 m resolution native to the MODIS NDVI time-series data. All 250 m pixels that were greater than 75% impervious or agriculture were labeled as such. Therefore, the land-cover classes remaining for classification were the annual grasses, deciduous and coniferous forests, and agriculture (hay).

PRESENTATION Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using Modis-Ndvi Time Series Data 07/30/2009
LUNETTA, R. S. AND Y. Shao. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using Modis-Ndvi Time Series Data. Presented at Fifth International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-temporal Data (MultiTemp 2009), Mystic, CT, July 28 - 30, 2009.
Abstract: This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distributions of crop types in the GLB for 2005, 2006, and 2007, and quantify any changes in rotation patterns between 20052006 and 20062007. MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product (MOD13Q) (20052007) obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center were pre-processed using the method developed by Lunetta et al. (2006). This created a continuous high quality NDVI dataset for the general cropland and crop-specific (e.g., corn, soybean, wheat) mapping. For each calendar year, the classification of general cropland versus non-cropland was conducted first. The training data points for the cropland and non-cropland were primarily derived from the 2001 NLCD (National Land Cover Data). The identifications of individual crop types were subsequently conducted within the cropland mask. Three major crop types were considered including corn, soybeans, and wheat. The training pixels were identified using visual interpretation of MODIS NDVI profiles to derive “phenology end-members”. We employed an ecoregion-stratified classification approach to improve the classification performance by dividing the study area into 12-ecoregions (Omernik, 1987) and conducting independent crop-specific classification within each ecoregion (Figure 1). Both the general cropland classification and crop-specific classification were performed using three-layer multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifiers.

PRESENTATION Southwest Ecosystem Services Project 07/28/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. Southwest Ecosystem Services Project. Presented at Regional Tribal Operations Committee Meeting, San Francisco, CA, July 28, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Airborne Pesticides as An Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California 07/27/2009
BRADFORD, D. F., N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, K. Stanley, L. McConnell, D. Sparling, M. S. NASH, S. Simonich, AND R. Knapp. Airborne Pesticides as An Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California. Presented at American Society of Ichtyologists and Herpetologists, Portland, OR, July 22 - 27, 2009.
Abstract: Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured pesticide concentrations in multiple media at multiple times at 28 sites in the southern Sierra and evaluated the pesticide-decline hypothesis in three ways: (1) we described the temporal variation in concentrations in lake water and compared these values to established critical levels; (2) we tested the hypothesis that pesticide concentrations decrease with distance from the Valley, a pattern that could explain the east-west pattern in population declines; and (3) we tested the hypothesis that pesticide concentrations are correlated with frog population status (i.e., fraction of suitable sites occupied within 2 km of a site). Media represented were air, lake water, sediment, and tadpoles of a surrogate species (Pseudacris regilla); we also measured acetyl cholinesterase activity in P. regilla tadpoles. Results do not support the hypothesis for a pesticide effect on frog populations. Concentrations of up to nine pesticides (both currently and historically used forms) were extremely low, on the order of 1 part-per-trillion in lake water, well below critical levels. Evidence for a distance effect in concentrations or cholinesterase activity was very limited. Virtually no association was found between frog population status and any chemical metric. In contrast, two well documented causes for the dramatic and continuing population declines of these frogs are chytridiomycosis and introduced trout.

PRESENTATION The Role of Pharmecovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals 07/21/2009
RUHOY, I. S. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. The Role of Pharmecovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals. Presented at GreenPharma Summit: Achieving Efficiency Gains and Cost Savings through Environmental Initiative Implementation Institute for International Research, Philadelphia, PA, July 20 - 21, 2009.
Abstract: The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants by a variety of routes, primarily from excretion, bathing, and disposal. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondary route - - one that supposedly does not contribute substantially to overall environmental loadings of APIs. This presentation is an examination of secondary routes of API release to the environment and for direct but unintentional human exposure. These routes include: (a) bathing, washing, and laundering, and (b) disposal of unused and partially used high-content medical devices. Understanding these secondary routes is important from the perspective of pollution prevention, as well as for reducing the incidence of unintentional and purposeful poisonings of humans and pets, and for improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare. A broad spectrum of actions can be taken by the pharmaceutical and healthcare communities at large to reduce the release and introduction of medication ingredients to the environment. Discussion will include examples of strategies and programs employed by other countries to test and assess pharmaceutical compounds in order to ensure that once in use or released into the environment, they pose no hazard to people or wildlife. Most significantly, however, nearly any action taken to reduce their introduction to the environment can also have collateral benefits regarding the cost and quality of healthcare and therapeutic outcomes. Existing pharmacovigilance monitoring programs designed to detect and prevent adverse drug reactions could be expanded to also focus on the adverse impacts from drugs in the environment. Such a program has been termed pharmEcovigilance (doi: 10.2165/0002018-200831120-00004). A major reason for the pharmaceutical industry to implement a pharmEcovigilance program - - beyond reducing its environmental footprint - - could be the previously unforeseen benefits in optimizing the delivery, effectiveness, and cost of healthcare.

PRESENTATION Sensors as Tools for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity Studies of Engineered Nanomaterials 07/17/2009
Omowunmi, S. A., S. Kikandi, Q. Wang, A. Zhou, N. Du, F. Garcia, AND K. E. VARNER. Sensors as Tools for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity Studies of Engineered Nanomaterials. Presented at OECD on the Environmental Benefits of Nanotechnology: Fostering Safe Innovation - Led Growth, Paris, FRANCE, July 15 - 17, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION A Critique of Patch-Based Landscape Indicators for Detection of Temporal Change in Fragmentation 07/16/2009
WICKHAM, J. D. AND K. H. Riitters. A Critique of Patch-Based Landscape Indicators for Detection of Temporal Change in Fragmentation. Presented at European IALE Conference 2009, Salzburg, AUSTRIA, July 12 - 16, 2009.
Abstract: Since O’Neill et al. (1988), analysis of landscape indicators based on measurements from land-cover maps has been a core area of research in landscape ecology. Landscape indicator research has focused on development of new measurements, statistical properties, and indictor behavior across a gradient of context (e.g., urban, rural). Habitat fragmentation has been a strong motivating force for landscape indicator development, and island biogeography theory (McArthur and Wilson 1967) has been the main conceptual model underpinning their development (see Laurance 2008). Average patch size, inter-patch distance, and related measurements are commonly used landscape indicators because of the strong link to island biogeography theory.

