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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2008

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2008, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 130 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change 12/09/2008
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. Semmens, M. Hernandez, AND D. C. Goodrich. Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change. Chapter 15, The North American Land Cover Summit . Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC, 275-292, (2008).
Abstract: It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in environmental condition using advanced spacebourne technologies accompanied by geospatial analyses of the remotely sensed data. There are numerous earth-observing satellite platforms for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-cover change; however, the traditional workhorses have been the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat has had a long history of commercial availability (first launch July 1972), a well developed global archive, and has been widely used for land-cover change detection and monitoring. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial-analysis technologies have been used to develop landscape information that can be integrated within hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. This article presents two studies in which future land-use scenarios were examined relative to their impact on surface-water conditions, e.g. sediment yield and surface runoff, using hydrologic models associated with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The base reference grid for land cover was modified in both study locations to reflect stakeholder preferences twenty to sixty years into the future and the consequences of landscape change were evaluated relative to the selected future scenarios. A third study utilized historical land-cover data to validate the approach and explore the uncertainty associated with scenario analysis. These studies provide examples of integrating modeling with advanced Earth-observing technology to produce information on trends and make plausible forecasts for the future from which to understand the impact of landscape change on ecological services.

BOOK CHAPTER Accumulation and Disposal of Leftover Medications: A Key Aspect of Pharmecovigilance 12/01/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. AND I. RUHOY. Accumulation and Disposal of Leftover Medications: A Key Aspect of Pharmecovigilance. , Chapter 5, S.Z. Rahman, M. Shahid, and V. Gupta (ed.), An Introduction to Environmental Pharmacology. Ibn Sina Academy, Aligarh, India, 101-107, (2008).
Abstract: In this paper, we focus on one of the aspects of pharmEcovigilance that has been receiving growing attention, especially in the U.S. — the accumulation and disposal of unwanted, leftover medications. The magnitude of drug stockpiling and accumulation, and eventual disposal of leftover drugs by consumers serves as a multidimensional measure of the effectiveness of pharmEcovigilance — the greater the magnitude and extent, the less its effectiveness; accumulation and disposal of drugs would indicate failure of a pharmEcovigilance program. It can also serve as a surrogate measure of the efficiency and efficacy of healthcare, and is a major factor in the healthcare footprint. Wastage of medications not only maximizes the ability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to enter the environment (with largely unknown consequences), it also directly reflect an inefficient aspect of administration of healthcare, possible non-optimal therapeutic outcomes, and the likelihood that drugs can be diverted to others for unintended purposes (leading to drug abuse and accidental poisonings).

BOOK CHAPTER Formal Scenario Development for Environmental Impact Assessment Studies 11/15/2008
LIU, Y., M. MAHMOUD, H. HARTMANN, S. STEWART, T. WAGENER, D. J. SEMMENS, R. STEWART, H. GUPTA, D. DOMINGUEZ, D. HULSE, R. LETCHER, B. RASHLEIGH, R. STREET, J. TICEHURST, M. TWERY, H. VAN DELDEN, R. WALDICK, D. WHITE, L. WINTER, AND C. SMITH. Formal Scenario Development for Environmental Impact Assessment Studies. , Chapter 9, A. Jakeman, A. Voinov, A. Rizzoli, and S. Chen (ed.), Environmental Modelling, Software and Decision Support. Elsevier Science, New York, NY, 145-162, (2008).
Abstract: Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible (though not equally likely) outcomes (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision-making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation of possible outcomes and their implications. For environmental impact assessment studies, the process of scenario development typically involves making explicit and/or implicit assumptions about potential future conditions, such as climate change, land cover and land use changes, population growth, economic development, and technological changes. Realistic assessment of scenario impacts often requires complex integrated modeling frameworks that represent environmental and socio-economic systems to the best of our knowledge, including assumptions about plausible future conditions. In addition, scenarios have to be developed in a context relevant to the stakeholders involved, and include estimation and communication of uncertainties, to establish transparency, credibility, and relevance of scenario results among the stakeholders. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of scenario development and analysis, proposes a formal approach to scenario development in environmental studies, discusses existing issues, and makes some recommendations for future research in this area.

BOOK CHAPTER Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa)Documentation Version 2.0 08/08/2008
Mouat, D. A. AND W. G. KEPNER. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa)Documentation Version 2.0. , Chapter 5, Science for Peace and Security Series. Springer Netherlands, , Netherlands, 461-469, (2008).
Abstract: What are the human impacts of environmental change? How might land be used and what would be the potential benefits or consequences? Numerous questions arise as the world we know becomes smaller in our perception and the human population it supports becomes more dependent on the circumstances of a globalized economy. Increasingly, technology makes information instant and accessible to many. A first premise of the concept of security is that protection of human life from environmental, economic, food, health, personal, and political threats is a vital core value. A second argument is that actions that guard against environmental degradation represent a key element to security by ensuring sustainable resources and the continuation of providing ecosystem services that sustain human well-being. The human element of these premises, often partitioned as human security, and the ecosystem element is typically thought of as environmental security; both concepts, nonetheless, are so intrinsically interlinked that one term does not usually occur without the other.

COMMUNICATION PRODUCT Quick Overview Scout 2008 Version 1.0 12/10/2008
Singh, A. AND J. M. NOCERINO. Quick Overview Scout 2008 Version 1.0. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, EPA/600/F-08/016, 2008.
Abstract: The Scout 2008 version 1.0 statistical software package has been updated from past DOS and Windows versions to provide classical and robust univariate and multivariate graphical and statistical methods that are not typically available in commercial or freeware statistical software packages. Scout 2008 version 1.0 runs under the Microsoft Windows XP operating system (see the section on “Software used to develop Scout 2008” for details). Scout 2008 includes the latest state-of-the science classical, robust, and resistant univariate and multivariate outlier identification and robust estimation methods available, including: iterative classical, iterative influence function (e.g., biweight, Huber, PROP) based M-estimates, multivariate trimming (MVT), least medianof- squared residuals (LMS) regression, and minimum covariance determinant (MCD). Scout 2008 offers classical and robust methods to estimate: multivariate location and scale, univariate intervals, multiple linear regression parameters, principal components (PCs), and discriminant (Fisher, linear, and quadratic) functions (DFs). The discriminant analysis module of Scout 2008 can perform cross validation using several methods, including: leave-one-out (LOO), split samples, and bootstrap methods. Some initial choices for the iterative estimation of location and scale include: the orthogonalized Kettenring and Gnanadesikan (OKG) method; median, median absolute deviation (MAD), or inter-quartile range (IQR) based estimates; and the MCD method.

COMMUNICATION PRODUCT Collaborative Research: Streamflow, Urban Riparian Zones, Bmps, and Impervious Surfaces 02/29/2008
JARNAGIN, S. Collaborative Research: Streamflow, Urban Riparian Zones, Bmps, and Impervious Surfaces. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/F-08/001, 2008.
Abstract: The U.S. EPA Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina is currently conducting collaborative landscape/stream ecology research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area and are outlined in yellow on the upper-left of Figure 1. The CSPA is an area of rapid development that we expect will be built out within the next five to ten years. The Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been monitoring stream biology and chemistry in the area streams for a decade and the CSPA involves the use of best management practices (BMPs) that are designed to limit the impact of development on water resources.

ETV DOCUMENT Use of Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Tracking Hazardous Waste Shipments Across International Borders-Test/QA Plan 03/29/2008
VARNER, K. E. Use of Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Tracking Hazardous Waste Shipments Across International Borders-Test/QA Plan. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/027, 2008.
Abstract: The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) – Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluations (ESTE) Program conducts third-party verification testing of commercially available technologies that may accomplish environmental program management goals. In this verification testing project, radio frequency identification (RFID) systems will be evaluated in a unique application of the technology for tracking hazardous waste or hazardous material (HAZMAT) shipments from generator to receiver, across international borders. A stakeholder committee of vendors, buyers, users and federal agencies guided the development of this verification project plan to ensure that testing of the RFID systems is conducted under realistic conditions. This Test and Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) describes the verification program for evaluating RFID systems to track cross-border hazardous waste shipments. The document explains the program background, the experimental design and cross-border HAZMAT shipment scenarios, selected vendor approaches for RFID systems, methods and evaluation criteria for testing vendors’ RFID systems, project quality assurance objectives, data review and management, health and safety, and security requirements for verification testing.

JOURNAL Macro-Micro-Purge Soil Gas Sampling Methods for the Collection of Contaminant Vapors 12/15/2008
SCHUMACHER, B. A., J. H. ZIMMERMAN, C. R. SIBERT, K. E. VARNER, AND L. A. RIDDICK. Macro-Micro-Purge Soil Gas Sampling Methods for the Collection of Contaminant Vapors. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND REMEDIATION. National Ground Water Association, Westerville, OH, 29(1):138-143, (2009).
Abstract: Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollow 3.2 cm outer diameter (OD) drive probe with a retractable sampling point attached to an appropriate length of 0.48 cm inner diameter (ID) Teflon tubing. The macro-purge sampling system had a purge line volume of 24.5 mL at a 1 m depth. In contrast, the micro-purge sampling systems consisted of a 1.27 cm OD drive rod with a 0.10 ID stainless steel tube or a 3.2 cm OD drive rod with a 0.0254 cm inner diameter stainless steel tubing resulting in purge line volumes of 1.2 mL and 7.05 mL at 1 m depths, respectively. At each site and location within the site, with a few exceptions, the same contaminants were identified in the same relative order of abundances indicating the sampling of the same general soil atmosphere. However, marked differences in VOC concentrations were identified between the sampling systems with micro-purge samples having between 2 and 27 times greater concentrations than their corresponding macro-purge samples. The higher concentrations are the result of a minimal disturbance of the ambient soil atmosphere during purging. The minimal soil gas atmospheric disturbance of the micro-purge sampling system allowed for the collection of a sample that is more representative of the soil atmosphere surrounding the sampling point. That is, a sample that is not reliant upon the recharge from some unknown zone around the sampling point, or residual atmosphere, and which the soil atmosphere is potentially more representative of the equilibrium soil gas concentrations. It is, thus, recommended that when soil gas sampling is required, that the sampling system uses the smallest practical ID soil gas tubing to obtain the soil gas sample so that proper decisions, based on more representative soil gas concentrations, about the site can be made.

JOURNAL The Afterlife of Drugs and the Role of Pharmecovigilance 12/01/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. AND I. RUHOY. The Afterlife of Drugs and the Role of Pharmecovigilance. Drug Safety. Wolters Kluwer Health, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 31(12):1069-1082, (2008).
Abstract: The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The healthcare industry has an environmental footprint because the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals enter the environment as pollutants by a variety of routes, primarily from excretion, bathing, and disposal. Although most of these bioactive chemicals enter the environment at very low concentrations, they nevertheless have the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms such as by modulation of hormonal signaling systems. Ultimately, these chemicals can be inadvertently "recycled" via contamination of drinking water and foods, leading to unexpected and inappropriate human exposure. A broad spectrum of actions can be taken by physicians and the healthcare community at large to reduce the release and introduction of medication ingredients to the environment. Most significantly, however, nearly any action taken to reduce their introduction to the environment can also have collateral benefits regarding the cost and quality of healthcare and therapeutic outcomes. Existing pharmacovigilance monitoring programs designed to detect and prevent adverse drug reactions could be expanded to also focus on the adverse impacts from drugs in the environment. Such a program has been termed pharmEcovigilance. A major reason for the medical community to implement a pharmEcovigilance program - - beyond reducing its environmental footprint - -could be the previously unforeseen benefits in optimization of delivery, effectiveness, and cost of healthcare.

JOURNAL Envisioning the Future for Ecosystems and People 12/01/2008
KEPNER, W. G., R. L. BAILY, AND D. Goodrich. Envisioning the Future for Ecosystems and People. EM: AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS MAGAZINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 36-37, (2008).
Abstract: “In nature there are neither rewards nor punishments – there are only consequences,” was a thought penned in 1899 by attorney R.G. Ingersoll. That may no longer be a common perception among those who believe that we receive many life-sustaining benefits from nature: clean air and water, and fertile soil for food and fiber. Water is among the life-sustaining benefits that are included in the group of ecosystem services provided to us by the natural processes and intricacies of our environment. In the 20th and 21st centuries, policymakers, water resource managers, and scientists realized the value of ecosystem services to human health and well being. We’ve also come to realize that ecosystem services are limited and that they are often undervalued or treated as being free. Instinctively, and through science, we are learning that this may not be the case.

JOURNAL Designing a Multi-Objective Multi-Support Accuracy Assessment of the 2001 National Land Cover Data (Nlcd 2001) of the Conterminous United States 12/01/2008
STEHMAN, S., J. D. WICKHAM, T. G. WADE, AND J. SMITH. Designing a Multi-Objective Multi-Support Accuracy Assessment of the 2001 National Land Cover Data (Nlcd 2001) of the Conterminous United States. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, 74(12):1561-1571, (2008).
Abstract: The database design and diverse application of NLCD 2001 pose significant challenges for accuracy assessment because numerous objectives are of interest, including accuracy of land cover, percent urban imperviousness, percent tree canopy, land-cover composition, and net change. A multisupport approach is needed because these objectives require spatial units of different sizes for reference data collection and analysis. Determining a sampling design that meets the full suite of desirable objectives for the NLCD 2001 accuracy assessment requires reconciling potentially conflicting design features that arise from targeting the different objectives. Multi-stage cluster sampling provides the general structure to achieve a multi-support assessment, and the flexibility to target different objectives at different stages of the design. We describe the implementation of two-stage cluster sampling for the initial phase of the NLCD 2001 assessment, and identify gaps in existing knowledge where research is needed to allow full implementation of a multi-objective, multi-support assessment.

JOURNAL Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection Analysis on Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda) Following Complete Understory Removal 11/12/2008
IIAMES, J. S., R. CONGALTON, A. N. PILANT, AND T. E. LEWIS. Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection Analysis on Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda) Following Complete Understory Removal. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, 74(11):1389 - 1400, (2008).
Abstract: The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantcodominant crown class from that of the understory, two P. taeda 1-ha plots centered in planted
stands of ages 19 and 23 years with similar crown closures (70%) were analyzed for in situ LAI and NDVI differences following a complete understory removal at the peak period of LAI. Understory vegetation was removed from both stands via mechanical harvest and herbicide application in late July and early August 2002. IKONOS data was acquired both prior and subsequent to understory removal and were evaluated for NDVI response. Total vegetative biomass removed under the canopies was estimated using the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) instrument combined with digital hemispherical photography (DHP). The

Virginia site results showed that the percentage of removed understory (LAI) detected by the IKONOS sensor was 4.7% when compared to an actual in situ LAI reduction of 9.9%. The North Carolina site results showed a smaller percentage of understory LAI detected by the IKONOS

sensor (1.0%) when compared to the actual LAI reduction as measured in situ (17.6%).

JOURNAL Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability to Hazardous Air Pollutants in the Southeast United States 10/16/2008
MEHAFFEY, M. H., R. Tankersley, L. MILLER, AND E. R. SMITH. Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability to Hazardous Air Pollutants in the Southeast United States. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS, 5(1):150-157, (2008).
Abstract: Long term protection and maintenance of ecological communities and populations must consider the affect of atmospheric pollutants in addition to stressers that occur on the ground. We describe a technique for identifying species ranges and ecosystems across the landscape where there could be potential affects from air toxics releases. We modified the ranking equations from the Chemical Scoring and Ranking Assessment Model (SCRAM) to come up with a weighted relative toxicity value. The model combines toxicity rankings from SCRAM, chemical ambient air concentration data from the Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN) model, and species richness data from the Southeastern GAP (SE-GAP) project. The final output was a 30m pixel grid of potential vulnerability to HAPs exposure. We found that the model, in general, resulted in a halo affect around major urban areas with values decreasing with concentric distance from the urban center. However, those areas having high acreage of Federal, State and locally protected lands were also highlighted by the models added weight for species richness. Since the final toxicity maps were in a raster format the data can be aggregated into any number of assessment units for use by multiple levels of decision makers including Federal and State entities who want to compare relative toxicity exposures across a region and local groups who want to evaluate the vulnerability of lands under their management.

JOURNAL An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using An Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS 09/30/2008
GRANGE, A. H. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using An Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS. AMERICAN LABORATORY. International Scientific Communications, Shelton, CT, 40(16):11-13, (2008).
Abstract: A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler provides analyses of 76 swabs in 7.5 min. The field sample carrier simplifies sample collection and provides the cotton swabs nearly ready for analysis upon receipt. These devices were easily fabricated from less than $350 worth of materials using a 10" table saw, 10" drill press, and small combination lathe and mill. In addition, ion correlation software based on exact masses and relative isotopic abundances was written to deconvolute composite mass spectra that occur in the absence of prior component separation.

JOURNAL Beyond the Medicine Cabinet: An Analysis of Where and Why Medications Accumulate 09/19/2008
RUHOY, I. S. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Beyond the Medicine Cabinet: An Analysis of Where and Why Medications Accumulate. ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 34(8):1157-1169, (2008).
Abstract: Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from medications can enter the environment as trace contaminants, at individual concentrations generally below a part per billion (μg/L). APIs enter the environment primarily via the discharge of raw and treated sewage. Residues of unmetabolized APIs from parenteral and enteral drugs are excreted in feces and urine, and topically applied medications are washed from skin during bathing. These trace residues may pose risks for aquatic life and cause concern with regard to subsequent human exposure. APIs also enter the environment from the disposal of unwanted medications directly to sewers and trash. The relative significance of this route compared with excretion and bathing is poorly understood and has been subject to much speculation. Two major aspects of uncertainty exist: the percentage of any particular API in the environment originating from disposal is unknown, and disposal undoubtedly occurs from a variety of dispersed sources. Sources of disposal, along with the types and quantities of APIs resulting from each source, are important to understand so that effective pollution prevention approaches can be designed and implemented. Accumulation of leftover, unwanted drugs poses three major concerns: (i) APIs disposed to sewage or trash compose a diverse source of potential chemical stressors in the environment. (ii) Accumulated drugs represent increased potential for drug diversion, with its attendant risks of unintentional poisonings and abuse. (iii) Leftover drugs represent wasted healthcare resources and lost opportunities for medical treatment. This paper has four major purposes: (1) Define the processes, actions, and behaviors that control and drive the consumption, accumulation, and need for disposal of pharmaceuticals. (2) Provide an overview of the diverse locations where drugs are used and accumulate. (3) Present a summary of the first cataloging of APIs disposed by a defined subpopulation. (4) Identify opportunities for pollution prevention and source reduction.