PRESENTATION Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-Dominant Species 06/26/2009
CHRISTENSEN, J. R., A. G. van der Valk, W. G. Crumpton, AND R. Grosshans. Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-Dominant Species. Presented at Annual Meeting for Society of Wetland Scientists, Madison, WI, June 22, 2009 - June 29, 3009.
Abstract: Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explore the importance of subdominant emergent species; a dominantonly model (D), a subdominant model (SD), and a ubiquitous subdominant model (USD). The three model variations were applied to experimental marshes in Delta Marsh, Canada. Predictions from the models were compared with actual distributions of three common emergent species (Typha glauca (Godr.), Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., and Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link, after 2, 4, and 12 years of stable water levels. The Typha distributions showed the greatest differences between models. The SD model most closely tracked observed distributions of Typha after 2 and 4 years while the D and USD models under and over-predicted distributions respectively. After 12 years, Typha was the dominant species in the marshes and the SD and USD matched observed distributions. The D model continued to under-predict Typha distributions. The models did not differ for Scolochloa and had good agreement with the observed distributions after 12 years. Phragmites distributions were underestimated by all the models. The plant distribution model illustrates the importance of including subdominant species and highlights the need to better understand species long-term tolerance responses to stabilized water levels.

PRESENTATION A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental Economic Assessments 06/26/2009
MACPHERSON, A. J., P. P. PRINCIPE, AND E. R. SMITH. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental Economic Assessments. Presented at XI European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, Pisa, ITALY, June 24 - 26, 2009.
Abstract: Regional-scale environmental assessments require integrating many available types of data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales. Moreover, the relationships among the environmental variables in the assessment tend to be poorly understood, a situation made even more complicated when socioeconomic variables are incorporated. Assessments often use multivariate statistics to describe the relationships between these variables, but multivariate analyses frequently reduce data dimensionality and are difficult to interpret by the intended audience (planners and managers). For assessments to be more useful, they must clearly describe the relationships among variables and the implications of changes in the variables. This paper uses an environmental distance function from the productivity analysis literature (Färe et al. 1989, 2007) to create a regional environmental-economic production function that characterizes the relative efficiency of geographic units in combining multiple environmental inputs to produce multiple desirable and undesirable socioeconomic and environmental outputs. The regional environmental-economic production function relies on a flexible, nonparametric specification of production relationships, making no assumptions about the functional relationships among variables. By quantifying the extent to which desirable outputs can be expanded and inputs and undesirable outputs can be contracted, the production function can help decision-makers identify the most important broad-scale management and restoration opportunities across a heterogeneous region. We present the conceptual underpinning of the production function, the assumptions related to using the approach in a regional assessment context, and a case study using variables on resource conditions and socioeconomic activities in 134 watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Several models reflecting different management objectives were created by varying the desirable outputs used to calculate efficiency. Our results indicate that, depending on which outputs are specified as desirable in the models, one-quarter to one-third of watersheds are efficient in producing maximal desirable outputs with minimal undesirable outputs and input use. A perfectly efficient outcome would yield an inefficiency rating of zero, and our results show that across all watersheds, mean inefficiency ratings range from 0.9 percent to 4.4 percent, depending on which desirable outputs are selected for the analysis. When socioeconomic indicators (e.g., per capita income and population density) are used, inefficiency ratings are lower (more efficient) than when just environmental measures (e.g., percent of the landscape in wetlands or interior forest) are used. Efficiency levels are also correlated with eco-regions, with Atlantic Highlands and Southeast Coastal Plains tending to be more efficient than Mixed Woods, Southeastern Plains, and Appalachian Forests.

PRESENTATION Using Ecosystem Services for Policy Decisions and Adaptive Management: Examples from EPA's Ecosystem Services Research Program 06/25/2009
SMITH, E. R. Using Ecosystem Services for Policy Decisions and Adaptive Management: Examples from EPA's Ecosystem Services Research Program. Presented at EU Riskbase Workshop WP5: Ecosystem Services & Adaptive Management, Venice, ITALY, June 24 - 25, 2009.
Abstract: Slide Presentation

PRESENTATION Computational Chemistry Applied to Environmental Analytical Chemistry 06/20/2009
BETOWSKI, L. D. Computational Chemistry Applied to Environmental Analytical Chemistry. Presented at Special International Journal of Mass Spectrometry Symposium, Santa Barbara, CA, June 18 - 20, 2009.
Abstract: Poster Presentation

PRESENTATION Single-Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in the Environment Advances and Challenges 06/11/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Single-Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in the Environment Advances and Challenges. Presented at International Conference on the Environmental Implications and Applications of Nanotechnology, Amherst, MA, June 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: As engineered metal-based nanomaterials become widely used in consumer and industrial products, the amount of these materials introduced into the environment by a variety of paths will increase. The concentration of metal associated with these engineered nanoparticles will be superimposed on the metal concentration from other natural and anthropogenic nanoparticles of the same or different chemical composition. Therefore, in order to evaluate potential exposure of ecosystems to engineered nanomaterials, methods must be available for measuring spatial and temporal trends in the concentration, size distribution, and metal content of nanoparticles in environmental compartments. Approaches for these types of measurements have been either single-particle methods such as electron microscopy, or ensemble techniques that measure properties of the population of particles. The ensemble methods are less specific than single-particle imaging, but can produce statistically representative characterization of the environmental sample. Ensemble techniques include filtration and ultrafiltration followed by elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) to estimate metal concentration in operationally defined size fractions. Hyphenated instrumental techniques, such as flow-field flow fractionation (FFF) coupled with ICPMS, provide better defined size distributions. This presentation describes a third approach, ICPMS in the single particle (SP) mode. SP-ICPMS can provide number density of particles, as well as mass of the measured metal in the particles. It can therefore be used without any accompanying separatory method to screen metal-containing nanoparticle concentrations. Coupled with a size separation method, SPICPMS can provide the fractional metal content of particles, thus discriminating between metal-based nanoparticles and background nanoparticles with only minor metal content (e.g., minerals and metal sorbed on natural organic matter). The theory of SP-ICPMS will be described, and its application as a stand-alone screening method and in combination with size separation will be demonstrated. Current challenges to its wide application in environmental characterization of metal-based nanoparticles, as well as potential solutions to these challenges, will be discussed.

PRESENTATION Single-Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in the Environment-Advances and Challenges 06/11/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Single-Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in the Environment-Advances and Challenges. Presented at International Conference on the Environmental Implications and Applications of Nanotechnology, Amherst, MA, June 11, 2009.
Abstract: Slide Presentaion

PRESENTATION A Case Study: Crop (Lettuce, Spinach, and Carrots) Uptake of Three Macrolide Antibiotics (Azithromycin, Clindamycin and Roxithromycin) and Other Drugs 06/10/2009
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND C. A. Sanchez. A Case Study: Crop (Lettuce, Spinach, and Carrots) Uptake of Three Macrolide Antibiotics (Azithromycin, Clindamycin and Roxithromycin) and Other Drugs. Presented at Sixth International Micropol and Ecohazard 2009, San Francisco, CA, June 08 - 10, 2009.
Abstract: Poster Presenation

PRESENTATION A Case Study: Crop (Lettuce, Spinach, and Carrots) Uptake of Three Macrolide Antibiotics (Azithromycin, Clindamycin and Roxithromycin) and Other Drugs 06/10/2009
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND C. A. Sanchez. A Case Study: Crop (Lettuce, Spinach, and Carrots) Uptake of Three Macrolide Antibiotics (Azithromycin, Clindamycin and Roxithromycin) and Other Drugs. Presented at 6th International Micropol and Ecohazard 2009, San Francisco, CA, June 08 - 10, 2009.
Abstract: It has been shown that human-use macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clindamycin, and roxithromycin) are environmentally available in wastewaters, source waters, and biosolids. In order to better understand the fate of these compounds into food crops via root migration, we conducted a controlled greenhouse study and then exposure studies on crops grown in soils that are watered with treated wastewater effluent from a medium population southwestern city (~ 1 million population, July 2008). A new analytical extraction method had to be developed to extract the antibiotics from the complex matrix of crop samples. We used a modified pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique, followed by a rigorous hexane clean-up. Subsequent PLE extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS/MS) in the positive ionization collision induced mode (CID) for greater specificity. Initially, under controlled greenhouse conditions, three crops (lettuce, spinach, and carrots) were watered with varying concentrations of the three macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clindamycin and roxithromycin). After harvest, the plants were dissected and separated into leaf and root, then freeze-dried. The freeze-dried samples were homogenized and 1-g subsamples were extracted and analyzed by LC-ESI-ITMS/MS. In order to groundtruth our methodology, we applied the methods to crop samples (carrots, watermelon, tomatoes, cantaloupe) that were grown in fields that use treated municipal wastewater effluent for watering. The treated wastewater effluent had previously been characterized, and was known to contain the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, the over-the-counter drug pseudoephedrine, the illicit drug methamphetamine, and an industrial flavoring agent n,n-dimethylphenethylamine (n,n’- dmpea, an isomeric compound to methamphetamine). The results of the studies indicate the uptake of azithromycin, clindamycin, roxithromycin and n,n’-dmpea, albeit at very low-levels (low ppt), into several of the crops species.

PRESENTATION Novel Sensor for the Identification and Quantitation of Engineered Nanomaterials 06/04/2009
Sadik, O. A., S. Kikandi, Q. Wang, AND K. E. VARNER. Novel Sensor for the Identification and Quantitation of Engineered Nanomaterials. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Goteborg, SWEDEN, May 31 - June 04, 2009.
Abstract: According to the US-National Nanotechnology initiative (NNI), nanomaterials encompass a wide variety of materials that have at least one dimension in the 1-to 100-nm range. One major aspect of the NNI is the need to develop useful approaches to identify and categorize nanomaterials by size, composition, and morphology1,2. In order to evaluate the effects of nanomaterials on the environment and human health, considerable knowledge of the nature and properties of the nanomaterials is required. Relevant properties that could be measured include characteristics as purity, particle size and distribution, shape, crystal structure, composition, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge, surface activity, and porosity2. In that respect, a broad array of analytical tools and methods are needed to perform such characterizations, including a variety of optical, microscopic, spectroscopic, chromatographic and nuclear methods. Conventional methods for assessing the properties and characteristics of raw nanomaterial focus on the size distribution and effects. They are however unsuitable for environmental monitoring involving detection and quantification. Hence the creation of new instruments or approaches, or further development of existing tools are necessary to obtain these underlying information and hence its resulting effects on human health and the environment. Thus the relative lack of basic scientific information and/or analytical tools on nanoscale materials as well as their effects on human health and the environment poses significant challenges for regulatory reviews. This presentation will focus on the development of a novel Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based sensor for fullerenes. The sensor should be capable of distinguishing between engineered nanomaterials (e.g. hybrid organic metal nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials), and naturally occurring nanomaterials (e.g. dead bacteria, living bacteria, spores, viral components, or fungi) that may be present in the environment.

PRESENTATION Rapid Semi-Quantitative Mapping of Dispersed Caffeine Using An Autosampler/Dart/Tofms 06/04/2009
GRANGE, A. H. Rapid Semi-Quantitative Mapping of Dispersed Caffeine Using An Autosampler/Dart/Tofms. Presented at American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Philadelphia, PA, May 31 - June 04, 2009.
Abstract: Introduction: Rapid mapping of contaminant distributions is necessary to assess exposure risksand to plan remediation, when chemicals are dispersed accidentally, deliberately, or by weather-related events. Described previously (Grange, Environ. Forensics, 9, 125-141) were anautosampler for a DART/TOFMS based on N-scale model railroad components that samples 76cotton swab, wipe samples in 7.5 min and a field sample carrier for the swabs built around theautosampler's support element for the swabs. To test the ability to semi-quantitatively mapdispersion of a chemical, pulverized Nodoz (45% caffeine) was dispersed across a drivewayusing a shop vacuum operated as a blower. Method: To acquire wipe samples from the driveway, water-soaked, cotton swabs were rolledacross a 10 cm x 10 cm square delineated by a template in orthogonal directions to distribute theanalyte within the square uniformly about the swab for each sample collected. Wipe sampleswere taken at 84 sampling points of a 7 x 12 grid to prepare a map of the dispersed caffeine. Analyte from the edges of each swab was desorbed, ionized and mass analyzed by theDART/TOFMS. Chromatographic peak areas in the analyte ion chromatogram (m/z 195, MH+)for both edges of each swab were summed and plotted to provide a semi-quantitation map withdifferent colors for non-detect, low, moderate, high, and "visual analyte" levels. Preliminary data: Plugging of the cone orifice of the MS and carry over were initiallyproblematic. A particle in the orifice greatly reduced the ion abundances until it was dislodgedafter a few or more numerous swabs had been sampled. Plugging was avoided by making aninitial run with non-heated and non-energized helium gas. Easily dislodged dust particles fromthe driveway were blown off the swabs, while the analyte was not desorbed by the cold gas flow. Carry over was reduced by interspersing water-soaked swabs between analyte swabs to provide hot water vapor to clean condensed analyte from the region around the cone orifice. Furthercarry over reduction was observed in data collected a second time. Remaining carry over wasseen as an elevated baseline before or after each chromatographic peak when one or morepreceding swabs had high analyte levels. A macro written in Lotus 123 used the higher baselineto calculate each peak area. A second macro plotted the semi-quantitation map. A dynamicrange of 41 was estimated from triplicate wipe samples acquired from a mirror, which provided aclean, non-absorbent, and uniform surface upon which Nodoz solutions were deposited. A factorof 3.46 (cube root of 41) was used to define the semi-quantitation levels. A Vapur (IonSense),evacuated flange between the helium source and orifice increased the dynamic range to 300,reduced %RSDs (N=3) for wipe samples from the mirror from 27% to 10%, reduced themaximum/minimum ratio for triplicate measurements from 1.8 to 1.2, reduced carry over, andmay eliminate the need for the two preliminary runs. Future experiments with Nodoz dispersedacross the driveway and other surfaces will include the flange. Novel Aspect: Rapid plotting of semi-quantitation maps for dispersed chemicals based onDART/TOFMS data