JOURNAL Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for Pcdd/Pcdf 09/18/2008
Schrock, M., A. Dindal, N. Iroz-Elardo, AND S. BILLETS. Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for Pcdd/Pcdf. CHEMOSPHERE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 90(2):1289-1295, (2008).
Abstract: Generating analytical data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) using the traditional high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis method, EPA Method 1613B, is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, alternative methods to determine PCDD/PCDF are of great interest to regulatory agencies. This work compares results generated using several different approaches for screening sediment and soil samples for dioxin toxicity equivalents (TEQD/F) to results using traditional EPA Method 1613B on samples obtained for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Monitoring and Measurement Technologies Program. Screening approaches evaluated included EPA Method 1613B modified with respect to extraction technique, secondcolumn confirmation of 2,3,7,8-tetrchlorodibenzofuran, sample size, and dilution of highlevel samples into the calibration range in order to reduce the cost of analysis (referred to as “modified 1613B”); low resolution mass spectrometry analysis (LRMS) of extracts which had been prepared for HRMS analysis; and total organic carbon (TOC) determination using EPA Method 9060A. TOC is a relatively inexpensive analytical technique which has been proposed as a possible indicator of PCDD/PCDF concentration due to the affinity of PCDD/PCDF to bind to organic carbon. TEQD/F values generated from the modified 1613B and LRMS analyses had a strong linear correlation to the TEQD/F values generated using EPA Method 1613B (R2 values = 0.99) making these approaches viable candidates for screening for TEQDF concentrations. Log transformed data for TOC had significantly weaker correlation to TEQD/F (R2 = 0.30) indicating that TOC would not be a reliable indicator of TEQD/F concentrations.

JOURNAL Temporal Change in Fragmentation of Continental US Forests 09/09/2008
WICKHAM, J. D., K. H. Ritters, T. G. WADE, AND C. Homer. Temporal Change in Fragmentation of Continental US Forests. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY. Springer, New York, NY, 23:891-898, (2008).
Abstract: Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US. Early and late dates for the land-cover change data were ca. 1992 and ca. 2001. Forest density was used as a multi-scale index of fragmentation by measuring the proportion of forest in neighborhoods ranging in size from 2.25 to 5314.41 hectares. The multi-scale forest density maps were classified using thresholds of 40% (patch), 60% (dominant), and 90% (interior) to analyze temporal change of fragmentation. The loss of dominant and interior forest showed distinct scale effects, whereas loss of patch forest was much less scale-dependent. Dominant forest loss doubled from the smallest to the largest spatial scale, while interior forest loss increased by approximately 80% from the smallest to the second largest spatial scale, then decreased somewhat. At the largest spatial scale, losses of dominant and interior forest were 5% and 10%, respectively, of their ca. 1992 amounts. In contrast, patch forest loss increased by only 25% from the smallest to largest spatial scale. These results indicate that continental US forests were sensitive to forest loss because of their already fragmented state. Forest loss would have had to occur in an unlikely spatial pattern in order to avoid the proportionately greater impact on dominant and interior forest at larger spatial scales.

JOURNAL Multi-Scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon 08/30/2008
NASH, M. S., D. T. HEGGEM, D. W. EBERT, T. G. WADE, AND R. K. HALL. Multi-Scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. Springer, New York, NY, 145:343-360, (2008).
Abstract: Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattle may affect surface water quality directly by depositing nutrients and bacteria, and indirectly by damaging stream banks or removing vegetation cover, which may lead to increased sediment loads. This study used the State of Oregon surface water data to determine the likelihood of animal pathogen presence using enterococci and analyzed the spatial distribution and relationship of biotic (enterococci) and abiotic (nitrogen and phosphorous) surface water constituents to landscape metrics and others (e.g. human use, percent riparian cover, natural covers, grazing, etc.). We used a grazing potential index (GPI) based on proximity to water, land ownership and forage availability. Mean and variability of GPI, forage availability, stream density and length, and landscape metrics were related to enterococci and many forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in standard and logistic regression models. The GPI did not have a significant role in the models, but forage related variables had significant contribution. Urban land use within stream reach was the main driving factor when exceeding the threshold (≥35 cfu/100 ml), agriculture was the driving force in elevating enterococci in sites where enterococci concentration was < 35 cfu/100 ml. Landscape metrics related to amount of agriculture, wetlands and urban all contributed to increasing nutrients in surface water but at different scales. The probability of having sites with concentrations of enterococci above the threshold was much lower in areas of natural land cover and much higher in areas with higher urban land use within 60m of stream. A one percent increase in natural land cover was associated with a 12% decrease in the predicted odds of having a site exceeding the threshold. Opposite to natural land cover, a one unit change in each of manmade barren and urban land use led to an increase of the likelihood of exceeding the threshold by 73%, and 11%, respectively. Change in urban land use had a higher influence on the likelihood of a site exceeding the threshold than that of natural land cover.

JOURNAL Experimental Design Considerations When Verifying the Performance of Monitoring Technologies for Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soils and Sediments 08/30/2008
Dindal, A. AND S. BILLETS. Experimental Design Considerations When Verifying the Performance of Monitoring Technologies for Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soils and Sediments. CHEMOSPHERE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 73(1):S66-S71, (2008).
Abstract: A performance verification demonstration of technologies capable of detecting dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment samples was conducted in April 2004 under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. A demonstration plan was developed with input from the participating technology developers who were part of an advisory panel convened to provide technical guidance for this test. The development of the experimental design began with the framework traditionally used for testing field analytical monitoring technologies under the SITE MMT Program, but various unique aspects of the participating technologies and the expected applications for these technologies necessitated modification of several elements of the traditional design. These critical experimental design considerations are described in this manuscript, along with issues encountered and the remedies that were developed. A summary of the performance data for each technology tested is also presented.

JOURNAL Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption Within the Japanese and Korean Communities 08/30/2008
Tsuchiya, A., T. A. HINNERS, T. M. Burbacher, E. M. Faustman, AND K. Marien. Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption Within the Japanese and Korean Communities. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 71(15):1019-1031, (2008).
Abstract: Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent of contamination within various fish species consumed by populations of concern and the extent of exposure to contamination by these populations. As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study involving the Japanese and Korean communities, it was possible to obtain fish intake data, determine mercury (Hg) fish-tissue concentrations for various species consumed, and examine hair for Hg levels of study participants. This longitudinal study (n= 214) included 106 Japanese and 108 Korean women of childbearing age. Hair-Hg levels for the two populations and weight-normalized, species-specific, individual-consumption pattern data that estimated Hg intake levels, were compared with published National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Sensitivity analyses and population specific probabilistic assessments of exposure were conducted. The estimated Hg intake levels for the Japanese (0.09 μg/kg/day) and Koreans (0.05 μg/kg/day) were above the NHANES estimates (0.02 μg/kg/day) as were the hair-Hg levels (1.23, 0.61, 0.2 ppm, respectively). Results indicate that: (1) there are significant differences between the fish-species-consumption behavior of these two populations; (2) even when fish-consumption rates are equal between two populations, Hg intakes between them can vary significantly; and (3) these population and Hg intake differences present public health challenges when attempting to provide fish consumption guidance.

JOURNAL Gc/Hrsir as a Complementary Technique to Gc/Ecnims 07/05/2008
BRUMLEY, W. C. Gc/Hrsir as a Complementary Technique to Gc/Ecnims. Indian S Press (Environmental Science/An Indian Journal). Trade Science Inc., Gujarat, India, 3(3):429, (2008).
Abstract: Gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNIMS) is a highly selective and sensitive technique for the analysis of appropriate analytes in complex matrices. Its major drawback is often the lack of fragmentation indicative of structure that can be used to confirm the identity of the analyte. Recourse to low resolution EI selected ion recording (SIR) at low resolution can be tried to validate the methodology with additional specificity, but then the selectivity loss relative to ECNIMS and the presence of complex matrix interferences may require additional cleanup that was not needed for GC/ECNIMS. One solution is to use high resolution mass spectrometry as GC/HRSIR to provide the selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity needed to validate the GC/ECNIMS method that will be used for the bulk of the analyses by providing the needed specificity. Several examples are given as to how well this works in practice.

JOURNAL Assessing Vulnerabilities from Alternative Development Patterns 07/03/2008
MEHAFFEY, M. H., L. WAINGER, T. G. WADE, D. YANKEE, E. R. SMITH, V. BOTT, AND R. YARBOURGH. Assessing Vulnerabilities from Alternative Development Patterns. LANDSCAPE AND URBAN PLANNING. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 87(1):83-94, (2008).
Abstract: Planners in a rapidly urbanizing area must take into account trade offs between multiple environmental issues of concern. A 15-county region centered on Charlotte, North Carolina, is experiencing a boom in growth resulting in both air and water quality concerns. In this paper, we examine changes to environmental and socio-economic factors across the region between two contrasting alternative future scenarios of land use development. We compared high and medium density growth scenarios and found that the high density scenario resulted in improved landscape quality in most counties, as measured by a series of metrics. Those counties not demonstrating county level differences between scenarios, Mecklenburg, NC and York, SC, still had several watersheds within each county that were less vulnerable to habitat and water quality impacts under the high density scenario. High density development achieved through creation of distinct urban centers (compact centers scenario) was associated with higher phosphorus and sediment loads in watersheds that contained the urban centers. In contrast, the greater land consumption associated with the medium density scenario consumed nutrientgenerating agricultural lands, resulting in lower nitrogen loading. Increased density was estimated to generate lower expenditures for county governments, but also potentially lower revenues if multi-unit houses are valued at current market rates, leading to overall less favorable fiscal results with the high density scenario for all but the most urbanized county. We found that incorporating spatial dynamics in our assessment of the region provided a way to evaluate future patterns under different alternative growth scenarios. In addition, we found that by using two different reporting units (e.g. regional and local), decisions on where to target development and resources for maximizing benefits to both the economy and environment could be refined.

JOURNAL Intercomparison of Near-Real-Time Biomass Burning Emissions Estimates Constrained By Satellite Fire Data 05/30/2008
Al-Saadi, J., A. Soja, B. Pierce, J. SZYKMAN, C. Wiedinmyer, L. Emmons, S. Kondragunta, X. Zhang, C. Kittaka, T. Schaack, AND K. Bowman. Intercomparison of Near-Real-Time Biomass Burning Emissions Estimates Constrained By Satellite Fire Data. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. SPIE/International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 2(2):1-24, (2008).
Abstract: We compare biomass burning emissions estimates from four different techniques that use satellite based fire products to determine area burned over regional to global domains. Three of the techniques use active fire detections from polar-orbiting MODIS sensors and one uses detections and instantaneous fire size estimates from geostationary GOES sensors. Each technique uses a different approach for estimating trace gas and particulite emissions from active fires. Here we evaluate monthly area burned and CO emission estimates for most of 2006 over the contiguous United States domain common to all four techniques. Two techniques provide global estimates and these are also compared. Overall we find consistency in temporal evolution and spatial patterns but differences in these monthly estimates can be as large as a factor of 10. One set of emission estimates is evaluated by comparing model CO predictions with satellite observations over regions where biomass burning is significant. These emissions are consistent with observations over the US but have a high bias in three out of four regions of large tropical burning. The large-scale evaluations of the magnitudes and characteristics of the differences presented here are a necessary first step toward an ultimate goal of reducing the large uncertainties in biomass burning emission estimates, thereby enhancing environmental monitoring and prediction capabilities.

JOURNAL Automated Determination of Precursor Ion, Product Ion, and Neutral Loss Compositions and Deconvolution of Composite Mass Spectra Using Ion Correlation Based on Exact Masses and Relative Isotopic Abundances 05/30/2008
GRANGE, A. H. AND G. SOVOCOOL. Automated Determination of Precursor Ion, Product Ion, and Neutral Loss Compositions and Deconvolution of Composite Mass Spectra Using Ion Correlation Based on Exact Masses and Relative Isotopic Abundances. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 22:2375-2390, (2008).
Abstract: After a dispersive event, rapid determination of elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra is essential for tentatively identifying compounds. A Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)® ion source interfaced to a JEOL AccuTOF® mass spectrometer provided exact masses accurate to within 2 mDa for most ions in full scan mass spectra and relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) accurate to within 15-20% for abundant isotopic ions. To speed determination of the correct composition for precursor ions and most product ions and neutral losses, a three-part software suite was developed. Starting with text files of m/z ratios and their mass peak areas from mass spectra acquired at low, moderate, and high collision energies, the Ion Extraction Program (IEP) compiled lists for the most abundant monoisotopic ions of their exact masses and the RIAs of the +1 and +2 isotopic peaks when area thresholds were met; precursor ions; and higher-mass, precursor-related ions. The Ion Correlation Program (ICP) determined if a precursor ion composition could yield a product ion and corresponding neutral loss compositions for each product ion in turn. The Input and Output Program (IOP) provided the ICP with each precursor ion:product ion pair for multiple sets of error limits and prepared correlation lists for single or multiple precursor ions. The software determined the correct precursor ion compositions for 21 individual standards and for three- and seven-component mixtures. Partial deconvolution of composite mass spectra was achieved based on exact masses and RIAs, rather than on chromatography.

JOURNAL Even the Upper End of the River Believes in the Ocean1 05/01/2008
LOPEZ, R. D., M. S. NASH, D. T. HEGGEM, AND D. W. EBERT. Even the Upper End of the River Believes in the Ocean1. EM: AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS MAGAZINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 58(5):20-21, (2008).
Abstract: This article describes unique research that demonstrates how changes in the landscape impact water quality. To provide resource managers with tools, techniques, and information that helps improve understanding about how the landscape that surrounds a watershed impacts the quality of the water, scientists at EPA develop interactive maps that describes these landscape functions, at a regional scale.

JOURNAL An Inexpensive Autosampler to Maximize Throughput for An Ion Source That Samples Surfaces in Open Air 04/30/2008
GRANGE, A. H. An Inexpensive Autosampler to Maximize Throughput for An Ion Source That Samples Surfaces in Open Air. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS 9(2 & 3):127-136, (2008).
Abstract: An autosampler was built to pull cotton swab heads mounted into a 3-foot long, square Al rod in ambient air through the He ionizing beam of a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source interfaced to an orthogonal acceleration, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cost of the N-scale model railroad components, motor, wooden support structure, and other materials was less than $250. For five sets of 76 swabs (72 dipped into one of three analyte solutions and four into a PEG calibrant solution) %RSDs of 18.5% to 21.3% were obtained for the chromatographic peak areas from each swab in the ion chromatograms of the protonated molecular ions. Maximum to minimum ratios of the areas were between 2.22 and 2.71. An optimum speed of 0.2 cm/s provided mass spectra for all 76 swabs in a single data file acquired in 7.5 min. Mass calibration against mass spectra from the PEG swabs in positions 1, 26, 51 and 76 provided exact masses of analyte ions always accurate to within 1 mmu and usually accurate to within 0.5 mmu.

JOURNAL Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields 04/30/2008
WICKHAM, J. D., T. G. WADE, AND K. Riitters. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 42(2):223-231, (2008).
Abstract: Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act.

JOURNAL Evaluation of Analytical Reporting Errors Generated as Described in Sw-846 Method 8261a 04/15/2008
HIATT, M. H. Evaluation of Analytical Reporting Errors Generated as Described in Sw-846 Method 8261a. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 13(4-5):247-254, (2008).
Abstract: SW-846 Method 8261A incorporates the vacuum distillation of analytes from samples, and their recoveries are characterized by internal standards. The internal standards measure recoveries with confidence intervals as functions of physical properties. The frequency the calculated confidence intervals captured a known concentration was very close to theoretical predictions. The ruggedness of the Method's generation of confidence intervals was tested by analyzing water samples that were altered using salt, glycerin, oil, and detergent as well as increasing sample volume size. Quality control requirements were established for identifying when results might not be normally distributed. There were 11,260 analyte results, of which 90.8% of the data passed quality controls. Their distribution about true value was near theoretical values (71.3, 95.0, and 99.2% for one, two and three sigma deviations).

JOURNAL Intercomparison of Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet) No3 and Hno3 Measurements With Data from Other Monitoring Programs 02/12/2008
Lavery, T., C. Rogers, R. E. BAUMGARDNER, AND K. Mishoe. Intercomparison of Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet) No3 and Hno3 Measurements With Data from Other Monitoring Programs. JOURNAL OF AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 59:214-226, (2008).
Abstract: The EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) utilizes an open face filter pack system to measure concentrations of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen species. The purpose of this study was to estimate the uncertainty in seasonal and annual concentrations of HNO3, NO3 - , and NH4 +. Data from CASTNET, other monitoring networks, and inter-comparison studies were used to investigate the hypothesis that under certain conditions a fraction of the ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) collected on the Teflon® filter dissociates into HNO3 and ammonia resulting in an overestimate of HNO3 concentrations and an underestimate of particulate NO3 -. Measurements of nitrogen species from the Maryland Aerosol Research and Characterization (MARCH) monitoring site at Ford Meade, MD were compared with nitrogen concentrations at three nearby CASTNET sites. Results indicate that CASTNET measured higher particulate NO3- and lower gaseous HNO3 concentrations although total nitrogen (HNO3+NO3-+NH4+) measurements were comparable. Comparisons of particulate nitrate measurements from 34 collocated CASTNET and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites show that CASTNET nitrate measurements were typically higher than the corresponding IMPROVE values, although the site-to-site variability was considerable. While CASTNET uses an open face filter pack, both the MARCH and IMPROVE samplers have a size selective particle inlet.