PRESENTATION Single Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles and Monitoring Transformation Processes in Surface Water 06/04/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Single Particle Icpms for Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles and Monitoring Transformation Processes in Surface Water. Presented at Symposium on Environmental Characterization of Engineered Nanoparticles at SETAC, Goteborg, SWEDEN, May 31 - June 04, 2009.
Abstract: Engineered metal-based nanomaterials will likely be used in increasing quantities in consumer and industrial products. These may be introduced into surface waters by a variety of paths depending on usage. Other naturally occurring and anthropogenic particles containing these metals exist with similar size distributions. Therefore, it is important to measure the present baseline concentration, size distribution, and metal content of nanoparticles in various surface waters. Monitoring trends in these metrics over time can then be used to assess the potential exposure of ecosystems to engineered metalbased nanomaterials. These measurements have been made with hyphenated instrumental techniques such as flow-field flow fractionation coupled with ICPMS, or metal concentrations of operationally defined size fractions have been estimated by filtration and ultrafiltration followed by elemental determination. ICPMS in the single particle (SP) mode measures the intensity and frequency of signal pulses resulting from ion plumes of a metal from individual nanoparticles in the ICP. SP-ICPMS can provide the number density of particles, as well as the mass of the measured metal in the particles. SPICPMS of several metal-based nanoparticles is presented. The theory of the measurement is described, and the effect of experimental factors on sensitivity, accuracy, and precision is discussed. Application of SP-ICPMS for monitoring processes such as dissolution and aggregation of nanoparticles is presented.

PRESENTATION Rapid Semi-Quantitative Mapping of Dispersed Caffeine Using An Autosampler/Dart/Tofms 06/04/2009
GRANGE, A. H. Rapid Semi-Quantitative Mapping of Dispersed Caffeine Using An Autosampler/Dart/Tofms. Presented at American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Philadelphia, PA, May 31 - June 04, 2009.
Abstract: Poster Presentation

PRESENTATION Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration 06/03/2009
MACPHERSON, A. J. Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration. Presented at United States Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Washington, DC, May 31 - June 03, 2009.
Abstract: Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecological production functions as a priority in the hope that the production functions can be passed to economists for use in valuation exercises. While the estimation of ecological production functions is an important endeavor, there is ambiguity between the economic and ecological modeling communities about what is meant by “production function” that hinders interdisciplinary progress. I seek to clarify how the key disciplines in this exchange conceive of production and estimate production empirically to help identify commonalities and differences. With the conceptual preliminaries in place, I explore how economic approaches to scale may be used in estimating ecological production functions that retain ecological and economic meaning. I also explore the utility of nonparametric efficiency and productivity analysis in empirically evaluating economic-ecological processes characterized by production of multiple outputs from multiple inputs across multiple scales.

PRESENTATION Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Biofilm Development in Porous Media 05/27/2009
Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, E. A. Atekwana, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Biofilm Development in Porous Media. Presented at American Geophysical Union Spring Joint Assembly Meeting, Toronto, QC, CANADA, May 24 - 27, 2009.
Abstract: Biofilm development in porous media can result in significant changes to the hydrogeological properties of subsurface systems with implications for fluid flow and contaminant transport. As such, a number of numerical models and simulations have been developed in an attempt to qualitatively forecast the affect of bioclogging on hydraulic properties. Limitations exist, however, with the application of these models as bioclogging processes are dynamic and quantitative information from the direct observation of biological growth and clogging is often unavailable. Here, we report on the results of a laboratory column experiment in which a minimally invasive acoustic wave imaging technique was used for the spatiotemporal characterization of biofilm development in porous media. Biofilm development was stimulated in silica sand-packed columns using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 bacteria culture and acoustic (compressional) wave data were collected over a two-dimensional region for 29 days. In addition, complex conductivity, fluid conductivity, and pH measurements were collected to assess the progress of the stimulated microbial growth. The results from the biologically stimulated sample (nutrients and bacteria inocula) exhibited a high degree of spatial variation in the acoustic amplitude measurements. Portions of the biostimulated sample exhibited an increase in attenuation (up to 73%), while other portions showed a decrease in attenuation (~45%). The acoustic signals measured for the unstimulated sample (nutrients only), however, were relatively uniform over the 2D scan region. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging of sand from the biostimulated column collected upon termination of the experiment verified the presence of biofilms on sand surfaces. ESEM imaging also revealed apparent qualitative differences in the structure and/or thickness of biofilm material between areas of variable acoustic wave amplitude. We infer from these observations that enhanced microbial growth and the presence of biofilms in the sand columns had a variable affect on the spatiotemporal elastic properties of porous media. Our results suggest that acoustic measurements may provide diagnostic semi-quantitative data for the validation of bioclogging models and numerical simulations.