JOURNAL An Indicator of Forest Dynamics Using a Shifting Landscape Mosaic 02/03/2008
Riitters, K., J. D. WICKHAM, AND T. G. WADE. An Indicator of Forest Dynamics Using a Shifting Landscape Mosaic. F. Muller (ed.), ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 8(6):1-11, (2008).
Abstract: The composition of a landscape is a fundamental indicator in land-cover pattern assessments. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a landscape composition indicator called ‘landscape mosaic’ as a framework for interpreting land-cover dynamics over a 9-year period in a 360,000 km2 study area in the southern United States. The indicator classified a land parcel into one of 19 possible landscape mosaic classes according to the proportions of natural, developed, and agriculture land-cover types in a surrounding 4.41-ha neighborhood. Using land-cover maps from remote sensing, the landscape mosaics were calculated for each 0.09-ha pixel in the study area in 1996 and 2005. Mosaic transition matrices estimated from the pixel change data were then used to develop two Markov chain models. A ‘‘landscape mosaic’’ model was a temporal model of the shifting landscape mosaic, based on the probability of landscape mosaic change for all pixels. A ‘‘forest security’’ model was the same, except that the Markov states were defined by both the landscape mosaic and the land-cover of each pixel, which allowed interpreting forest land-cover dynamics in the context of a shifting landscape mosaic. In the forest security model, the overall percentage of forest decreased from 33% in 2005 to 17% at steady-state, and there was little change in the relative distribution of existing forest area among landscape mosaic classes. In contrast, the landscape mosaic steady-state was reached later, and indicated that a maximum of 10% of total area was available for forest. The implication was that forest security depended ultimately on the dynamics of the landscape mosaics that contained forest, not on forest dynamics within those landscape mosaics.

JOURNAL Recovery Potential as a Means of Prioritizing Restoration of Waters Identified as Impaired Under the Clean Water Act 01/18/2008
WICKHAM, J. D. AND D. J. NORTON. Recovery Potential as a Means of Prioritizing Restoration of Waters Identified as Impaired Under the Clean Water Act. Water Practice. Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA, 21(1):1-11, (2008).
Abstract: The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systematic, statewide assessment of recovery potential. Recovery potential, while difficult to define precisely, embodies the concept that site characteristics, disturbance history, and socio-economic context provide useful information on the likelihood of restoration success. We compiled several measurements related to ecological condition (site characteristics), disturbance, and socioeconomic context for the state of Illinois 2002 303(d) list of impaired waters. Cluster analysis was used to organize the sites according to recovery potential. We compare the cluster results to Illinois’ nominal prioritization of 303(d) sites as low, medium, and high, and discuss how the geographic pattern in the cluster groups could be exploited as a prioritization tool.

JOURNAL Air Quality Forecast Verification Using Satellite Data 01/15/2008
KONDRAGUNDA, P. L., L. J. MCQUEEN, C. KITTAKA, A. PRADOS, P. CIREN, I. LASZLO, B. PIERCE, R. HOFF, AND J. SZYKMAN. Air Quality Forecast Verification Using Satellite Data. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 47:1-18, (2008).
Abstract: NOAA 's operational geostationary satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depths (AODs) were used to verify National Weather Service (NWS) experimental (research mode) particulate matter (PM2.5) forecast guidance issued during the summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation/New England Air Quality Study (ICARTT/NEAQS) field campaign. The forecast period was encompassed by long range transport of smoke from fires burning in Canada and Alaska and a regional-scale sulfate event over the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern United States (U.S). Over the 30-day time period for which daytime hourly forecasts were compared to observations, the categorical (event defined as AOD > 0.65) forecast accuracy was between 60% and 100% with a mean of -80%. Hourly normalized mean bias (forecasts -observations) ranged between -50% and +50% with forecasts being biased high when observed AODs were small and biased low when observed AODs were high. Normalized Mean Errors are between 50% and 100% with the errors on the lower end during July 18-22,2004 time period when a regional scale sulfate event occurred. Spatially, the errors are small over the regions where sulfate plumes were present. Correlation coefficient (r) also showed similar features (spatially and temporally) with a peak value of -0.6 during July 18- 22,2004 time period. The dominance of long-range transport of smoke into the US during the summer of 2004, which the model lacked due to its static boundary conditions, skewed the model forecast performance. Enhanced accuracy and reduced normalized mean errors during the time period when a sulfate event prevailed shows that the forecast system is very capable of issuing PM2.5 forecasts for urban/industrial pollution events. 2

NON-EPA PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region (1) 05/16/2008
JARNAGIN, S. T. Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region (1). World Environmental & Water Resources Congress 2008, Honolulu, HI, May 12 - 16, 2008. JOURNAL OF THE HYDRAULICS DIVISON, ASCE. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA 1-10, (2008).
Abstract: Historical US Census population data was used to estimate population density for 1930-2000 and satellite imagery from circa 1973, 1992, and 2001 was used to estimate the degree of urban development and the percent imperviousness (for 1992 and 2001) for a set of 150 small (< 130 km2) watersheds with long-term (> 20 years) USGS NWIS historical daily mean streamflow datasets in the mid-Atlantic, USA. The Richards-Baker Flashiness Index was used to calculate annual flashiness values and a seven-year-window mean stream flashiness value was calculated for each population/development estimation date. Streamflow stations that showed significant changes in historical flashiness had a higher mean population density than those that showed no change. The strength of the population-flashiness correlation increased as the spatial scale of the population estimator was reduced. Urban development and imperviousness estimators were equally effective at exploring the relationship between stream flashiness and watershed development. Watersheds with less than 10% imperviousness and less than 20% 'urban development' displayed background levels of stream flashiness and mean flashiness increased with increasing imperviousness and urban development density thereafter.

PRESENTATION Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions 12/18/2008
Magill, M. T., D. D. WERKEMA, AND D. K. Kreamer. Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 18, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Complex Conductivity Response to Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix 12/18/2008
Joyce, R., D. D. WERKEMA, E. A. Atekwana, AND E. A. Atekwana. Complex Conductivity Response to Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14 - 18, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Complex Conductivity Response to Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix 12/15/2008
Joyce, R., D. D. WERKEMA, E. Atekwana, AND E. Atekwana. Complex Conductivity Response to Nanomaterials in a Sand Matrix. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15, 2008.
Abstract: Nano-scale metallic particles are being used with increasing frequency in a variety of industrial, medical, and environmental remediation applcations. The fate and transport of such materials in the subsurface is not fully understood, neither is the impact of these materials on human health. Materials at this small nano-scale sometimes have unusual physical properties which differ from larger sized particles of the same material. Feasibility experiments were performed to investigate the geoelectrical properties of nanomaterials in the environment. Five nanomaterials were selected for laboratory column experiments within a sand matrix. These nanomaterials included: Zero-Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, and Silver. These materials were mixed at different concentrations (.025-2.5 weight %) into a medium grained silica sand matrix and saturated with simulated groundwater then packed into PVC columns. Complex conductivity measurements (0.1-12 kHz) were performed on these various columns. Preliminary results suggest that there is a minimal geoelectrical response associated with all of the materials except for silver as a function of increasing concentration of particles. These results are counter to our expected results which predicted that we should see a noticeable response from the materials due to their increased surface area. Further experiments are being planned to further evaluate how well geoelectrical techniques are suited for detecting these materials in geologic media under various geochemical environments.

PRESENTATION Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Using Open Source Virtual Earths and Public Domain Imagery 12/15/2008
PILANT, A. N. AND L. D. WORTHY. Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Using Open Source Virtual Earths and Public Domain Imagery. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15, 2008.
Abstract: Human activities increasingly impact natural environments. Globally, many ecosystems are stressed to unhealthy limits, leading to loss of valuable ecosystem services- economic, ecologic and intrinsic. Virtual earths (virtual globes) (-e.g., NASA World Wind, ossimPlanet, ArcGIS Explorer, Google Earth, Microsoft Virtual Earth) are geospatial data integration tools that can aid our efforts to understand and protect the environment. Virtual earths provide unprecedented desktop views of our planet, not only to professional scientists, but also to citizen scientists, students, environmental stewards, decision makers, urban developers and planners. Anyone with a broadband internet connection can freely explore the planet. This has at least two important potential benefits. One, individuals can study the planet from the visually intuitive perspective of the synoptic aerial view, promoting environmental stewardship. Two, it opens up the possibility of harnessing the in situ knowledge and observations of citizen scientists familiar with landscape conditions in their locales. Could this collective knowledge be harnessed ( crowd sourcing) to validate and quality assure land cover and other maps? In this presentation we present examples using public domain imagery and two open source virtual earths to highlight some of the functionalities currently available. OssimPlanet is used to view aerial data from the USDA Geospatial Data Gateway. NASA World Wind is used to extract georeferenced high resolution USGS urban area orthoimagery. ArcGIS Explorer is used to demonstrate an example of image processing using web processing services. The research presented here was conducted under the Environmental Feature Finder project of Environmental Protection Agency's Advanced Monitoring Initiative.

PRESENTATION Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions 12/15/2008
Magill, M., D. D. WERKEMA, AND D. Kreamer. Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15, 2008.
Abstract: Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL), such as chlorinated solvents, are common groundwater contaminants. Traditional pump-and-treat methods are often not effective at removing residual DNAPL from the subsurface. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is a promising remediation method that utilizes subsurface surfactant floods to decrease the interfacial tension between the non-aqueous phase and groundwater and increase the contaminant solubility and mobility in water. This remediation method is not widely used because of unknown subsurface distribution and effectiveness. The ability to effectively monitor and perhaps map the spatial distribution of surfactant floods used in remediation could reduce monitoring uncertainty and increase their use. Previous work has shown that surfactants in aqueous solutions significantly alter the solution conductivity, but this work has not investigated the surfactant response in aquifer type materials. In this project, spectral induced polarization measurements of four surfactant aqueous solutions in a sand matrix were evaluated. The frequency range assessed was 0.732 Hz to 187.5 Hz. The surfactants, which are typically used in the remediation of tetrachloroethylene, were Aerosol MA-80-I, Dowfax 8390, and Steol CS-330. These surfactant solutions were injected into a closed system of 20-30 Ottawa silica sand. Resistivity and phase responses were measured. The surfactant treatments altered both phase and resistivity in varying degrees, with Aerosol MA-80-I showing a marked decrease in both, and the Steol CS-330 exhibiting little change relative to the control column. These results suggest geoelectrical property changes may be an applicable property to map and monitor surfactant floods in the subsurface. Future work will continue to investigate this application.

PRESENTATION Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept for Environmental Management in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona 12/11/2008
SEMMENS, D. J., W. G. KEPNER, D. C. Goodrich, L. M. Norman, J. B. Callegary, AND C. van Riper, III. Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept for Environmental Management in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona. Presented at Ecosystem Services Conference, Naples, FL, December 08 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what was once an extensive network of similar riparian systems throughout the Southwest, and is thus of critical ecological and cultural importance. The river serves as a corridor between the sky islands of the Madrean Archipelago in Sonora and Arizona’s Central Highlands that is the most significant migratory flyway in the Southwest. The riparian corridor provides habitat for nearly 70% of the currently known avian species in the U.S. and has the highest mammalian diversity of anywhere in the U.S. The San Pedro River is threatened on numerous fronts by landscape change resulting from climate change, mining activities, the border fence, rapid human population growth and associated urban development, and unsustainable water use. These threats collectively require systematic analysis to fully understand the implications of management and policy actions for the basin’s communities and ecosystems. A comprehensive approach based on applying the conceptual framework of an ecosystem services assessment has been adopted to identify the costs and benefits associated with scenarios based on different combinations of stressors.

PRESENTATION Status of the US Epa’s National Atlas of Ecosystem Services 12/11/2008
NEALE, A. C. AND J. D. WICKHAM. Status of the US Epa’s National Atlas of Ecosystem Services. Presented at Conference on Ecosystem Services, Naples, FL, December 08 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is focused on transdisciplinary research to develop tools to enable decision-makers at all levels of governance to proactively conserve ecosystems services. A major product from the ESRP will be a National Atlas of Ecosystem Services. This Atlas will use principles of landscape ecology to extend the frontiers of ecoregional assessment and spatial analysis in order to display the sources and beneficiaries of ecosystem services. Services to be included in the Atlas are water quality and quantity, carbon sequestration, services provided by wetlands, food and fiber, soil regulation, and aquatic and terrestrial habitat. We anticipate that this Atlas will eventually provide national coverage of these multiple ecosystem services. This Atlas will be a product developed by EPA's ESRP in collaboration with many other organizations, notably the National Geographic Society and the USGS. The Atlas will be a digital product, will be available for multiple spatial units, will include a historical perspective, and will be updated as new spatial data become available and as ecosystem services science matures. This presentation provides a status of the Atlas design and implementation.

PRESENTATION Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing in Two Western U.S. Watersheds 12/11/2008
KEPNER, W. G., D. Semmens, M. Hernandez, AND D. C. Goodrich. Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing in Two Western U.S. Watersheds. Presented at Conference on Ecosystem Services, Naples, FL, December 08 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: Envisioning and evaluating future scenarios has emerged as a critical component of both science and social decision-making. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environmental services now and into the future. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial-analysis technologies have been used to develop landscape information that can be integrated with hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. Two diverse case studies in northwest Oregon (Willamette River basin) and Southeastern Arizona (San Pedro River) were examined in regard to future land use scenarios relative to their impact on surface-water conditions (i.e., sediment yield and surface runoff) using hydrologic models associated with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The base reference grid for land cover was modified in both study locations to reflect stakeholder preferences twenty to sixty years into the future and the consequences of landscape change were evaluated relative to the selected future scenarios. The two studies provide examples of integrating hydrologic modeling with a scenario analysis framework to evaluate plausible future forecasts and understand the potential impact of landscape change on ecosystem services.

PRESENTATION The Landscape Framework for the Spatial Characterization and Mapping of Ecosystem Services: What Is the State of the Science? 12/11/2008
ALLEN, P., R. D. LOPEZ, M. S. NASH, J. R. CHRISTENSEN, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, L. C. BUTLER, A. M. PITCHFORD, AND A. C. NEALE. The Landscape Framework for the Spatial Characterization and Mapping of Ecosystem Services: What Is the State of the Science? Presented at A Conference on Ecosystem Services, Naples, FL, December 08 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: Ecosystem services (ESS) represent an ecosystems capacity for satisfying essential human needs, directly or indirectly, above that required to maintain ecosystem integrity (structure, function and processes). The spatial characterization and mapping of ESS is an essential first step in establishing existing conditions to characterize, assess, value and communicate the impact of decisions that affect the flow of ESS benefits to society. The US Environmental Protection Agency is charged with developing a National Atlas of Ecosystem Services by the year 2012. We conducted an intensive literature survey related to characterizing and mapping ecosystem functions, processes, and services. We reviewed approximately 250 journal articles dated from 1990 to 2008. The number of articles on ecosystem services and related functions and processes has increased exponentially since 1990. We summarized the current state of the science regarding issues of scale, mapping and modeling tools, and statistical aids. Less than 3% were explicitly related to “mapping ecosystem services”. The largest number of reviewed articles were published in Ecological Economics (22) followed by Ecological Applications (20). When journals are grouped into major categories, those published in ecological journals (40%) outpaced those published in economic journals (11%); however, the distribution of publications across journals was surprisingly heterogeneous. Research was conducted on individual or multiple ecosystems; forest was the ecosystem most studied followed by urban, wetland, and agricultural systems. The dominant focal area of research has been North America, primarily the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and Global studies but the focal area was highly dependent on the service. Research extent ranged from that of individual households to the world with data of highly variable resolutions. Data resolutions ranged from 0.1 m (bathymetric mapping with sonar) to grids of 5 degrees of latitude by 3.7 degrees of longitude (used as global nitrogen cycling model inputs). Remote sensing (RS) data and derived products often dictated the resolution of the study outcome; and constraints of scale were apparent when dealing with different data types (e.g., geopolitical versus biophysical units). Approaches to characterizing and mapping ESS included landscape change detection; suitability analyses or classification; risk or vulnerability assessments; future scenarios; neutral models; index development; and mass balance. RS and GIS were the primary tools used to present ESS results. The statistical tools applied were generally driven by the approach taken and the focal ESS. For example, clustering tools are most often used for remote sensing data classification, whereas geostatistical techniques are used in biodiversity studies due to the nature of available datasets consisting of point data. The state of the science is rapidly evolving; challenges remain in integrating scales particularly between biophysical and economic data. Increased availability of land use and land cover data will likely drive research toward approaches utilizing landscape change detection techniques and modeling to quantify uncertainties related to the integration of data at multiple scales.

PRESENTATION Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive Adsorptive Sampling Techniques 12/04/2008
Groenevelt, H., T. McAlary, B. A. SCHUMACHER, D. Crump, T. Gorecki, P. Sacco, M. Tuday, AND P. Johnson. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive Adsorptive Sampling Techniques. Presented at Partners in Environmental Technology Technical Symposium & Workshop, Washington, DC, December 02 - 04, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials

PRESENTATION Passive Sampling of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems Inhabited By Endangered Ozark Cavefish 11/20/2008
Alvarez, D., W. Cranor, T. L. JONES-LEPP, S. Perkins, V. Schroeder, R. Clark, AND D. Novinger. Passive Sampling of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems Inhabited By Endangered Ozark Cavefish. Presented at 29th Annual SETAC Meeting, Tampa, FL, November 16 - 20, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Temporal Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in Alpine Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California 11/20/2008
BRADFORD, D. F., E. M. HEITHMAR, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, G. MOMPLAISIR, C. G. ROSAL, K. E. VARNER, L. A. RIDDICK, AND M. S. NASH. Temporal Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in Alpine Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California. Presented at Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Tampa, FL, November 16 - 20, 2008.
Abstract: Airborne agricultural pesticides are being transported many tens of kilometers to remote mountain areas, and have been implicated as a causal agent for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in such locations. Largely unmeasured, however, are the magnitude and temporal variation of pesticide concentrations in these areas, and the relationship between pesticide application and pesticide appearance in the environment. We addressed these topics in the alpine habitat of the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) by sampling water from four lakes at high elevation (3042-3645 m) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, from mid June to mid October, 2003. The lakes ranged between 46 and 83 km from the nearest pesticide sources in the intensively cultivated San Joaquin Valley. Eight of 40 target pesticide analytes were detected at least once among the four lakes, and four occurred at frequencies that allowed us to evaluate temporal patterns: endosulfan, propargite, dacthal, and simazine. Concentrations at all times were extremely low, generally less than 1 ng/L for the first three, and only slightly higher for simazine. For endosulfan and propargite, temporal variation in concentrations corresponded with application rates in the San Joaquin Valley, with a lag time of 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. A finer-scale analysis suggests that a disproportionate fraction of the pesticides reaching the lakes originated within nearby upwind portions of the San Joaquin Valley. Temporal patterns in pesticide concentrations were generally consistent among the four lakes. Mountain yellow-legged frog populations have largely disappeared from the vicinities of lakes with both the high and low pesticide concentrations observed in the study.

PRESENTATION Discarded Drugs as Environmental Pollutants (3) 11/19/2008
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Discarded Drugs as Environmental Pollutants (3). Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North American 29th Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL, November 19 - 29, 2008.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Geophysical and Geochemical Attenuated Signatures Associated With a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site Undergoing Bioremediation 11/14/2008
Vukenkeng, C., E. A. Atekwana, E. A. Atekwana, S. Rossback, W. A. Sauck, D. D. WERKEMA, J. Nolan, AND L. Slater. Geophysical and Geochemical Attenuated Signatures Associated With a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site Undergoing Bioremediation. Presented at Society of Exploration Geophysicist Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, November 10 - 14, 2008.
Abstract: Slide Presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Presentation - Habitat Distribution Models for 37 Vertebrate Species in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah 11/12/2008
Boykin, K., D. F. BRADFORD, AND W. G. KEPNER. Presentation - Habitat Distribution Models for 37 Vertebrate Species in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. Presented at 2008 Annual Conference, Miami, FL, November 08 - 12, 2008.
Abstract: Thirty-seven terrestrial vertebrate species in the Clark County Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) were previously modeled through the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP), using a deductive approach. To increase the applicability of such habitat models to the MSHCP, we revised these 37 deductive models specific to the Mojave Desert Ecoregion using additional information and finer scale datasets not available for the original SWReGAP models. We explored an inductive modeling approach using locality records for four species: desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), common chuckwalla (Sauromalus ater), phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), and desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti). Differences in extent of habitat predicted between the original and revised deductive models ranged dramatically, with the revised models for the majority of species predicting greater habitat extent than the original. A “gap analysis” was conducted by determining the extent of habitat predicted by the revised models within each SWReGAP conservation status category and within each MSHCP land management category. The results were similar for the two categorization schemes. For most species, the fraction of species’ habitat in the most protected SWReGAP conservation categories was higher for the Mojave Desert Ecoregion and Clark County than for species’ habitat throughout the 5-state SWReGAP region. For the four species addressed by inductive modeling, locality records were obtained from a number of sources. Inductive modeling was an iterative process using locations and SWReGAP datasets and more localized datasets specific to the Mojave Desert Ecoregion. Area under the Curve (AUC) values ranged from 0.750 to 0.951 for the four species with omission error rates ranging from 11% to 67%. Although the habitat distributions developed by the inductive models were within the same footprint as predicted by the deductive models, the inductive habitat models for three of the four species were more refined and differed considerably between the coarser deductive models.

PRESENTATION Drug Usage and Disposal: Overview of Environmental Stewardship and Pollution Prevention 11/11/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. Drug Usage and Disposal: Overview of Environmental Stewardship and Pollution Prevention. Presented at Environmental Health Summit, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 10 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Drug Usage and Disposal: Overview of Environmental Stewardship and Pollution Prevention (With An Emphasis on Activities in the Federal Government) 11/11/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. Drug Usage and Disposal: Overview of Environmental Stewardship and Pollution Prevention (With An Emphasis on Activities in the Federal Government). Presented at Research Triangle Environmental Health Collaborative -- An Environmental Health Summit, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 10 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significantly, actions designed for pollution prevention or pollution reduction hold the potential to also reduce healthcare expenses, improve therapeutic outcomes, and moderate the long-persisting national problem of morbidity and mortality caused by poisonings of infants, children, adults, pets, and sometimes wildlife. These collateral benefits are important to this discussion beacuse one of the major unknowns regarding trhe various pollution control actions (such as reducing generation and disposal of unwanted drugs) is whether they would actually result in significantly reduced pollution. The main driving force for reducing pollution may have more to do with human health and safety.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Chemistry, Sources, and Fate 10/23/2008
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Chemistry, Sources, and Fate. Presented at North Carolina Regional Chapter, Society of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC, October 23, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Measurement of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Finfish and Crab Harvested from Commencement Bay, Wa 10/18/2008
BAILEY, M. L., M. H. HIATT, D. TERPENING, AND J. ZODROW. Measurement of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Finfish and Crab Harvested from Commencement Bay, Wa. Presented at Annual Internal Conference on Soils, Sediments and Water , Amherst, MA, October 16 - 18, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Using Geophysical Signatures to Investigate Temporal Changes Due to Source Reduction in the Subsurface Contaminated With Hydrocarbons (1) 10/16/2008
Vukengkeng, C., E. A. Atekwana, E. A. Atekwana, W. A. Sauck, S. Rossback, L. Slater, J. Nolan, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Using Geophysical Signatures to Investigate Temporal Changes Due to Source Reduction in the Subsurface Contaminated With Hydrocarbons (1). Presented at American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics, Portland, MA, October 13 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Using Geophysical Signatures to Investigate Temporal Changes Due to Source Reduction in the Subsurface Contaminated With Hydrocarbons 10/16/2008
Vukengkeng, C., E. A. Atewanta, E. A. Atekwana, W. A. Sauck, S. Rossbach, J. Nolan, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Using Geophysical Signatures to Investigate Temporal Changes Due to Source Reduction in the Subsurface Contaminated With Hydrocarbons. Presented at AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics, Portland, MA, October 13 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: We investigated the geophysical response to subsurface hydrocarbon contamination source removal. Source removal by natural attenuation or by engineered bioremediation is expected to change the biological, chemical, and physical environment associated with the contaminated matrix. Our objective was to determine the effects of contaminant reduction on the contaminant plume as observed by anomalously high bulk electrical conductivity. We compared ground penetrating radar, self potential, and electrical resistivity surveys conducted between 1996 and 2007. In addition, we used groundwater chemistry as part of our evaluation of temporal changes in the chemical conditions in the groundwater. Removal of the contaminant source by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in 2001 caused a decrease in the total petroleum hydrocarbon in groundwater. Geophysical surveys across the contaminated plume showed that attenuated ground penetrating radar reflections became less attenuated, self potential signals became less positive, and electrical resistivity increased over time. We attribute the change in the geophysical properties mainly to removal of hydrocarbon in the free phase. We infer that as long as the free phase contamination does not contribute to microbial degradation, the bulk electrical properties of the subsurface will revert to background conditions. Therefore we conclude that the contaminant mass reduction in the subsurface by natural bioremediation or enhanced remediation can be effectively imaged by integrated geophysical techniques.

PRESENTATION Investigating the Effect of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation on Seismic Wave Propagation in Porous Media 10/16/2008
Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak, E. A. Atekwana, M. E. Haugen, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Investigating the Effect of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation on Seismic Wave Propagation in Porous Media. Presented at American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics, Portland, MA, October 13 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: Slide presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Investigating the Effect of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation on Seismic Wave Propagation in Sediment 10/16/2008
Davis, C., L. Pyrak-Nolte, E. Atekwana, M. Haugen, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Investigating the Effect of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation on Seismic Wave Propagation in Sediment. Presented at American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics, Portland, MA, October 13 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the seismic methods are sensitive to microbially-induced changes in porous media through the generation of biogenic gases and biomineralization. The seismic signatures associated with microbial growth and biofilm formation in the absence of biomineralization, however, remain uncertain. Biofilm formation can result in significant changes to the hydraulic and mechanical properties of a porous medium. Here, we report on the results of a laboratory experiment aimed at assessing the spatial and temporal changes in acoustic wave propagation associated with microbial growth in porous media, while concurrently measuring the complex conductivity of the same system. Microbial growth was stimulated in silica sand-packed columns, and complex conductivity measurements and acoustic (compressional) wave data were collected over a two-dimensional region for 15 days. The imaginary component of the complex conductivity measured from the biostimulated column (nutrients and bacteria inocula) increased to peak values by Day 5, before decreasing to near background values by Day 15. The real component remained relatively steady through Day 7, decreased slightly to a minimum on Day 9, and then showed a gradual increasing trend through Day 15. In contrast, the complex conductivity results from the unstimulated column (nutrients, no bacteria) did not show any significant variations over time. The seismic signal from the biostimulated column shows a significant decrease in amplitude with time since biostimulation. The transmitted wave amplitude is relatively uniform over the scanned region for the standard sample with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.56 +/- 0.02 Volt. However, transmitted amplitudes from the biostimulated column vary spatially with an average amplitude of 0.47 +/- 0.16 Volt. No significant change in velocity was observed. Visual examination of the biostimulated column showed biofilm growth. Planned microbiological and geochemical analyses upon destruction of the columns will help to constrain the measured geophysical results.

PRESENTATION Sampling and Analysis of Nanomaterials in the Environment: A State-of-Science Review 09/27/2008
VARNER, K. E., B. A. SCHUMACHER, AND E. M. HEITHMAR. Sampling and Analysis of Nanomaterials in the Environment: A State-of-Science Review. Presented at 42nd Western Regional Meeting American Chemical Society, Las Vegas, NY, September 23 - 27, 2008.
Abstract: EPA is concerned with new and emerging contaminants. The Agency needs to understand long-term health and environmental effects of materials and communicate exposure, risks and benefits appropriately to the public. Among EPA’s concerns are the various commercially manufactured nanoscale materials. The unknowns of ecological and human health effects associated with exposure to these products are of concern for EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA’s intent is to seek information regarding the manufacturing process and chemicals released during the nanomaterial product’s life cycle. NERL’s contribution of the literature review outlines the state-of-the-science regarding sampling, sample handling, sample preservation, nanomaterial separation, and analysis of nanomaterials in the environment. Our concern is the nature of occurrence of anthropogenic nanomaterials in the environment and available methods to collect, separate, detect, identify and quantify them. The report identifies various analytical methods and their uses, method performance characteristics, similarities and differences of various methods, effectiveness of the methods, as well as citations of current literature.

PRESENTATION Tracing the Sources of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs Into the Colorado River Basin 09/27/2008
JONES-LEPP, T. L., C. A. Sanchez, AND D. Wilson. Tracing the Sources of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs Into the Colorado River Basin. Presented at 42nd American Chemical Society Western Regional Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 23 - 27, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Tracing the Sources of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs Into the Lower Colorado River Basin 09/27/2008
JONES-LEPP, T. L., C. A. Sanchez, AND D. Wilson. Tracing the Sources of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs Into the Lower Colorado River Basin. Presented at 42nd American Chemical Society Western Regional Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 23 - 27, 2008.
Abstract: A number of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters across the United States. Antibiotics present in the environment can produce resistance in microorganisms, which could potentially have adverse effects on human health. In addition, while the ecotoxicological significance of trace levels of illicit drugs in surface water are not well understood, their presence cannot be dismissed outright because of their potential to adversely affect biota during prolonged exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin) and illicit drugs (methamphetamine, Ecstasy) in surface waters of the lower Colorado River region. Waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters at selected locations along the Colorado River in Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and California were sampled. These water samples were prepared for analysis using an automated extractor (AutoTrace, Caliper Life Sciences) with Oasis MCX cartridges (Waters Corp.), subsequently extracted with 5-mL of 80:20:1 methyl tertbutyl ether/methanol/acetic acid, and 5 mL 99:1 methanol/acetic acid, and reduced to 0.5 mL using an automated evaporator (TurboVap-Zymark, Caliper Life Sciences). Data were collected with a Varian 500MS ion trap mass spectrometer by performing mass analyses of LC eluents. One or more macrolidic antibiotics and /or illicit drugs were found in urban waste streams at concentrations frequently exceeding 100 ng/L. However, amounts found in the main surface water channels diverted for urban use and irrigation, including the Colorado River, were always below 10 ng/L and most frequently below detection.

PRESENTATION Estimation of Inherent Optical Properties and Water Constituent Concentrations from the Remote-Sensing Reflectance Spectra in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary, USA 09/26/2008
Sokoletsky, L. AND R. S. LUNETTA. Estimation of Inherent Optical Properties and Water Constituent Concentrations from the Remote-Sensing Reflectance Spectra in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary, USA. Presented at Second MERIS Users Workshop, Rome, ITALY, September 22 - 26, 2008.
Abstract: The decomposition of remote sensing reflectance (RSR) spectra into absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients, and scattering phase function is an important issue for estimating water quality (WQ) components. For Case 1 waters RSR decomposition can be easily accomplished due to the small quantity of optically-active components and interrelationships of inherent optical properties (IOPs) induced by different water constituents. However, for inland and coastal waters, the situation is generally more complex because of the occurrence of high concentrations of suspended solids and weak relationships between optical properties and water components. Our research focused on an intermediate estuarine condition within the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System (APES), North Carolina, USA. Field radiometric observations were performed using a Satlantic hyperspectral instrument and corresponding water constituent concentrations were measured using standard laboratory procedures. RSR decomposition was performed using the ENVISAT MERIS near-infrared to red ratios for the retrieval of IOPs and various WQ components including chlorophyll, volatile (organic), and total suspended solids concentrations. Decomposition was accomplished using extended quasi-single-scattering (bidirectional reflectance) and extended Kubelka-Munk (bihemispherical reflectance) to derive exact radiative transfer solutions. Derived estimates were validated for 40 near surface radiometric and WQ sampling sites and demonstrated a high degree of correspondence. This method can be easily modified for both in situ and remote-sensing applications over broad range water conditions and locations.

PRESENTATION An Inexpensive Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier to Provide Semi-Quantitative Maps for Dispersed Chemicals With High Spatial Resolution Using Ambient-Air Mass Spectrometry 09/26/2008
GRANGE, A. H. AND G. SOVOCOOL. An Inexpensive Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier to Provide Semi-Quantitative Maps for Dispersed Chemicals With High Spatial Resolution Using Ambient-Air Mass Spectrometry. Presented at American Chemical Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 23 - 26, 2008.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Estimation of Inherent Optical Properties and the Water Quality Components in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System 09/26/2008
Sokoletsky, L., R. S. LUNETTA, AND J. Ediriwickrema. Estimation of Inherent Optical Properties and the Water Quality Components in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System. Presented at Meris Workshop, Rome, ITALY, September 22 - 26, 2008.
Abstract: Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

PRESENTATION Analysis of 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the 1-D Mode Followed By the 2-D Mode 09/24/2008
OSEMWENGIE, L. I., G. SOVOCOOL, AND M. Libardoni. Analysis of 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the 1-D Mode Followed By the 2-D Mode. Presented at American Chemical Society Western Regional Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 24, 2008.
Abstract: Since the initial discovery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment, the detection and identification of certain PCB congeners using the traditional one dimensional (1-D) chromatographic technique has been very challenging, especially, separating the 46 isomeric pentachlorobiphenyls. Success in distinguishing certain isomeric PCBs from one another has been elusive due to the lack of instrumentation capable of true two-dimensional (2-D) or comprehensive gas chromatography (GC). To resolve most of the 209 PCB congeners, workers often resorted to the use of multiple gas chromatographic columns using two to five different GC phases. Until recently, instruments with comprehensive 2-D GC separation capability lacked both the necessary instrument data acquisition speed, and the required deconvolution software to resolve overlapping peaks. This research evaluated a recently developed comprehensive 2-D GC coupled with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (GC×GC-TOFMS) for the potential separation of 209 PCB congeners, using a sequence of 1-D and 2-D modes. A newly developed 30m, RTX-PCB column and a 1m DB-17 column were connected in tandem, separated by a modulator. In two chromatographic runs, 201 PCB congeners were distinguished, including 43 of the 46 pentachlorobiphenyl isomers. Many chlorinated biphenyls that could not be resolved chromatographically were resolved with the deconvolution power of the ChromaTOF® software. Advantage was also made of the “ortho effect,” which can distinguish PCBs having 2,2’-; 2,2’6-; and 2,2’,6,6’- chlorine substituted congeners from those important compounds without these substitutions. This work provided investigators with a new tool for a better front-end separation of PCB-specific congeners, and potentially, for more accurate human and environmental exposure data for risk assessments.