PRESENTATION Mapping Cropland Across the Great Lakes Basin Using Modis-Ndvi Data 05/08/2009
LUNETTA, R. S., Y. Saho, J. Ediriwickrema, J. S. IIAMES, AND J. G. Lyon. Mapping Cropland Across the Great Lakes Basin Using Modis-Ndvi Data. Presented at International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Stressa, ITALY, May 04 - 08, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Soil Erosion With Rusle: A Case Study in An Olive Orchard Microcathment in Spain 04/24/2009
Taguas, E. V., P. Cuadrado, J. L. Ayuso, Y. YUAN, AND R. Perez. Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Soil Erosion With Rusle: A Case Study in An Olive Orchard Microcathment in Spain. Presented at European Geosciences Union Assembly 2009, Vienna, AUSTRIA, April 19 - 24, 2009.
Abstract: Soil loss is commonly estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Since RUSLE is an empirically based soil loss model derived from surveys on plots, the high spatial and temporal variability of erosion in Mediterranean environments and scale effects provoke that studies evaluating the model on other spatial units such as the microcatchment are neceesary. Most of studies to check the suitability of the management operations in olive orchards have been done on plot scale, however, the microcachment is a geomorphological unit where hydrological processes are more numerous, do not occur isolatedly and whose area is well-adapted to the farmland small size and farmland medium size. In this study, different topographic and soil surveys have been carried out on a microcatchment of 6.7 ha in a mountainous area under non-tillage farming with bare soil to examine spatial and temporal results provided by RUSLE. Thus, the height difference of microrelief through GPS measurements has been set on a control area in the microcatment to compare erosion points and deposition points with RUSLE spatial predictions. In addition, measures of loads of sediments were taken out to calculate the annual sediment delivery ratio and the storage that determine the utility of RUSLE. Finally, data series of daily rainfall were acquired to calculate the long term erosion and to check the suitability of land-use and the management under different thresholds of tolerance. Erosion points were located on zones with the highest RUSLE values while the distribution of deposition points showed no correlations with RUSLE predictions. In addition, an annual sediment delivery ratio in the cachtment about 26 % was calculated (period 2005-06). Although substantial spatial differences were observed, mean erosion long term estimates in the catchment showed 35 % of years, soil loss may overpass 2 t.ha-1.year-1 and 7 % of them, erosion may be higher than 5 t.ha-1.year-1. On this study scale, RUSLE allowed to locate the most fragile areas and to combine the suitability of the soil land-use and the management with the frequency of the annual erosivity.

PRESENTATION A Multi-Sensor Approach for Monitoring River Chemical Tank Barge Emissions 04/17/2009
WILLIAMS, D. J. AND E. Thoma. A Multi-Sensor Approach for Monitoring River Chemical Tank Barge Emissions. Presented at International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 Conference, Orlando, FL, April 13 - 17, 2009.
Abstract: The nation’s waterways are critical avenues for transporting petroleum products and chemicals. These chemicals are often volatile and emissions from the tanker barges carrying these products are a problem. Large population centers exist along the routes of these tank barges, creating the potential for human exposure to toxic compounds. The issue of emissions from tank barges is also a port security problem. The scenario of a large scale release of a hazardous compound, unintentional or otherwise, poses a real threat to the local population. Monitoring for tank barge emissions to locate leaking barges and fix them, as well as determine or verify barge contents, must be cost effective and accurate. The use of field deployable infrared spectrometers, open-path and passive devices, together with specialized thermal imaging cameras, has proven effective for locating leaking barges, determining the chemical(s) being released, and quantifying the emissions, defined as calculating the mass of the release per unit time. FTIR spectrometers were deployed in a radial plume mapping configuration to measure area emissions from the barges. Emissions were also measured at the source of the leak, such as barge hatch covers, using passive FTIR spectroscopy and specialized thermal imaging cameras that observed the plume as moving video. Verification of the remote sensing measurements was accomplished by measuring the leak flow rate using a leaking component encapsulation technique and by chemical analysis of canister samples in the laboratory. This paper will describe the findings of the study and the implications to port security applications.

PRESENTATION Mapping Ecosystem Services at Landscape Scales 04/16/2009
ALLEN, P. Mapping Ecosystem Services at Landscape Scales. Presented at US IALE 2009 Meeting, Snowbird, UT, April 12 - 16, 2009.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials

PRESENTATION Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Airborne Contaminants Relative to Amphibian Population in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California 04/09/2009
BRADFORD, D. F., N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, E. M. HEITHMAR, G. MOMPLAISIR, C. G. ROSAL, M. S. NASH, K. E. VARNER, AND L. A. RIDDICK. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Airborne Contaminants Relative to Amphibian Population in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. Presented at Sierra Nevada - Southern Cascades Contaminants Workshop, Three Rivers, CA, April 08 - 09, 2009.
Abstract: Airborne agricultural pesticides are being transported many tens of kilometers to remote locations in mountain areas, and they have been implicated as a cause for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in such areas. The strongest case is for the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa), which formerly was nearly ubiquitous among high-elevation waters bodies throughout the Sierra Nevada of California. Evidence for this pesticide effect, however, relies primarily on predicted distributions of pesticides and a few spot measurements. Largely unmeasured are the magnitude and temporal variation of pesticide concentrations in the habitat of this species, the relationship between pesticide application and pesticide appearance in the environment, and associations between the distributions of pesticides and the distribution of population declines. We evaluated temporal variation in pesticide concentrations by sampling water in four widely separated alpine lakes in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, from mid June to mid October, 2003. Four of 40 target pesticide analytes were detected at frequencies that allowed evaluation of temporal patterns: endosulfan, propargite, dacthal, and simazine. Concentrations at all times were extremely low, generally less than 1 ng/L (parts per trillion) for the first three, and only slightly higher for simazine. The temporal patterns in concentrations differed among the four pesticides, whereas the temporal pattern for each pesticide was similar among the four lakes. For the two pesticides applied abundantly in the San Joaquin Valley during the sampling period, endosulfan and propargite, temporal variation in concentrations corresponded significantly with application rates in the Valley with a lag time of 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. We evaluated the pesticide distributions by sampling three media (air, sediment, and tadpoles of the Pacific treefrog, Pseudacris regilla) in 28 water bodies in the Parks twice during the summer of 2005. Nine pesticide compounds were found in sediment and tadpoles, including both historic and current-use pesticides: chlorpyrifos, dacthal, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, DDE, chlordane, and nonachlor-cis and -trans. Only endosulfan II was detected frequently in air. Concentrations of all chemicals were low, averaging in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range or less in sediment and tadpoles. A clear pattern of chemical concentrations with distance from the San Joaquin Valley was not apparent. Results do not support the hypothesis that airborne pesticides or other contaminants have contributed to the dramatic population declines of the mountain yellow-legged frog. Virtually no association was found between frog population status and any chemical metric in any of the three media in either sampling period. In contrast, a strong negative relationship was found between frog population status and linear distance from the San Joaquin Valley. This geographic pattern is consistent with the postulated west-to-east movement of the decimating amphibian disease, chytridiomycosis.

PRESENTATION Modeling Landscape-Scale Ecosystem Services Relative to Biodiversity in the Upper San Pedro River Basin (U.S. Mexico) 03/27/2009
KEPNER, W. G. AND K. G. Boykin. Modeling Landscape-Scale Ecosystem Services Relative to Biodiversity in the Upper San Pedro River Basin (U.S. Mexico). Presented at American Association of Geographers 2009 Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, March 22 - 27, 2009.
Abstract: It is widely understood that human condition is tightly linked to environmental condition and the services it provides. Ecosystem services, i.e. "services provided to humans from natural systems" have become a paramount issue of this century in resource management, conservation, human well-being, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have become a strategic interest in regard to integrating ecology with economics to help explain the effects of human policies and the subsequent impacts on both ecosystem function and human welfare. This is especially imperative along the U.S-Mexico border where economics and population growth present major challenges to both environmental management and natural resource planning. Wildlife habitat provides a keen example of an ecosystem service which can be categorized in a variety of ways, i.e. supportive, regulating, provisioning, and cultural aspects of the environment. In this study, deductive habitat models developed under the USGS Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program (SWReGAP) and landscape metrics developed via the USEPA Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments were combined to assess biological complexity over a large international watershed in southeast Arizona and northeast Sonora, Mexico. The information was analyzed using both a course-level vegetation classification system via the National Land Cover Dataset and a finer-level SWReGAP ecological classification system. Total species richness was determined at 30m pixel resolution and then later partitioned among the major terrestrial vertebrate groups, i.e. mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, and for selected taxonomic orders and families as a measure for mapping this ecosystem service. Further we analyzed these data using subwatersheds and ecological systems as comparative assessment units.

PRESENTATION Novel Sensor for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials 03/26/2009
Kikandi, S. N., O. A. Sadik, AND K. E. VARNER. Novel Sensor for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials. Presented at 237th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, March 22 - 26, 2009.
Abstract: Environmental nanotechnology—the science of engaging matter at the nanoscale level, and its potential application for “green” chemical products and processes, risk assessment, remediation, and exposure studies—offers a variety of new products and problems. Intentional or incidental release of these materials into the environment creates associated risks that are more difficult to monitor than those previously encountered. With this emerging technology, one area of specific interest to the EPA is the detection, accurate assessment and monitoring of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The desired detection technology should be capable of in-situ, remote and continuously determining the concentrations of these materials. In this presentation, we will describe the development of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance sensor for continuous monitoring of engineered nanomaterials. This sensor is capable of distinguishing between engineered nanomaterials (e.g. hybrid organic metal nanoparticles), and naturally occurring nanomaterials (e.g. living bacteria and spores) that may be present in the environment.

PRESENTATION Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Surface Water By Single-Particle Icpms 03/26/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Surface Water By Single-Particle Icpms. Presented at American Chemical Society National Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, March 22 - 26, 2009.
Abstract: Engineered metal-based nanomaterials are being used in increasing quantities in consumer and industrial products. These materials may be introduced into surface waters by a variety of paths depending on usage, and will be superimposed on concentrations of other particles containing these metals. Monitoring trends in the concentration, size distribution, and metal content of nanoparticles in surface water over time can indicate potential exposure of ecosystems to engineered nanomaterials. These measurements have been made with hyphenated instrumental techniques such as flow-field flow fractionation coupled with ICPMS. Alternatively, metal concentrations of operationally defined size fractions have been estimated by filtration and ultrafiltration followed by elemental determination. ICPMS in the single particle (SP) mode measures the intensity and frequency of signal pulses resulting from ion plumes of a metal from individual nanoparticles in the ICP. SP-ICPMS can provide the number density of particles, as well as the mass of the measured metal in the particles. It can therefore estimate the size of particles, if composition is assumed; or it can provide information on possible compositions if particle size is known. SP-ICPMS of several monodisperse suspensions of metal-based nanoparticles is evaluated to elucidate the factors that influence the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. SP-ICPMS of several metals in native and nanoparticle-amended surface water is presented.

PRESENTATION Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Surface Water By Single-Particle Icpms 03/26/2009
HEITHMAR, E. M. Characterizing Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Surface Water By Single-Particle Icpms. Presented at 237th American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition, Salt Lake City, UT, March 22 - 26, 2009.
Abstract: Slide Presentation

PRESENTATION Novel Sensor for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials 03/26/2009
Kikandi, S. N., Q. C. Wang, O. A. Sadik, AND K. E. VARNER. Novel Sensor for Quantitation and Cytotoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials. Presented at 237th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, March 26, 2009.
Abstract: Paper Presentation

PRESENTATION Suburban Land Use, Stormwater Best Management Practices, and Receiving Stream Health 03/25/2009
Hogan, D., S. JARNAGIN, K. VanNess, J. St. John, AND R. Gauza. Suburban Land Use, Stormwater Best Management Practices, and Receiving Stream Health. Presented at Ecosystem Based Management: The Chesapeake and Other Systems, Baltimore, MD, March 22 - 25, 2009.
Abstract: Slide presentation

PRESENTATION Sub-Slab Vs. Near-Slab Soil Vapor Profiles at a Chlorinated Solvent Site (1) 01/30/2009
Swanson, G., J. Elliot, B. A. SCHUMACHER, J. H. ZIMMERMAN, AND B. Hartman. Sub-Slab Vs. Near-Slab Soil Vapor Profiles at a Chlorinated Solvent Site (1). Presented at Air & Waste Management Association, San Diego, CA, January 27 - 30, 2009.
Abstract: A critical issue in assessing the vapor intrusion pathway is the distribution and migration of VOCs from the subsurface source to the near surface environment. Of particular importance is the influence of a slab. Therefore, EPA/ORD is funding a research program with the primary goal of comparing vertical profiles of soil gas concentrations near a slab to concentration profiles under a slab. This paper presents the results of our initial investigations at one site; further research is planned.