PRESENTATION Determination of Synthetic Musk Compounds in Municipal Wastewater and Estimating Biota Exposure in the Receiving Waters 09/24/2008
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. Determination of Synthetic Musk Compounds in Municipal Wastewater and Estimating Biota Exposure in the Receiving Waters. Presented at American Chemical Society Western Regional Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 24, 2008.
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high usage and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. The U.S. EPA (Las Vegas) developed surface water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musk compounds in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Evaluation of data obtained from the analyses of combined effluent streams from three municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs), from lake water, and from whole carp (Cyprinus carpio) showed a relationship between values from the source (STPs effluent) and those from the receiving waters (Lake Mead). Presented here is the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of data obtained from the analysis of a suite of these compounds in three different environmental compartments.

PRESENTATION Sunscreen Agents in the Environment: Determination By Hplc-Esi-MS/MS and Gc-MS and Calculation of Phototoxicity 09/24/2008
ROSAL, C. G. AND L. D. BETOWSKI. Sunscreen Agents in the Environment: Determination By Hplc-Esi-MS/MS and Gc-MS and Calculation of Phototoxicity. Presented at Western Regional Conference of the American Chemical Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 24, 2008.
Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) filters, also known as sunscreen agents, are chemicals widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, and plastics to block UV radiation from the sun. There have been studies that show some sunscreen agents demonstrate estrogenicity and multiple hormonal activities in vitro. Because of the high consumption volume and lipophilicity of sunscreens, these compounds have the potential to enter and persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in tissues of living organisms. Sunscreen products enter the environment through domestic sewage from bathing, showering, and swimming. The EPA is interested in these products as a class of emerging contaminants, namely Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCP). GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to monitor the presence of sunscreen agents in wastewater treatment plant effluent and other environmental compartments. Human and ecological health issues will drive the monitoring of certain compounds. To determine any phototoxicity risk that these compounds may pose, a computational method was proposed. Theoretical methods for predicting phototoxicity used triplet state calculations using the configuration interaction-singles method (CIS). All calculations were performed with the Gaussian 03 set of programs.

PRESENTATION Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants 09/13/2008
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants. Presented at XVI International Conference of the Society for Human Ecology, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, September 10 - 13, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool 09/11/2008
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, M. Hernandez, AND D. C. Goodrich. Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool. Presented at Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Estes Park, CO, September 08 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in environmental condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial analyses of the remotely sensed data. There are numerous earth-observing satellite platforms for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-cover change; however, the traditional workhorses have been the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat has had a long history of commercial availability (first launch July 1972), a well developed global archive, and has been widely used for land-cover change detection and monitoring. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial-analysis technologies have been used to develop landscape information that can be integrated within hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. Two diverse case studies in northwest Oregon (Willamette River basin) and Southeastern Arizona (San Pedro River) were examined in regard to future land-use scenarios relative to their impact on surface-water conditions, e.g. sediment yield and surface runoff, using hydrologic models associated with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The base reference grid for land cover was modified in both study locations to reflect stakeholder preferences twenty to sixty years into the future and the consequences of landscape change were evaluated relative to the selected future scenarios. These studies provide examples of integrating hydrologic modeling with advanced Earth-observing technology to produce information on trends and make plausible forecasts for the future from which to understand the impact of landscape change on ecological services.

PRESENTATION The Influence of An Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii on a Native Shrub, Griselinia Littoralis Transplanted Into a New Zealand Floodplain Chronosequence 08/08/2008
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. AND L. Walker. The Influence of An Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii on a Native Shrub, Griselinia Littoralis Transplanted Into a New Zealand Floodplain Chronosequence. Presented at 93rd Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, WI, August 03 - 08, 2008.
Abstract: Griselinia littoralis, a native New Zealand shrub, was planted into a chronosequence (0 to 8 yrs since flooding) dominated by the non-indigenous shrub, Buddleja davidii in three New Zealand floodplains to determine to what extent facilitation and competitive inhibition may influence the establishment of the native species. Buddleja, an aggressive, highly invasive, ornamental shrub of Asian origin, may be suppressing slower-growing native species on New Zealand Floodplains, thus altering successional trajectories. Griselinia transplants (600) were planted in Buddleja-dominated communities representative of three successional stages (open, young and vigorous) for two growing seasons. Growth responses (i.e., above and below ground biomass, specific leaf area and height) between stages were compared using an analyses of variance.

PRESENTATION Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool for Watershed Assessment and Analysis 07/30/2008
Guertin, D. P., D. C. Goodrich, W. G. KEPNER, D. J. SEMMENS, M. Hernandez, S. Burns, A. Cate, L. Levick, AND S. Miller. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool for Watershed Assessment and Analysis. Presented at Soil and Water Conservation Society, 2008 Annual Conference, Tucson, AZ, July 26 - 30, 2008.
Abstract: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for users with Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcView 3.x and AGWA 2.0 for users with ESRI ArcGIS 9.x. For more information on AGWA visit website located at: http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa/ or http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/agwa/index.htm.

PRESENTATION Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Tool for Watershed Assessment and Planning 07/30/2008
Guertin, D. P., D. C. Goodrich, W. G. KEPNER, D. J. SEMMENS, M. Hernadez, S. Burns, A. Cate, L. Levick, AND S. Miller. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Tool for Watershed Assessment and Planning. Presented at Soil and Water Conservation Society, 2008 Annual Cofnerence, Tucson, AZ, July 26 - 30, 2008.
Abstract: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for users with Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcView 3.x and AGWA 2.0 for users with ESRI ArcGIS 9.x. For more information on AGWA visit website located at: http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa/ or http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/agwa/index.htm.

PRESENTATION Modeling Long-Term Dynamics of Litter Accumulation in Response to Static and Variable Hydroperiods 07/25/2008
CHRISTENSEN, J. R., W. G. Crumpton, AND A. G. van der Valk. Modeling Long-Term Dynamics of Litter Accumulation in Response to Static and Variable Hydroperiods. Presented at 8th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference, Cuiaba, BRAZIL, July 20 - 25, 2008.
Abstract: Accumulated litter from emergent species like the cattail hybrid (Typha glauca Godr.) can influence local abiotic conditions, other biota, and ecosystem processes. Litter accumulation results from high production coupled with slow breakdown rates. Wetland managers regularly manipulate wetland hydrology via drawdowns to increase production and extent of emergent species but it is unclear how these drawdowns influence litter dynamics. A model was developed to investigate the long-term dynamics of litter in response to multiple scenarios involving spatial extent, production, and water level manipulations. This model is the first attempt to investigate long-term litter dynamics in hydrologically variable wetlands and is needed to understand the impact of hydrological events on litter, local conditions, and biogeochemical processes. The Marsh Ecology Research Program (MERP) at Delta Marsh, Canada monitored emergent biomass and litter mass following an experimental high water and drawdown event that reset the plant community and litter levels. This model uses data and breakdown and distribution models derived from the MERP study to investigate long-term litter dynamics. Under stable distributions, stable annual biomass (500 g/m2), and stable water levels, the litter levels off after 3-4 yrs at ~200 g/m2 at a water depth of 1-20 cm where the majority of Typha is located. These litter values are comparable with observed litter mass values taken in Delta Marsh after 20 years of stable conditions. Under increasing distribution and increasing biomass but stable water levels, such as what occurred in MERP following the high water- drawdown event, the litter levels stabilize after 12 years once extent and production stabilize. This represents a substantial lag time for the recovery of wetlands that experience extreme events and has implications for wetland restoration and creation projects. Drawdowns decrease the litter mass considerably during the year of drawdown due to higher breakdown rates. With drawdowns every 5 or 10 years, litter levels return to pre-drawdown levels after 2-3 yrs if production and extent remain unchanged. Drawdowns every other year keep litter very low and do not allow for litter levels to stabilize. The model indicates that drawdowns can heavily influence litter accumulation of Typha spp. with significant consequences for local conditions, nutrient budgets, and biogeochemical processes within the marsh.

PRESENTATION Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining California Amphibian, the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog 07/24/2008
BRADFORD, D. F. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining California Amphibian, the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog. Presented at Sierra Nevada Alliance Workshop on State of Sierra Frogs, Sacramento, CA, July 24, 2008.
Abstract: The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and concentrations of pesticides in the habitat of this species, we sampled air, sediment, and Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla) tadpoles at high elevation (2754-3378 m) throughout Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Twenty-eight sites were sampled (14 dispersed areas, 2 ponds/area) twice during summer of 2005. Passive air sampling devices, which sampled air over 30-d intervals, detected only the pesticide endosulfan II frequently. In sediment and tadpoles, we found nine pesticides or their breakdown products frequently: the currently used endosulfan (I & II), endosulfan sulfate, dacthal, and chlorpyrifos, and the historically used DDE, chlordane (trans), and nonachlor (cis & trans). Concentrations were low, a few ng/g dry mass (ppb) or less for sediment and tadpoles. Pesticide concentrations did not show consistent patterns in distribution between the two sampling periods relative to distance from agricultural source areas in the San Joaquin Valley, 43-82 km away. A preliminary analysis of the distribution of pesticides relative to the distribution of remaining populations of mountain yellow-legged frogs does not show a correspondence between the two.

PRESENTATION The Use of Modis Ndvi Data for Characterizing Cropland Across the Great Lakes Basin 07/11/2008
Shao, Y. AND R. S. LUNETTA. The Use of Modis Ndvi Data for Characterizing Cropland Across the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Boston, MA, July 07 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides new opportunities for characterizing land-cover (LC) to support monitoring and assessment studies at watershed, regional and global scales. This research evaluated the potential for using the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite 250 m product (MOD13Q) time-series data to develop a cropland mask and identify four major crop types (corn, soybean, hay, and wheat), throughout the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of scale on the performance time-trajectory analytical approaches for LC classifications. MODIS-NDVI data were first acquired from the USGS EROS Data Center for calendar year 2002 and subsequently preprocessed (anomalous data removed and replaces with estimated values), to provide a high quality uninterrupted data stream to support multi-temporal (phenology-based) analysis. LC classifications were then performed for the entire GLB (n=1) and for individual GLB ecoregions (n=11). For the GLB scale analysis, training samples of agricultural and non-agricultural land were collected across the entire area to support a single regional scale classification. In the latter approach (ecoregion-stratified), the GLB was first stratified into 11 ecoregions and both the training sample collections and classifications were conducted on an individual basis for each ecological unit. Landsat panchromatic imageries from 2000−2002 were used as the primary reference datasets for identifying training samples. Also, a variety of image classification algorithms were examined, including (i) supervised statistical classification, (ii) principle component analysis, and (iii) non-parametric techniques such as neural networks and decision tree. A validation of 2002 NDVI-derived crop mask was conducted using both a pixel-wise and county-aggregated approaches. For the pixel-wise accuracy assessment, testing sites were generated using a stratified random sample approach. The testing sites were visually interpreted from Landsat panchromatic images. Addition, the agricultural pixels derived from NDVI image were aggregated to the county level and compared to statistics from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The pixel-level and county-level comparisons provided a multi-level accuracy assessment. The crop mask with the highest accuracy was used as a baseline dataset for subsequent classification of individual crop types. The agricultural lands were classified into five major crop types (corn, hay, soybean, wheat, and other) using three classification algorithms; which were evaluated using the county level agricultural statistics to perform an accuracy assessment. The results from this research indicated that the ecoregion-stratified approach generated superior crop mask compare to the GLB-wide classification. The stratification of the study area reduced the confusions between agricultural and non-agricultural pixels with regard to temporal and/or phenological information. Also, the accuracy assessments results indicated that both neural network and decision tree classifiers performed better than a statistical maximum likelihood classifier. The primary reason was that neural networks and decision tree made no assumptions about the input data distribution and they are also less sensitive to the correlations among input features. Due to the lack of reference data, no pixel-wise accuracy assessment was conducted for individual crop identification (i.e., corn, hay, soybean, and wheat), however, the accuracies of crop acreage estimates at county level were acceptable compare to the NASS agricultural statistics.

PRESENTATION Impacts on Floodplains By An Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii 07/02/2008
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. AND L. Walker. Impacts on Floodplains By An Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii. Presented at American Water Resources Association 2008 Summer Specialty Conference, Virginia Beach, VA, June 30 - July 02, 2008.
Abstract: Despite its popularity, the ornamental, Buddleja davidii, a woody shrub of Asian origin, is considered problematic because of its ability to rapidly colonize and dominate floodplain and riparian ecosystems. Dominance during early succession may influence community dynamics and ecosystem processes. This study documented plant succession on floodplains dominated by Buddleja in seven New Zealand catchments. I aimed to determine the differences among successional stages in biotic and abiotic factors on a four-stage developmental chronosequence: open, young, vigorous and mature. Furthermore, I verified whether patterns of succession were consistent among our environmentally diverse catchments. Buddleja biomass increased significantly from open to vigorous stages before decreasing in the mature stage. Stem density progressively declined from the open to the mature stages suggesting that self-thinning had occurred. Species richness and the percentage of non-indigenous species did not differ among stages. The percentage of grasses and forbs decreased from the open to the mature stage while the percentage of woody species decreased. There was a sequential increase in foliar nitrogen of Buddleja from the open to vigorous stages before stabilizing. Foliar phosphorus of Buddleja remained the same in the open and young stages before increasing in the vigorous and mature stages. Soil pH progressively decreased from the open through the mature stages. Soil nitrogen pools remained the same in the early and young stages, yet, doubled in the vigorous stage, before tripling in the mature stage, when compared to the earlier stages. Soil phosphorus pools were equal in the open and young before increasing by factors of three and four in the vigorous and mature stages, respectively. These patterns are consistent with the general patterns of succession observed in New Zealand floodplains, with and without Buddleja. Whether Buddleja modifies the rate of change in community dynamics has yet to be determined. However, there were significant departures in community composition and soil fertility from the generalized patterns among the catchments that were correlated with island-wide differences in annual average precipitation. Similar patterns in succession between native and invasive-dominated floodplains suggest that Buddleja does not alter successional trajectories.

PRESENTATION The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii (Butterfl Y Bush) 06/27/2008
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G. The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii (Butterfl Y Bush). Presented at 5th International Weed Science Congress, Vancouver, BC, CANADA, June 23 - 27, 2008.
Abstract: Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name Butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas in temperate locations worldwide. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from central and western China in the late 1800´s it has become a popular component in horticulture, but is also considered problematic because of its ability to rapidly colonize and dominate disturbed areas. There is concern that it has potential negative and irreversible impacts on agricultural and wild lands. Around the globe, native and non-indigenous Buddleja are opportunists that are able to tolerate a wide range of physical conditions. Buddleja is highly prolific (producing millions of wind- and water-dispersed seeds per plant) and vegetatively expansive (stem and root fragments readily develop roots). It has a rapid growth rate, high specific leaf area, and high foliar N and P levels relative to native woody shrub species; all of these attributes increase its photosynthetic efficiency and competitive capabilities. Buddleja has an arbuscular mychorrhizal association and thus, is an efficient phosphorus accumulator. The species displays a high degree of phenotypic plasticity and consequently has been able to expand beyond the environmental limits of native Buddleja species. It has a low susceptibility to disease and herbivory. Although a successful colonist, whether Buddleja alters successional trajectories over the long term is undetermined. The ecological, horticultural, and economic impacts of Buddleja must be determined in order for best management practices to be implemented. The primary goal of this presentation is to synthesize what is known about Buddleja so that ecologists, horticulturalists, land managers and others can understand the impacts related to the continued presence of Buddleja in gardens and natural landscapes. I also address methods by which to manage Buddleja and discuss the ecological and social repercussions of various management strategies and policies implemented to protect or remove Buddleja.

PRESENTATION Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants (4 of 5) 06/19/2008
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants (4 of 5). Presented at 2008 Healthy Environment Forum Series, Oregon Environmental Council, Portland, OR, June 19, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Parabens and Sunscreens in the Environment: Determination By Hplc-Esi-MS/MS and Gc-MS and Calculation of Phototoxicity 06/05/2008
ROSAL, C. G. AND L. D. BETOWSKI. Parabens and Sunscreens in the Environment: Determination By Hplc-Esi-MS/MS and Gc-MS and Calculation of Phototoxicity. Presented at 56th American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Denver, CO, June 01 - 05, 2008.
Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, and plastics to block UV radiation from the sun. Parabens are preservatives and are used extensively in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods to prevent microbial growth and preserve a product’s integrity over time. Studies show that some sunscreens and parabens demonstrate estrogenicity and multiple hormonal activities in vitro. Because of the high consumption volume and high lipophilicity of sunscreens, these compounds have the potential to enter and persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in tissues of living organisms. This research aims to monitor and evaluate potential sources of exposure of these compounds in different environmental compartments. This poster presents method development and preliminary data. Method: An HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and a complementary GC-MS method were developed to determine the presence of select parabens and sunscreens in environmental samples. Development of an extraction method of these compounds from sewage biosolids is underway. Additionally, excited-state calculations were performed on these compounds to determine possible phototoxicity to evaluate those compounds that may present health risks. Preliminary Data: The HPLC method developed was able to separate most of the target compounds. Analysis was performed in both positive and negative modes and using MS/MS experiments in a single run using gradient elution. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) ion (most abundant fragment ion) for each compound was produced by reducing the precursor ion to about 15% abundance relative to the most abundant ion. The GC-MS method complements the LC-MS especially for lipophilic compounds. Excited state calculations were performed on 24 of these compounds. From previous work on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a correlation was made between excited-state energies and phototoxicity. Triplet excited-state energies between 2.0 and 2.5 eV showed phototoxicity based on experimental tests. None of the 24 compounds in this study was in this range. Only three of the compounds were under 3.0 eV. These three compounds, however, have demonstrated estrogenicity in vitro in some research, which indicates that the range from 2.5 to 3.0 eV should be watched for potential ill effects. Novel Aspect: Multifaceted approach for sunscreen products: theoretical methods to predict phototoxicity, LC-MS for polar compounds, and GC-MS for lipophilic compounds.

PRESENTATION Rapid, Automated Determination of Elemental Compositions of Ions in Mass Spectra Obtained With An Open-Air Ion Source (2 of 2) 06/05/2008
GRANGE, A. H. AND G. W. Sovocool. Rapid, Automated Determination of Elemental Compositions of Ions in Mass Spectra Obtained With An Open-Air Ion Source (2 of 2). Presented at American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Denver, CO, June 01 - 05, 2008.
Abstract: An inexpensive autosampler for a DART/TOFMS provides mass spectra from analytes absorbed on 76 cotton swab, wipe samples in 7.5 min. A field sample carrier simplifies sample collection and provides swabs nearly ready for analysis to the lab. Applications of the high throughput provided by these devices could be rapid characterization, real-time monitoring of remediation, and documentation of thorough cleanups of dispersive events, Superfund sites, and clandestine drug labs with high spatial resolution. The trade off is that composite mass spectra are often obtained. For dispersed chemicals, rapid identification of one or more analytes is essential for assessing risks to people. Software to deconvolute composite mass spectra was developed to address this need. Precursor ions, product ions, and neutral losses are correlated based on exact masses and relative isotopic abundances (RIAs).

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Pollutants: Issues Regarding Analysis 06/05/2008
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Pollutants: Issues Regarding Analysis. Presented at American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Denver, CO, June 01 - 05, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Comparing Hplc-Esi-Itms and Uplc-Esi-Oa-Tof-MS in Characterizing Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs in Complex Environmental Matrices 06/05/2008
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Comparing Hplc-Esi-Itms and Uplc-Esi-Oa-Tof-MS in Characterizing Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs in Complex Environmental Matrices. Presented at American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Denver, CO, June 01 - 05, 2008.
Abstract: Among the challenges of characterizing emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices (e.g., biosolids, sewage, or wastewater) are the co-eluting interferences. For example, surfactants, fats, and humic acids, can be preferentially ionized instead of the analyte(s) of interest, or mask their presence. Modern analytical detection techniques such as GC- and LC-MS/MS (i.e., ion traps, triple quadrupoles, magnetic sector, and time-of- flight mass spectrometers) can be used to deconvolute the interferences from the compounds of interest. This presentation will discuss using a Varian 500 LC-MS iontrap (MS/MS mode) as a screening tool, with follow-up confirmation using a Waters LCT UPLC-TOF for assigning accurate masses to the emerging contaminants.

PRESENTATION Agwa Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool Rapid Post-Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment Using the Agwa GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool 06/03/2008
Guertin, P., D. Goodrich, E. Canfield, W. G. KEPNER, S. Burns, D. J. SEMMENS, S. Miller, M. Hernandez, AND L. Levick. Agwa Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool Rapid Post-Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment Using the Agwa GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool. Presented at Wildfire Effects on Watershed Hydrology Technical Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, June 03, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Lagrangian Aerosol and Ozone Precursor Forecasts Utilizing Nasa Aura Omi NO2 and Noaa Goes-Gasp Aod Observations 05/29/2008
Pierce, R. B., J. SZYKMAN, S. Kondragunta, J. A. Al-Saadi, G. Hetherington, M. Majewski, AND C. Kittaka. Lagrangian Aerosol and Ozone Precursor Forecasts Utilizing Nasa Aura Omi NO2 and Noaa Goes-Gasp Aod Observations. Presented at 2008 AGU Spring Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, May 26 - 29, 2008.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the remote sensing of trace gases and aerosols from space has dramatically improved. The emergence and application of these measurements adds a new dimension to air quality Management and forecasting by enabling consistent observations of pollutants over large spatial domains. Current instruments aboard NASA and European Space Agency satellites can provide derived measurements of trace gases and aerosols relating directly to most of the EPA’s criteria pollutants: ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Al-Saadi et. al., (2005) provided one of the first demonstrations on the use of AOD as a forecast tool for PM2.5 through IDEA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental air quality Applications, a joint project between NASA, EPA, and NOAA.

PRESENTATION Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Vulnerability to Hazardous Air Pollutants in the Southeast 05/22/2008
MEHAFFEY, M. H., R. TANKERSLEY, L. MILLER, AND E. R. SMITH. Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Vulnerability to Hazardous Air Pollutants in the Southeast. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Valued ecological endpoints such as threatened and endangered species and critical habitat are often evaluated for proximate impacts such as nearby development and direct impacts such as logging. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants can exacerbate the affects on these already vulnerable species and ecosystems. While EPA Region 4 only comprises one tenth of the United States land area, it is home to over 20% of the nation’s population and is responsible for over one third of the toxics chemicals released to the air from mid- to large size industry. Yet the southeast harbors significant populations of threatened and endangered species, valued ecological resources such as timber, and a large portion of habitat for a variety of species. This juxtaposition of important and diverse ecosystems and large quantity of toxic releases is what makes the southeast a prime location for exposure analysis. The study utilizes a new integration technique for spatially mapping relative toxicity to species groups across the southeastern states and presents the data via the Regional Vulnerability Environmental Decision Toolkit (ReVAEDT).

PRESENTATION Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool 05/22/2008
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, M. Hernandez, AND D. Goodrich. Evaluating Hydrological Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change: Scenario Testing With the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits or consequences. Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving toward complex, spatially explicit regional assessments. These problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales. The extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input parameter files, however, have long been an obstacle to the timely and cost-effective use of such complex models by resource managers. The U.S. EPA Landscape Ecology Branch in collaboration with the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center has developed a geographic information system (GIS) tool to facilitate this process. A GIS provides the framework within which spatially distributed data are collected and used to prepare model input files, and model results are evaluated. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool uses widely available standardized spatial datasets that can be obtained via the internet at no cost to the user. The data are used to develop input parameter files for KINEROS2 and SWAT, two watershed runoff and erosion simulation models that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. AGWA automates the process of transforming digital data into simulation model results and provides a visualization tool to help the user interpret results. Results from multiple simulations can be compared for the purpose of detecting hydrologic response to landscape or climate change. Land-use planning is facilitated by the comparison of results from simulations based on forecasted future scenarios. The utility of AGWA in joint hydrologic and ecological investigations is demonstrated for two diverse case studies in northwest Oregon (Willamette River basin) and southeastern Arizona (San Pedro River). There are currently two versions of AGWA available: AGWA 1.5 for users with Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcView 3.x GIS software and AGWA 2.0 for users with ESRI ArcGIS 9.x.

PRESENTATION Using Advanced Monitoring Tools to Evaluate PM PM2.5 2.5 in San Joaquin Valley 05/22/2008
Rosen, R., J. Al-Saadi, C. BOHNENKAMP, J. SZYKMAN, D. A. Chu, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, G. Arcemont, C. Kittaka, AND J. Lewis. Using Advanced Monitoring Tools to Evaluate PM PM2.5 2.5 in San Joaquin Valley. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: One of the primary data deficiencies that prevent the advance of policy relevant research on particulate matter, ozone, and associated precursors is the lack of measurement data and knowledge on the true vertical profile and synoptic-scale spatial distributions of the pollutants. With regards to aerosol and trace gases the surface based networks have been the source for much of our knowledge on air quality characterization on an on-going and systematic basis. Over the past several years major advances have been made in the area of remote sensing that allow for the generation of continuous or near-continuous synoptic-scale aerosol and trace gas data sets from satellites and aerosol vertical profile data sets from LIDARs. Vertical profiling of atmospheric aerosols can benefit greatly when combined with concurrent satellite measurements that give column totals. To use these data effectively, a measurement system is needed to provide vertical detail at sufficient intervals in space and time. The vertical profile data can be combined with satellite data to yield good-quality 3-D analyses over broad regions such as the San Joaquin Valley. The integration of satellite, vertical profile, and point in situ measurements to research the 3-D distribution of pollutants mimics methodologies that have proven successful for analyzing diverse types of meteorological data to answer complex issues. Through integration with regional and local observations capabilities, an understanding of air quality will begin to emerge on a global-to-local basis.

PRESENTATION Effects of the Variation of Select Sampling Parameters on Soil Vapor Concentrations 05/22/2008
SCHUMACHER, B. A. AND J. H. ZIMMERMAN. Effects of the Variation of Select Sampling Parameters on Soil Vapor Concentrations. Presented at Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds: The Sixth International Conference, Monterey, CA, May 19 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Currently soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and to provide information for vapor intrusion and contaminated site evaluations. To improve our understanding of the fate and transport of soil vapor containing VOCs, the U.S. EPA funded two research studies conducted at a site on Vandenberg Air Force Base (CA) contaminated with the chlorinated solvent TCE.
The first study evaluated the effect of variations in purge volume, sample flow rate, and sample volume during soil vapor sample collection. Sample purge volumes were varied from 1 to 4,400 system dead-space volumes. The effect of purge volume on the measured VOC concentrations was more pronounced than the effect of sample flow rate; however, this variability may not be significant in terms of site characterization. Sample flow rates were varied from 100 to 5000 cc/min with no significant effect on soil vapor concentrations. Sample volume was varied from 25 to 6,000 mL. The increase in purge volume from 25 to 1,000 mL resulted in an increase in VOC concentrations followed by a decrease in VOC concentrations in sample volumes greater than 1000 mL. The common use of the 6,000 mL sample size to decrease detection limits by EPA method TO-15 may result in artificially low sample analyte concentrations or non-detects.

The second study evaluated the correlation of temporal and shallow soil gas concentrations (4' to 17' bgs) variations over a six week period. Over 11,000 analyses were completed from thirteen sampling points by an automated analytical system. An on-site mobile weather station collected meteorological data during the sampling period. Analyte concentrations varied less than 20% during the sampling period resulting in no correlation for this set of data. No precipitation events occurred during this study.


PRESENTATION Portable Imaging Devices for Industrial Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants 05/22/2008
WILLIAMS, D. J., M. KNUDSON, P. SHAPIRO, AND J. Myers. Portable Imaging Devices for Industrial Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) programs are effective at finding leaks in many situations, but can be expensive to administer, consume manpower resources, and often miss leaks in places that are difficult to access. An efficient, accurate and cost effective method for detecting and quantifying gas leaks would both save industries money by identifying production losses and improve regional air quality. Recently developed specialized gas imaging video systems have proven effective in rapidly locating gas leaks. For these devices to be useful to regulatory agencies and industry, a comprehensive assessment and verification of their performance is required. The EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program (ETV) has undertaken a project to test several commercial available gas imaging devices in a controlled laboratory setting as well as in the field at several industry locations. The goal of this project is to determine the performance of these devices and provide objective results to the potential user community for informed purchasing. The economic case for using these devices is compelling. A large refinery may spend over $1M a year on their LDAR program, which traditionally use a team of inspectors to check individual components. The imagers can be used to monitor multiple components at a time, resulting in cost savings estimated to be on the order of 2 - 4 times that of traditional LDAR methods. The gas imagers are especially useful for detecting the large leaks that cost a refinery in terms of lost product. Improved air quality resulting from efficiently detecting and repairing leaks and finding leaks in unmonitored places is anticipated with the widespread use of these devices.

PRESENTATION EPA Geospatial Quality Council Promoting Quality Assurance in the Geospatial Coummunity 05/22/2008
BRILIS, G., N. W. KOHL, C. MIDDLETON, R. Strohman, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, T. Smith, L. M. PETTERSON, JEFFEREY C. WORTHINGTON, AND A. LOWE. EPA Geospatial Quality Council Promoting Quality Assurance in the Geospatial Coummunity. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: After establishing a foundation for the EPA National Geospatial Program, the EPA Geospatial Quality Council (GQC) is, in part, focusing on improving administrative efficiency in the geospatial community. To realize this goal, the GQC is developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPP) in a “template” format that can be tailored and adapted by organizational entities in the EPA and its’ extended partners (other Federal, State, local governments and the private sector). Since its’ formation in 1998, the GQC has developed products that provide QA guidance for geospatial activities and research. Two GQC products are references for the EPA National Geospatial Data Policy: EPA Guidance for Geospatial Data Quality Assurance Project Plans, EPA/600/R-01/062; Global Positioning Systems: Technical Implementation Guidance, (GPS-TIG) Revision 2.0, July 2006, [EPA/600/R-03/001]. By implementing the guidance provided by the above-mentioned documents, Region 5 developed a sound GPS SOP and QAPP. The GQC further developed Region 5s’ products and is providing the Guidance for Developing GPS Data Collection SOPs and QAPPs to the greater geospatial community. The GQC has developed this guidance to harmonize the process of collecting, editing, and exporting spatial data of known quality using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This document does not attempt to detail the specific functions of the various GPS receivers since the rapid advancements in GPS technology would necessitate constant, diligent updates to this document. Though the concept of the “Graded Approach” was previously communicated to the Geospatial Community, this document is the first to establish QA Categories for the Geospatial Community. Since “one size does not fit all,” QA Category parameters are suggested for GPS users. This presentation reviews the QA Categories suggested for the Geospatial Community, highlight critical parts of the SOP and QAPP templates, and provide QA Professionals with quality evaluation consideration points.

PRESENTATION Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans 05/22/2008
BRILIS, G. Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans. Presented at 2008 Science Forum Conference, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Poster presentation material.

PRESENTATION Innovative Screening Technologies for Dioxins in Soil 05/22/2008
GOETZ, J. L. AND S. BILLETS. Innovative Screening Technologies for Dioxins in Soil. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Dioxins are recognized as one of the most pervasive and toxic class of chemicals in the environment. They have been the focus of various human exposure studies and have been found at numerous Superfund and other hazardous waste sites. The cost of dioxin analysis represents a significant portion of the remedial cost associated with a site cleanup. Current EPA methods can cost more than $1000 per sample and results may take more than thirty days to obtain. This presentation will describe the results of a series of verification studies of alternative technologies of dioxin analysis that were evaluated under the Monitoring and Methods section of the Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) program. These technologies are less expensive and easier to perform than the conventional method (high resolution GC/MS). This project was supported by six Regional Offices that supplied samples and technical advice, the five technology developers who performed sample analysis, and other Agency Program Offices that offered advice and encouragement throughout this study. The findings of these studies showed that data generated by these screening technologies when used with a site specific calibration factor was comparable to results generated by the conventional method. A description of these screening technologies, recommendations for their use, and a comparison to the GC/MS approach will be presented. Critical design elements of the evaluation process as well as lessons learned will be discussed. Research efforts designed to better understand the factors that contribute to the response of these alternative technologies will also be described.

PRESENTATION The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) 05/22/2008
VARNER, K. E., D. KOPSICK, J. BEARDEN, R. Mollica, K. Krueger, E. Wood, S. Bhatia, C. Ives, P. Barlett, N. Kerr, R. Brackmann, R. Babilonia, AND S. Reid. The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid). Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: The capability and performance of various RFID technologies to track hazardous wastes and materials (HAZMAT) across international borders will be verified in the El Paso, Texas-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico area under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)/Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluations (ESTE) Program. The ETV/ESTE Program develops protocols to verify the performance of innovative technologies that have the potential to improve upon existing technology advancement while also protecting human health and the environment. The goal is to provide credible performance data for commercial-ready environmental technologies to speed the implementation for the benefit of purchasers, vendors, stakeholders and the public. The verification study will simulate the shipment of HAZMAT contained in plastic and metal drums and corrugated boxes through routine land transportation routes and across the international ports of entry at Santa Teresa, NM/Jeronimo, MX, addressing the concerns of tracking waste and alleviating traffic congestion and smog at our borders. RFID systems will be evaluated against identical verification scenarios, testing configurations, evaluation methods and measures to verify the system's ability to track HAZMAT traveling along a typical trucking route. Tags will be affixed to containers which will be packed inside a truck trailer. The information on the tag will transmit data at the: generator facility, U.S./Mexico border crossing, highway weigh stations, and entrance to the TSD facility. RFID system vendors will contribute the system components along with their technical expertise. Measured parameters include read accuracy at various read distances and aspect angles; the relationship of read rate to physical; and environmental conditions.

PRESENTATION Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development 05/22/2008
JARNAGIN, S. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate data layers for analysis: population density for 1930-2000; urban development circa 1973, 1992, and 2001; and the percent imperviousness (for 1992 and 2001) for a set of 150 small (< 130 km2) watersheds with long-term (> 20 years) USGS NWIS historical daily mean streamflow datasets in the mid-Atlantic, USA. Streamflow stations that showed significant changes in historical flashiness had a higher mean population density than those that showed no change. The empirical data provide support for a historic development pattern of approximately 10% imperviousness and/or 20% urban development without significant changes in stream flashiness. The historical data suggest that increasing degrees of development intensity beyond this point do significantly alter streamflow. One use of this dataset is to search for 'positive outliers' - where predicted stream flashiness is less than anticipated by the level of urban development. Detailed examination of these watersheds may yield examples where BMPs or patterns of development have been successful at mitigating the impact of urban development on stream hydrology.