PRESENTATION Sub-Slab Vs. Near-Slab Soil Vapor Profiles at a Chlorinated Solvent Site 01/30/2009
Swanson, G., J. Elliot, B. A. SCHUMACHER, J. H. ZIMMERMAN, AND B. Hartman. Sub-Slab Vs. Near-Slab Soil Vapor Profiles at a Chlorinated Solvent Site. Presented at Air & Waste Management Association, San Diego, CA, January 27 - 30, 2009.
Abstract: A critical issue in assessing the vapor intrusion pathway is the distribution and migration of VOCs from the subsurface source to the near surface environment. Therefore, EPA/ORD funded a research project with the primary goal of comparing vertical profiles of soil gas concentrations near a slab to concentration profiles under a slab.

PRESENTATION EPA's Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Program 01/26/2009
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G., W. G. KEPNER, AND M. WEBER. EPA's Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Program. Presented at 2009 EPA's Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Program Presentation, Tucson, AZ, January 26, 2009.
Abstract: EPA's Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) is studying ecosystem services and the benefits to human well-being provided by ecological services. As part of this research effort, the Southwest Ecosystem Services Research Program (SwESP) will identify and characterize the ecosystem services in the southwestern United States. These include services that supply water, protect water quality, protect against floods, support wildlife habitats, sequester carbon dioxide, (a greenhouse gas), and provide food and fiber. The southwestern landscape, particularly that of California, Nevada and Arizona, is highly diverse with significant portions of forest, rangeland, agriculture and deserts (i.e., Great Basin, Mohave Chihuahuan and Sonoran). The Southwestern United States has experienced a 1,500 percent population increase over the past 90 years which has placed pressure on the ecosystem services described above. The sustainability of these basic services is important to human health and well being, but they are limited and heavily impacted by humans. Research to protect, enhance and restore the many vital services provided by ecosystems is needed to support future growth and a sustainable environment. The Southwest Study is one of five community-based research projects by the ESRP conducted across the country to quantify the region’s ecosystem services and understand the human impact on those services. Understanding these interactions will help local decision makers understand the ecological costs and benefits of existing and proposed land management and growth policies. The study will have two over-lapping foci 1) the ecosystem services of the various landscapes that comprise the southwestern States, (i.e., California, Nevada and Arizona) and 2) the ecosystem services of specific study areas representative of the dominant land use types of the Southwest (e.g., San Pedro Watershed, AZ; San Luis Valley, NM). The goals of the Program are to collaborate with local, state, and federal governments, Tribes and other partners to accomplish the following: • Identify the dominant stressors that impact the southwestern United States. • Identify critical knowledge gaps in the ecological processes underlying ecosystem services. • Produce maps of ecosystem services in the Southwest based on current condition and available data. • Quantify linkages and trade-offs among bundles of ecosystem services in response to land use, climate and other variables. • Quantify the monetary and non-monetary value resulting in changes in ecosystem services due to an increase in human population and/or climate change. • Model the future responses of ecosystem services to probable future conditions. • Develop decision support tools to help decision makers in the Southwest apply the information and methods developed by this program. Using these products, decision makers can implement proactive policy and management decisions. These decisions will help ensure human well-being by conserving and enhancing ecosystem services.

PRESENTATION Electron Affinities of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Their Electron Capture Structures 01/16/2009
BETOWSKI, L. D., M. Enlow, AND D. H. Aue. Electron Affinities of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Their Electron Capture Structures. Presented at Lake Arrowhead Conference on Ion Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry, Lake Arrowhead, CA, January 16, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Low-Level Emerging Contaminants in Lake Havasu, Arizona and California and Their Access to Lake Havasu City's Drinking Water Supply 01/14/2009
Wilson, D. C. AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Low-Level Emerging Contaminants in Lake Havasu, Arizona and California and Their Access to Lake Havasu City's Drinking Water Supply. Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cycle includes Lake Havasu water (raw and treated well water), treated wastewater, and ambient groundwater where effluent injection and subsequent groundwater withdrawals will take place. The results from Lake Havasu (raw and treated) water analyses are discussed here. Grab samples were taken once a quarter over a year and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) at Southern Nevada Water Authority’s (SNWA) River Mountain Research facility and at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Las Vegas National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL). Several pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, dilantin, meprobamate, primidone, and sulfamethoxazole), the herbicide atrazine, and the insect repellant DEET, have been consistently present in ultra-low concentrations (ng/L range) in the Colorado River, above the urbanized areas of Lake Havasu, and in Lake Havasu’s Thompson Bay adjacent to Lake Havasu City. Further, the concentrations of these compounds at each of the two locations are comparable, and vary little seasonally. Several other compounds analyzed such as MDMA and TCEP, are more episodic. Raw source well water, which has filtered through at least 80 feet of subsurface gravels and sands below the lake bottom, contains six of the above compounds, of which, sulfamethoxazole is apparently extracted during the city’s biological manganese removal, potable water treatment process. Concentrations of the other five constituents in the finished treated water are a largely unchanged.

PRESENTATION Low-Level Emerging Contaminants in Lake Havasu, Arizona and California and Their Access to Lake Havasu City's Drinking Water Supply 01/14/2009
Wilson, D. C. AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Low-Level Emerging Contaminants in Lake Havasu, Arizona and California and Their Access to Lake Havasu City's Drinking Water Supply. Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials

PRESENTATION Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? 01/14/2009
Alvarez, D., T. L. JONES-LEPP, W. Cranor, S. Perkins, AND V. Schroeder. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? 01/14/2009
Alvarez, D. AND T. L. JONES-LEPP. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making It Through? Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas. This use-reuse practice is becoming commonplace in the arid Southwest and begs the question “Are organic contaminants, originating in the wastewater, ending up in the drinking water?” In 2005, a study was conducted using time-weighted passive sampling devices to track the occurrence of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents at two sites in Las Vegas Wash (LVW), one site near Hemingway Harbor in Lake Mead, and in finished drinking (tap) water within the City of Las Vegas. As predicted, the largest abundance and highest concentrations of targeted chemicals were present at the second site in LVW downstream of the confluence of three WWTP effluents. Two antibiotics, azithromycin and clindamycin, along with two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and Ecstasy, were measured in LVW along with numerous pesticides and chemicals indicative of WWTP effluents. Several pesticides were detected above background levels in the drinking water sample at concentrations of 10 to 97 pg/L. Data from the yeast estrogen screen (YES) correlated with the chemical measurements as the highest estrogenic potential was measured in samples from the LVW. Hemingway Harbor and the drinking water samples did not have a measurable estrogenicity above background levels.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in Waste Streams and Surface Waters of the Colorado River Basin 01/14/2009
Sanchez, C. A., T. L. JONES-LEPP, D. Wilson, AND D. Alvarez. Pharmaceuticals in Waste Streams and Surface Waters of the Colorado River Basin. Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in Waste Streams and Surface Waters of the Colorado River Basin 01/14/2009
Sanchez, C., T. L. JONES-LEPP, D. Wilson, AND D. Alvarez. Pharmaceuticals in Waste Streams and Surface Waters of the Colorado River Basin. Presented at Lake Mead Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, January 13 - 14, 2009.
Abstract: A number of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of selected pharmaceuticals (macrolidic antibiotics and pseudoephedrine) and illicit drugs (methamphetamine and Ecstasy) in surface waters of the Colorado River basin. Grab samples were collected spatially and temporally from waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters within the basin in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California. At selected locations we also used time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Grab samples were prepared for analysis using an automated extractor (AutoTrace, Caliper Life Sciences) with Oasis MCX cartridges (Waters Corp.), subsequently extracted with 5- mLs of 80:20:1 methyl tertbutyl ether/methanol/acetic acid, and 5 mLs 99:1 methanol/acetic acid, and reduced to 0.5 mL using an automated evaporator (TurboVap-Zymark, Caliper Life Sciences). Recovery of the analytes from the POCIS sorbent was achieved by transferring the sorbents into glass gravity- flow chromatography columns fitted with glass wool plugs and stopcocks. Methanol was used to elute the pharmaceuticals from the sorbent. All extracts were analyzed with a Varian 500MS ion trap mass spectrometer by performing real-time mass analyses of LC eluents. One or more of the pharmaceuticals and/or illicit drugs evaluated were found in urban waste streams at concentrations sometimes exceeding 500 ng/L. However, amounts found in the main surface water channels, including the Colorado River, were always below 10 ng/L and most frequently below detection.

PRESENTATION Macro-and Micro-Purge Soil Gas Sampling Methods for the Collection of Contaminated Vapors 01/13/2009
SCHUMACHER, B. A., J. H. ZIMMERMAN, C. R. SIBERT, K. E. VARNER, AND L. A. RIDDICK. Macro-and Micro-Purge Soil Gas Sampling Methods for the Collection of Contaminated Vapors. Presented at National Forum on Vapor Intrusion, Philadelphia, PA, January 12 - 13, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PUBLISHED REPORT Detection of Newly Deposited Sediments Via Frequency Response Measurements: Dredging Residuals Density Profiler (Drdp) 10/06/2009
Welp, T., M. Tubman, D. Wilson, P. T. Puckett, N. Greiser, AND B. A. SCHUMACHER. Detection of Newly Deposited Sediments Via Frequency Response Measurements: Dredging Residuals Density Profiler (Drdp). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/120, 2009.
Abstract: The laboratory evaluation of the DRDP summarized in this report was conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dr. Brian Schumacher of the EPA’s Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of the Office of Research and Development’s National Exposure Research Laboratory - Las Vegas (ESD-LV) is the Project Officer responsible for direction and oversight of the project. George Brilis, ESD-LV, is the Quality Assurance (QA) Manager responsible for ensuring that the project conforms to the quality standards set by the EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Vertical Distribution of Vocs in Soils from Groundwater to the Surface/Subslab 08/12/2009
SCHUMACHER, B. A., G. Swanson, J. Elliot, AND B. Hartman. Vertical Distribution of Vocs in Soils from Groundwater to the Surface/Subslab. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/073, 2009.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by ongress with protecting the nation’s natural resources. Under the mandate of national environmental laws, the EPA strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, the EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) provides data and scientific support that can be used to solve environmental problems, build the scientific knowledge base needed to manage ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect public health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is the Agency’s center for investigation of technical and management approaches for identifying and quantifying exposures to human health and the environment. Goals of the laboratory’s research program are to (1) develop and evaluate methods and technologies for characterizing and monitoring air, soil, and water; (2) support regulatory and policy decisions; and (3) provide the scientific support needed to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations and strategies. This report presents the activities, results, findings, and recommendations of sampling conducted from January through February, 2008 at Naval Air Station (NAS) Lemoore, Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 14 to investigate the vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gas from groundwater to the surface and subslab environments. This report was co-authored by Mr. James Elliot and Dr. Greg Swanson of Tetra Tech. The authors acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Brian Schumacher and Mr. John Zimmerman, the EPA task order project officer and co-project officer, in conducting key parts of the field work, providing guidance throughout the project, and providing insightful comments on the draft report. The author also acknowledge the tremendous support of Mr. Frank Nielson of the NAS Lemoore environmental staff, who facilitated access to IRP Site 14 to conduct the testing and provided logistical support and ongoing assistance with operations during the field sampling activities.

SUMMARY A National Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Using Mathematical Morphology 09/28/2009
WICKHAM, J. D. A National Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Using Mathematical Morphology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-09/029, 2009.
Abstract: Green infrastructure is a popular framework for conservation planning. The main elements of green infrastructure are hubs and links. Hubs tend to be large areas of natural vegetation and links tend to be linear features (e.g., streams) that connect hubs. Within the United States, green infrastructure projects can be characterized as: 1) reliant on classical geographic information system (GIS) techniques (e.g., overlay, buffering) for mapping; 2), mainly implemented by states and local jurisdictions, and; 3) static assessments that do not routinely incorporate information on land-cover change. We used morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) as a complementary way to map green infrastructure, extend the geographic scope to the conterminous United States, and incorporate land-cover change information. MSPA applies a series of image processing routines to a raster land-cover map to identify hubs, links, and related structural classes of land cover. We identified approximately 4,000 large (> 100 hubs) networks within the conterminous United States, of which 10 percent crossed state boundaries. We also identified a net loss of up to 1.76 million ha of links and 1.72 million ha of hubs between 1992 and 2001. Our national assessment provides a backbone that states could use to coordinate their green infrastructure projects, and our incorporation of change illustrates the importance of land-cover dynamics for green infrastructure planning and assessment.

 

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