PRESENTATION Environmental Feature Finder: A Remote Sensing Decision Support Tool 05/22/2008
PILANT, A. N., K. M. ENDRES, L. D. WORTHY, AND D. Wilhelm. Environmental Feature Finder: A Remote Sensing Decision Support Tool. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Land cover maps are essential to sound environmental stewardship and EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment, but existing maps are not always sufficiently current, detailed, or appropriate for a given application. Consequently, we are developing a decision support tool called Environmental Feature Finder to address this information gap. This Advanced Monitoring Initiative pilot project seeks to integrate existing data and technology to allow non-experts in geospatial science an opportunity to create customized land cover and feature maps from digital aerial photographs and satellite images. Potential users could be resource managers, planners, scientists and decision makers. The core technologies are DOE Genie Pro software for automated feature extraction and algorithm development; NASA World Wind virtual earth for landscape visualization; and aerial photography and satellite imagery. Project partners include EPA internal stakeholders, USGS, DOE, the Amargosa Conservancy, Midwest Spatial Decision Support System Partnership and others. Expected outputs are: better integration of existing software and satellite / aerial imagery, a flexible framework allowing non-specialists to rapidly ingest and analyze generic digital imagery, a reusable library of mapping algorithms, a Wiki, and an Environmental Science Connector workspace hosting user groups. Expected outcomes are greater environmental knowledge derived from remote sensing imagery, with better linkages to local expert knowledge, and better environmental decision making.

PRESENTATION Land-Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Imagery 05/22/2008
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, J. G. LYON, AND L. D. WORTHY. Land-Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Imagery. Presented at 2008 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 20 - 22, 2008.
Abstract: Monitoring the locations and distributions of land-cover change is important for establishing linkages between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land-use activities. Past studies incorporating two-date change detection using Landsat data have tended to be performance limited for applications in biologically complex systems. This study explored the use of 250 m multi-temporal MODIS NDVI 16-day composite data to provide an automated change detection and alarm capability on a 1-year time-step for the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System (APES) region of the US. Detection accuracy was assessed for 2002 at 88%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (21.9%), change omission errors (27.5%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.67. Annual change detection rates across the APES over the study period (2002-2005) were estimated at 0.7% per annum and varied from 0.4% (2003) to 0.9% (2004). Regional variations were also readily apparent ranging from 1.6% to 0.1% per annum for the tidal water and mountain ecological zones, respectively. This research included the application of an automated protocol to first filter the MODIS NDVI data to remove poor (corrupted) data values and then estimate the missing data values using a discrete Fourier transformation technique to provide high quality uninterrupted data to support the change detection analysis. The methods and results detailed in this poster presentation apply only to non-agricultural areas. Additional limitations attributed to the coarse resolution of the NDVI data included the overestimation of change area that necessitated the application of a change area correction factor.

PRESENTATION The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser 05/21/2008
KEPNER, W. G. AND D. F. BRADFORD. The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser. Presented at United States Geological Survey, Henderson, NV, May 21, 2008.
Abstract: The Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) has developed the Nevada Geospatial Data Browser, a spatial data archive to centralize and distribute the geospatial data used to create the land cover, vertebrate habitat models, and land ownership/stewardship maps produced for the Nevada ecoregional component of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. The purpose of the data browser is to provide a one-stop, easy-access product for the user community to assist in natural resource management and improve environmental decision-making. The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser utilizes data from a number of sources and has assembled 36 complete GIS datasets into 10 data categories (land cover maps, land cover training data, digital elevation model, soils and geology, climate data, ecoregional boundaries, political boundaries, hydrology, miscellaneous land cover [i.e., sand dunes and fire history], and miscellaneous vector data [i.e., roads, quad boundaries, Landsat scene boundaries, cities and towns]) for the entire state of Nevada. The data browser includes important metadata information relative to acquisition, location, processing level, projection, file size, and format and is currently available on-line via the EPA Web site (www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/gap.htm).

PRESENTATION Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region 05/16/2008
JARNAGIN, S. Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Presented at World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2008, Honolulu, HI, May 12 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: Methods: This study is an examination of the relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, degree of urban development, and population density for 150 watersheds with long-term USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) historical daily mean streamflow datasets in EPA Region 3 (R3, Mid-Atlantic USA). I used decadal Census population data from 1930-2000, proportionally allocated into 2000-era county boundaries to estimate population density. For decades after 1960, higher spatial resolution census data were used along with the LandScan 1998 dasymetric estimation of population density at a 450 m grid cell spatial resolution. Temporal land use/land cover (LULC) data: 1973 North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) data, 1992 National Land Cover Data (NLCD1992), and NLCD2001 were used to estimate a 'percent urban developed' parameter for each watershed. The NLCD2001 Imperviousness data layer and the ArcView ATtILA extension (US EPA, 2004) was used for a 2001 estimator of watershed imperviousness and both the coefficient technique of Jennings et al. (2004) and ATtILA were used to estimate 1992 watershed imperviousness. The Richards-Baker Flashiness Index (R-B Index, Baker et al., 2004) was applied to historical NWIS streamflow to calculate annual flashiness values for the period of record for each station. Results: Historical changes in mean stream flashiness were correlated with county-scale based changes in watershed population density estimates. Streamflow stations that showed significant changes in historical flashiness had a higher mean population density than those that showed no change. The strength of the population-flashiness correlation increased as the spatial scale of the population estimator was reduced, with dasymetric LandScan data giving the best relationship. LULC and imperviousness estimators were equally effective at exploring the relationship between stream flashiness and watershed development. Urban development classes 'None' and 'Rural' were statistically the same while increasing levels of development were associated with statistically significant increases in stream flashiness. Watersheds with less than 20% 'urban' development displayed background levels of stream flashiness and mean flashiness increase with urban development density thereafter. My results support previous research that suggests low intensity development does not substantially alter streamflow. Increasing degrees of development intensity do significantly alter streamflow. One use of this dataset is to search for 'positive outliers' - where predicted stream flashiness is less than anticipated by the level of urban development. Detailed examination of these watersheds may yield examples where BMPs or patterns of development have been successful at mitigating the impact of urban development on stream hydrology.

PRESENTATION Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA 05/16/2008
JARNAGIN, S. Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Streamflow Flashiness With Population Density, Imperviousness, and Percent Urban Land Cover in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. Presented at World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008, Honolulu, HI, May 16, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Developing a Drug Take-Back Program 05/16/2008
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Developing a Drug Take-Back Program. Presented at Geriatrics 2008 30th Midyear Conference and Exhibition, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Las Vegas, NV, May 14 - 16, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Building a U.S. National Atlas of Ecological Goods and Services 05/15/2008
NEALE, A. C. AND J. D. WICKHAM. Building a U.S. National Atlas of Ecological Goods and Services. Presented at Ecosystem Services: Solutions for Problems or a Problem that Needs Solution, Kiel, GERMANY, May 13 - 15, 2008.
Abstract: The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) has popularized and begun to formalize the long-standing concept of ecological goods and services (e.g., Westman 1977). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is re-organizing its Ecological Research Program around the concept of goods and services in order to more fully communicate the relevance of its ecological research, and provide information that is more useful to decision makers. A planned, near-term product of the Ecological Research Program is a national atlas of ecosystem goods and services. As presently envisioned, the atlas will be nationally representative where possible, and emphasize the landscape and land-cover change. Emphasis will be placed on the landscape because it is an integrator that produces and distributes ecological goods and services, and mitigates stressors (Wickham et al. 2006, Wiens 2007). Land-cover change will also be emphasized because ecological systems are dynamic rather than static, and a focus on temporal change will permit quantification of gain and loss of ecosystem goods and services.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Pollutants: Issues Regarding Analysis 05/05/2008
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Pollutants: Issues Regarding Analysis. Presented at American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Denver, CO, June 01 - 05, 2008.
Abstract: The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water quality integrity and to protect aquatic systems from pollution and degradation of habitat. Over the last several years scientists worldwide have newly identified some traditional chemicals as having biological effects. All chemicals can potentially enter the environment at some point in their lifecycle, and many will undergo structural transformation. This presentation focuses on one subset comprising pharmaceuticals, steroids, and hormones. One of the basic questions being asked with regard to environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals is, what analytical research tools (e.g., mass spectrometric techniques) and methods are necessary to identify trace levels of pharmaceuticals in a variety of environmental matrices--from source waters to drinking water, from sewage biosolids to fish tissue. Because of the many ways in which pharmaceuticals can enter the environment, and their diverse chemical functionalities, we cannot rely on traditional analytical techniques (e.g., LC/UV, or GC/MS) to track the source of environmental exposure. Many new analytical tools are being investigated by scientists worldwide. For example, solid-phase extraction coupled with LC/MS/MS or UPLC-oa-TOF for pharmaceuticals, and GC/MS/MS for steroids and hormones. Other advanced mass spectrometric techniques using high resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass software have been used for identifying unknowns.

PRESENTATION Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals An Overview of Sources, Control, and Science Questions 04/30/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals An Overview of Sources, Control, and Science Questions. Presented at KNAPPE Workshop on Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals & Policy Instruments, (Knowledge and Need Assessment of Pharmaceutical Products in the Environment), Central Science Laboratory, York, UK, April 29 - 30, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator

PRESENTATION Geoelectrical Measurements of Common Sear Surfactants in Analog Aquifer Materials 04/25/2008
Magill, M. T., D. D. WERKEMA, AND D. K. Kreamer. Geoelectrical Measurements of Common Sear Surfactants in Analog Aquifer Materials. Presented at UNLV Geosymposium, Las Vegas, NV, April 25, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Practical Problems in Remote Sensing 04/24/2008
BRILIS, G. Practical Problems in Remote Sensing. Presented at 2008 EPA Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Seattle, WA, April 20 - 24, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans 04/24/2008
BRILIS, G. Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans. Presented at EPA Quality Assurance Conference, Seattle, WA, April 20 - 24, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Partial Least Squares (Pls) Regression for Small Sample With Collinear Predictors in Landscape Ecology 04/24/2008
NASH, M. S. AND R. D. LOPEZ. Partial Least Squares (Pls) Regression for Small Sample With Collinear Predictors in Landscape Ecology. Presented at 25th Annual Coonference on Managing Environmental Quality System, Austin, TX, April 24 - 27, 2006.
Abstract: The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Landscape Ecology research program is investigation of associations between surface water constituents and landscape metrics.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: An Overview of the Science 04/22/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Local Section of the American Chemical Society, Las Vegas, NV, April 22, 2008.
Abstract: "Take only pictures. Leave only footprints." Perhaps the ultimate expression for the concepts of sustainability and the "ecological footprint," this credo of the hiker and spelunker reflects the collective importance of the seemingly innocuous, minuscule impacts that can accrue from each individual’s isolated personal actions, activities, and behaviors. In everyday life, however, this credo is simply not possible to uphold, as humans unavoidably leave behind indelible trails of telltale fingerprints. Wherever we live or travel, we impart unique chemical signatures on the environment in the form of minute residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that we excrete, wash from our bodies, or discard to sewerage or trash. While the contributions from each individual may be insignificant by themselves, the combined contributions from all individuals, as well as from medicated animals, reach measurable levels in surface and ground waters and on land receiving treated sewage.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: An Overview of the Science 04/22/2008
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Local Section of the American Chemical Society, Las Vegas, NV, April 22, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials.

PRESENTATION Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the Ft-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan 04/10/2008
Vukenkeng, C., E. Atekwana, E. Atekwana, AND D. D. WERKEMA. Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the Ft-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan. Presented at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Philadelphia, PA, April 06 - 10, 2008.
Abstract: The decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) facility has been the focus of several geophysical investigations. After several decades of fire training exercises, significant amounts of hydrocarbons and some solvents seeped into the subsurface contaminating the vadose and saturated zones in the source area. Groundwater geochemistry studies defined a contaminant plume that was approximately 125 m wide and > 300 m long. The boundary of the plume was further defined by using GPR, SP, and resistivity techniques. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past investigations. However, there was a marked decrease in geophysical response from all of our geophysical techniques. The GPR anomaly has migrated deeper into the subsurface, the positive SP response was significantly attenuated, and the conductive resistivity anomaly has been replaced by background resistivity values. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2001. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical data and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with both geophysical and geochemical methods.

PRESENTATION Landscape Influences on Lake Chemistry of Small Dimictic Lakes in the Human Dominated Southern Wisconsin Landscape 04/10/2008
ALLEN, P. Landscape Influences on Lake Chemistry of Small Dimictic Lakes in the Human Dominated Southern Wisconsin Landscape. Presented at IALE Conference, Madison, WI, April 06 - 10, 2008.
Abstract: Changes in landscape heterogeneity, historic landcover change, and human disturbance regimes are governed by complex interrelated landscape processes that modify lake water quality through the addition of nutrients, sediment, anthropogenic chemicals, and changes in major ion concentrations. Current knowledge of how landscapes influence water resources comes primarily from stream studies. This study contributes to the small but growing body of research on the landscape ecology of lakes. Twelve lakes, similar in most respects except for surrounding landuse and landscape position, were sampled over a two year period for water quality proxies of nutrient enrichment and productivity; erosion and sedimentation; solutes, and anthropogenic chemicals. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to evaluate how lakes varied across gradients of water and sediment chemistry and lake morphometry. Correlation and multiple regression analyses tested our assumptions (based on previous stream studies) about correlations between landuse and land cover; heterogeneity, and water quality proxies. Differences in chemistry among lakes were most correlated with lake depth which is related to landscape position and governed by geomorphology. These data show that in general, high proportions of forests and wetlands were correlated with desirable water quality characteristics (i.e. reduced sedimentation, nutrients and dissolved solids). Agriculture was positively correlated with nutrient enrichment and productivity, erosion and sedimentation, increased solute concentrations, and atrazine. High landscape interspersion and increased edge densities were also correlated with increased solute concentrations. Decreased shape complexity of the patches (area weighted mean shape index) was positively correlated with reduced water quality and agriculture. Water quality predictions based on landuse and landscape metrics were more often confirmed at larger (watershed) spatial scales. The affect of landscape position is a significant factor in interpreting impacts on lakes particularly at local scales and should be considered in future work. Results of this study suggest that landscape management goals for lake protection should include minimizing agriculture in riparian areas. Additionally, an increase in forest and wetland buffers at smaller (catchment and riparian) spatial scales, and an increase in forest connectivity at watershed scales should enhance the natural cleansing functions of both forests and wetlands and improve or maintain lake water quality.

PRESENTATION Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the Ft-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan 04/10/2008
Joyce, R., C. Vukenkeng, E. Atekwana, E. Atekwana, D. D. WERKEMA, S. Rossbach, G. Abdel, C. Davis, AND J. Nolan. Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the Ft-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan. Presented at Symposium on the Applications of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Philadelphia, PA, April 06 - 10, 2008.
Abstract: The decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) facility has been the focus of several geophysical investigations. After several decades of fire training exercises, significant amounts of hydrocarbons and some solvents seeped into the Subsurface contaminating the vadose and saturated zones in the source area. Groundwater geochemistry studies defined a contaminant plume that was approximately 125 m wide and > 300 m long. The boundary of the plume was further defined by using ground penetrating radar (GPR), self-potential (SP), and resistivity techniques. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical Modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past investigations. However, there was a marked decrease in geophysical response from all of our geophysical techniques. The GPR anomaly has migrated deeper into the subsurface, the positive SP response was significantly attenuated, and the conductive resistivity anomaly has been replaced by background resistivity values. Also, six Geoprobe cores at three different locations were collected in order to conduct laboratory microbial counts and IP measurements. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2001. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.

PRESENTATION A Quick Overview of Mass Spectrometry, Negative Ions, and Toxaphene Determination (Proposed Method 8276) 04/10/2008
BRUMLEY, W. C. A Quick Overview of Mass Spectrometry, Negative Ions, and Toxaphene Determination (Proposed Method 8276). Presented at LTIG Conference, Denver, CO, April 10, 2008.
Abstract: A new method for toxaphene and toxaphene congener determination has been proposed by OSW as the response to an internal report from the OIG relative to toxaphene determination. In the course of this development, ORD was asked to prepare a new GC/NIMS protocol for 8081 analytes that included toxaphene, toxaphene congeners, chlordane, and organochlorine pesticides. This presentation explains some of the mass spectrometry principles behind NIMS and sketches the implementation of this approach to the determination of toxaphene congeners. The new methodology as far as SW-846 is concerned centers on the use of chemical ionization (methane reagent gas) conditions with the primary ionization resulting from electron attachmentor dissociative electron capture processes in the negative ion mode. OSW has narrowed the immediate concern to toxaphene congener determination and has decided to promulgate newguidance as Method 8276.

PRESENTATION Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants (3 of 5) 03/28/2008
RUHOY, I. AND C. G. DAUGHTON. Discarded Drugs as Environmental Contaminants (3 of 5). Presented at Aging in America Conference, Washington, DC, March 28, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Automated Deconvolution of Composite Mass Spectra Obtained With An Open-Air Ionizations Source Based on Exact Masses and Relative Isotipic Abundances 03/07/2008
GRANGE, A. H. AND G. SOVOCOOL. Automated Deconvolution of Composite Mass Spectra Obtained With An Open-Air Ionizations Source Based on Exact Masses and Relative Isotipic Abundances. Presented at 2008 Pittsburgh Conference, New Orleans, LA, March 01 - 07, 2008.
Abstract: Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain
precursor, oxide, adduct, and/or dimeric ions. Ion compositions must be determined and ion

correlations must be made to understand composite mass spectra and enhance confidence in

tentative identifications. These tasks are performed rapidly by an in-house Ion Correlation

Program (ICP) that considers exact masses and relative isotopic abundances measured by a JEOL

AccuTOF® time-of-flight mass spectrometer. ASCII files provided by the data system acquired

at three CID voltages are imported into the ICP. Possible precursor ions and related oxidized,

ammonium adducts, protonated dimers, and ammoniated dimers are found in the lowest CID

voltage mass spectrum. At the intermediate CID voltage, dimeric ions are fragmented, while

possible precursor ions remain and are confirmed as such. Product ions are gleaned from the

highest CID voltage spectrum. Starting with the highest-mass precursor ion, all lower-mass ions

that are not precursor ions are checked to see if they are precursor ion subunits. When multiple

compounds are present with different collections of heteroatoms, some will and some will not

correlate with each precursor ion. Examples of mass spectra deconvolution will be demonstrated

for data acquired with the DART/TOFMS.

PRESENTATION Careers at the United States Environmental Protection Agency 02/29/2008
IIAMES, J. S. Careers at the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Presented at Moore Square Middle School, Raleigh, NC, February 29, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION Geometry Within Geographic Science (Spatial Analysis: GIS and Remote Sensing) 02/13/2008
IIAMES, J. S. Geometry Within Geographic Science (Spatial Analysis: GIS and Remote Sensing). Presented at Broughton High School, Research Triangle Park, NC, February 13, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Future Use of Goes-R in Air Quality Assessments 01/25/2008
SZYKMAN, J., J. Al-Saadi, J. Fishman, A. Chu, T. PACE, R. Scheffe, R. MATHUR, G. POULIOT, A. Soja, C. Kittaka, B. Pierce, S. Kondragunta, AND F. DIMMICK. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Future Use of Goes-R in Air Quality Assessments. Presented at 5th GOES-R User Conference AMS, New Orleans, LA, January 25, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials

PRESENTATION Application of Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth and Airborne Lidar Data for Monitoring Fine Particulate Concentration in San Joaquin Valley, California 01/24/2008
Al-Saadi, J., R. ROSEN, C. BOHNENKAMP, J. SZYKMAN, A. Chu, J. Hair, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, G. Arcemont, A. Kaduwela, C. Kittaka, AND J. Lewis. Application of Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth and Airborne Lidar Data for Monitoring Fine Particulate Concentration in San Joaquin Valley, California. Presented at American Meteorological Society 88th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, January 20 - 24, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principal Investigator.

PRESENTATION 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of Cmaq Model Results to Aid Regional Pollution Accountability Metrics. 01/24/2008
Fairlie, T. D., J. SZYKMAN, R. B. Pierce, A. Gilliland, J. Engel-Cox, S. Weber, C. Kittaka, J. Al-Saadi, R. SCHEFFE, F. DIMMICK, AND J. TIKVART. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of Cmaq Model Results to Aid Regional Pollution Accountability Metrics. Presented at American Meteorological Society 88th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, January 20 - 24, 2008.
Abstract: Presentation materials. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Principlal Investigator

PRESENTATION Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining Calfornia Amphibian, the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog 01/11/2008
BRADFORD, D. F., K. Stanley, L. McConnell, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, S. Simonich, R. Knapp, AND M. S. NASH. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining Calfornia Amphibian, the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog. Presented at California-Nevada Amphibian Populations Task Force Conference, San Diego, CA, January 10 - 11, 2008.
Abstract: The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and concentrations of pesticides in the habitat of this species, we sampled air, sediment, and Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla) tadpoles at high elevation (2754-3378 m) throughout Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Twenty-eight sites were sampled (14 dispersed areas, 2 ponds/area) twice during summer of 2005. Passive air sampling devices, which sampled air over 30-d intervals, detected only the pesticide endosulfan II frequently. In sediment and tadpoles, we found nine pesticides or their breakdown products frequently: the currently used endosulfan (I & II), endosulfan sulfate, dacthal, and chlorpyrifos, and the historically used DDE, chlordane (trans), and nonachlor (cis & trans). Concentrations were low, a few ng/g dry mass (ppb) or less for sediment and tadpoles. Pesticide distributions showed a general decrease in concentration with distance from agricultural areas in the Central Valley (43-82 km away), but Pearson r2 values were low. A preliminary analysis of the distribution of pesticides relative to the distribution of remaining populations.

PUBLISHED REPORT The Ecological and Hydrological Significance of Ephemeral and Intermittent Streams in the Arid and Semi-Arid American Southwest 11/25/2008
Levick, L. R., D. C. Goodrich, M. Hernandez, J. Fonseca, D. J. Semmens, J. Stromberg, M. Tluczek, R. A. Leidy, M. Scianni, P. D. Guertin, AND W. G. KEPNER. The Ecological and Hydrological Significance of Ephemeral and Intermittent Streams in the Arid and Semi-Arid American Southwest. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/134, 2008.
Abstract: This report represents a state-of-the-art synthesis of current knowledge of the ecology and hydrology of ephemeral (dry washes) and intermittent streams in the American Southwest, and may have important bearing on establishing nexus to traditional navigable waters (TNW) and defining connectivity relative to the Clean Water Act. Ephemeral and intermittent streams make up approximately 59% of all streams in the United States (excluding Alaska), and over 81% in the arid and semi-arid Southwest (Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and California) according to the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset. They are often the headwaters or major tributaries of perennial streams in the Southwest. This comprehensive review of the present scientific understanding of the ecology and hydrology of ephemeral and intermittent streams will help place them in a watershed context, thereby highlighting their importance in maintaining water quality, overall watershed function or health, and provisioning of the essential human and biological requirements of clean water. Ephemeral and intermittent streams provide the same ecological and hydrological functions as perennial streams by moving water, nutrients, and sediment throughout the watershed. When functioning properly, these streams provide landscape hydrologic connections; stream energy dissipation during high-water flows to reduce erosion and improve water quality; surface and subsurface water storage and exchange; ground water recharge and discharge; sediment transport, storage, and deposition to aid in floodplain maintenance and development; nutrient storage and cycling; wildlife habitat and migration corridors; support for vegetation communities to help stabilize stream banks and provide wildlife services; and water supply and water-quality filtering. They provide a wide array of ecological functions including forage, cover, nesting, and movement corridors for wildlife. Because of the relatively higher moisture content in arid and semi-arid region streams, vegetation and wildlife abundance and diversity in and near them is proportionally higher than in the surrounding uplands. In the rapidly developing southwest, land management decisions must employ a watershed-scale approach that addresses overall watershed function and water quality. Ephemeral and intermittent stream systems comprise a large portion of southwestern watersheds, and contribute to the hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological health of a watershed. Given their importance and vast extent, it is concluded that an individual ephemeral or intermittent stream segment should not be examined in isolation. Consideration of the cumulative impacts from anthropogenic uses on these streams is critical in watershed-based assessments and land management decisions to maintain overall watershed health and water quality.

PUBLISHED REPORT Sensitivity Analysis of the Multi-Layer Model Used in the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet) 10/29/2008
Lavery, T., C. Rogers, K. Mishoe, AND R. E. BAUMGARDNER. Sensitivity Analysis of the Multi-Layer Model Used in the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-08/126, 2008.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) and its predecessor, the National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN), as national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks. The purpose of CASTNET is to track the progress of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) emission reduction program for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in terms of reductions in sulfur and nitrogen deposition, improved air quality, and changes to affected ecosystems. Both CASTNET and NDDN were designed to measure concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen gases and particles and to estimate dry deposition using an inferential model. The design was based on the concept that atmospheric dry deposition flux could be estimated as Flux = C*Vd, where C represents a measured air pollutant concentration and Vd represents a modeled deposition velocity. In other words, the flux is directly proportional to the deposition velocity. Consequently, an uncertainty in the deposition velocity produces an uncertainly in the flux estimate.

PUBLISHED REPORT Habitat Distribution Models for 37 Vertebrate Species in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah 10/20/2008
Boykin, K., D. F. BRADFORD, AND W. G. KEPNER. Habitat Distribution Models for 37 Vertebrate Species in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-08/117, 2008.
Abstract: Conservation planning for a species requires knowledge of the species’ population status and distribution. An important step in obtaining this information for many species is the development of models that predict the habitat distribution for the species. Such models can be useful in depicting the amount and location of potential habitat available, and in providing a starting point for designing surveys to obtain more detailed information about population characteristics, distribution, and habitat associations.

PUBLISHED REPORT Sampling and Analysis of Nanomaterials in the Environment: A State-of-the-Science Review 09/18/2008
VARNER, K. E. Sampling and Analysis of Nanomaterials in the Environment: A State-of-the-Science Review. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/098 (NTIS PB2009-113239), 2008.
Abstract: This state-of-the-science review was undertaken to identify and assess currently available sampling and analysis methods to identify and quantify the occurrence of nanomaterials in the environment. The environmental and human health risks associated with nanomaterials are largely unknown, and methods needed to monitor the environmental occurrence of nanomaterials are very limited or nonexistent. Because this research is current and ongoing, much of the applicable information is found in gray literature.

PUBLISHED REPORT Guidelines to Assessing Regional Vulnerabilities 07/31/2008
SMITH, E. R., M. H. MEHAFFEY, R. O'Neil, T. G. WADE, J. V. KILARU, AND L. Tran. Guidelines to Assessing Regional Vulnerabilities. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/078 (NTIS PB2009-100858), 2008.
Abstract: Decision-makers today face increasingly complex environmental problems that require integrative and innovative approaches for analyzing, modeling, and interpreting various types of information. ReVA acknowledges this need and is designed to evaluate methods and models for synthesizing diverse kinds of available information on the distribution of stressors and sensitive ecological resources. As with any study, the first and probably most important step is to establish a clear goal. For ReVA, the goal is to develop and demonstrate approaches that use existing data to evaluate current and future conditions and vulnerabilities of valued resources (native biodiversity, water quality, forest productivity, etc.) resulting from ecological drivers of change and later, management alternatives.

PUBLISHED REPORT Analytical Protocol (Gc/Ecnims) for Oswer's Response to Oig Report (2005-P-00022) on Toxaphene Analysis 05/19/2008
BRUMLEY, W. C. Analytical Protocol (Gc/Ecnims) for Oswer's Response to Oig Report (2005-P-00022) on Toxaphene Analysis. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2008.
Abstract: The research approached the large number and complexity of the analytes as four separate groups: technical toxaphene, toxaphene congeners (eight in number), chlordane, and organochlorine pesticides. This approach was advantageous because it eliminated potential interferences among the many analytes with each other and made the analysis simpler for users. Only DDD, DDE, and DDT were found to be insensitive to NIMS. The protocol was tested on spiked soil and then subjected to a clean matrix precision test with an intra-laboratory study by three independent analyses. The approach also allows the analytes of a given group to be determined in a single monitoring window, greatly simplifying the methodology and eliminating the need to define retention windows for the monitoring of a limited number of analytes. The complex issue of separations of all congeners of toxaphene and choice of specific cleanups was left to guidance in Method 8081a and other sections of SW-846. Thus, GC/NIMS can act in a complementary fashion to GC/ECD that is already being practiced in the Region or completely replace it at the discretion of the analyst.

PUBLISHED REPORT Localizing the Rangeland Health Method for Southeastern Arizona 05/15/2008
Buono, J., P. Heilman, E. Carrillo, D. Robinett, AND M. S. NASH. Localizing the Rangeland Health Method for Southeastern Arizona. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2008.
Abstract: The interagency manual Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health, Version 4 (Technical Reference 1734-6) provides a method for making rangeland health assessments. The manual recommends that the rangeland health assessment approach be adapted to local conditions. This technical note describes the field methods and results of localizing the rangeland health method to two ecological sites in southeastern Arizona: Loamy Upland and Sandyloam Upland, both in Major Land Resource Area 41-3, Southeastern Arizona Basin and Range, Semidesert Grassland. The products of the effort are reference sheets that describe the condition of areas with little or no departure from reference conditions (the historic climax plant community) as well as evaluation matrices that describe five departure categories for each of the 17 indicators. For a number of indicators the departures in the evaluation matrix were found to be nonlinearly related to the departure categories. Expanding this effort to document reference sheets and evaluation matrices for other ecological sites would require substantial effort, but would facilitate consistent interagency application of the Rangeland Health method.

PUBLISHED REPORT Report on the Geoelectrical Detection of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation of Pce: Property Changes in Aqueous Solutions Due to Surfactant Treatment of Perchloroethylene: Implications to Geophysical Measurements 03/31/2008
WERKEMA, D. D. Report on the Geoelectrical Detection of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation of Pce: Property Changes in Aqueous Solutions Due to Surfactant Treatment of Perchloroethylene: Implications to Geophysical Measurements. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-08/031, 2008.
Abstract: Select physicochemical properties of nine surfactants which are conventionally used in the remediation of perchloroethylene (PCE, a.k.a. tetrachloroethene) were evaluated with varying concentrations of PCE and indicator dyes in aqueous solutions using a response surface quadratic design model of experiment. Stat-Ease Design Expert v7 was used to generate the experimental design and perform the analysis. Two hundred forty experiments were performed using PCE as a numerical factor (coded A) from 0 to 200 parts per million (ppm), dye type (coded B) as a 3-level categorical nominal factor, and surfactant type (coded C) as a 10-level categorical nominal factor. Five responses were measured: temperature (oC), pH, conductivity (μS/cm), dissolved oxygen (DO, mg/L), and density (g/mL). Diagnostics proved a normally distributed predictable response for all of the measured responses except pH. The result from the Box-Cox plot for transforms recommended a power transform for the conductivity response with lambda (λ) = 0.50, and for the DO response with, λ = 2.2. The overall mean of the temperature response proved to be a better predictor than the linear model. The conductivity response is best fitted with a linear model using significant coded factors B and C. The DO model is also linear with coded factors A, B, and C significant. The model for the density response is a two factor interaction (2FI) model with significant coded factors C and AC. Some of the surfactant treatments of PCE significantly alter the conductivity, DO, and density of the aqueous solution. However, the magnitude of the density response is so small that it does not exceed the instrument tolerance. Results for the conductivity and DO responses provide predictive models for the surfactant treatment of PCE and may be useful in determining the potential for geophysically monitoring surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) of PCE. As the aqueous physical properties change due to surfactant remediation efforts, so will the properties of the subsurface pore water, all of which are influential factors in geophysical measurements. Geoelectrical methods are potentially the best suited to measure SEAR alterations in the subsurface because the conductivity of the pore fluid has the largest relative change. This research has provided predictive models for alterations in the physicochemical properties of the pore fluid to SEAR of PCE. Future investigations should address the contribution of the solid matrix in the subsurface and the solid-fluid interaction during SEAR of PCE contamination.

PUBLISHED REPORT Scout 2008 Version 1.0 User Guide 03/31/2008
Singh, A., R. Maichle, N. Armbya, A. K. Singh, AND J. M. NOCERINO. Scout 2008 Version 1.0 User Guide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/038, 2008.
Abstract: The Scout 2008 version 1.0 software package provides a wide variety of classical and robust statistical methods that are not typically available in other commercial software packages. A major part of Scout deals with classical, robust, and resistant univariate and multivariate outlier identification, and robust estimation methods that have been available in the statistical literature over the last three decades. Outliers in a data set represent those observations which do not follow the pattern displayed by the majority (bulk) of the data. It should be pointed out that all of the outlier identification methods are meant to identify outliers in a data set typically representing a single population. Outlier identification methods are not meant to be used on clustered data sets representing mixture data sets, especially when more than two clusters may be present in the data set. On data sets having several clusters, other methods such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis may be used. Several robust estimation and outlier identification methods that have been incorporated into Scout 2008 include: the iterative classical method, the iterative influence function (e.g., Biweight, Huber, PROP)-based M-estimates method, the multivariate trimming (MVT) method, the least median-of-squared residuals (LMS) regression method, and the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) method. Some initial choices for the iterative estimation of location and scale are also included in Scout 2008, including the orthogonalized Kettenring and Gnanadesikan (OKG) method; the median, median absolute deviation (MAD), or interquartile range (IQR)-based methods; and the MCD method. Scout offers classical and robust methods to estimate: the multivariate location and scale, univariate robust intervals, multiple linear regression parameters, principal components (PCs), and discriminant (Fisher, linear, and quadratic) functions (DFs). The discriminant analysis module of Scout can perform cross validation using several methods, including leave-one-out (LOO), split samples, M-fold validation, and bootstrap methods. Below detection limit observations or nondetect (ND) data are inevitable in many environmental and chemometrics applications. Scout has several univariate graphical and inferential methods that can be used on uncensored full data sets and also on left-censored data sets with below detection limit (DL) observations. Specifically, Scout can be used to: compute various interval estimates, perform typical univariate goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests, and perform single and two-sample hypothesis tests on uncensored data sets and left-censored data sets with nondetect observations. Classical univariate statistical inference methods (e.g., intervals and hypothesis testing) in Scout 2008 can also handle data sets with below detection limit observations. In Scout 2008, emphasis is given to graphical displays of multivariate data sets. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphs can be generated using Scout. The classical and robust methods listed above are supplemented with formal multivariate classical and robust graphical displays, including the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots of the Mahalanobis distances (MDs), index plots of the MDs, distance-distance (D-D) plots, scatter plots of raw data, PC scores, and DF scores with prediction or tolerance ellipsoids superimposed on the respective scatter plots. Those graphical displays can be drawn using the critical values of the MDs obtained using the exact scaled beta distribution of the MDs or an approximate chi-square distribution of the MDs. Some graphical classical and robust methods comparison tools are also available in Scout so that one can graphically compare the performances of those methods. Scout can be used to display tolerance ellipsoids or prediction ellipsoids for the various outlier identification methods on the same graph and to display robust regression lines for the various regression methods on the same graph. Scout 2008 also offers some GOF test statistics to assess multivariate normality. Several GOF test statistics, including the multivariate kurtosis, the skewness, and the correlation coefficient between the ordered MDs and the scaled beta (or chi-square) distribution quantiles, are displayed on a Q-Q plot of the MDs. The associated critical values of those GOF test statistics (obtained via extensive simulation experiments) are also displayed on the graphical displays of the Q-Q plots of the MDs. Two standalone software packages, ProUCL 4.00.02 and ParallAX, have also been incorporated into Scout 2008. ProUCL 4.00.02 is a statistical software package developed to address environmental applications, whereas the ParallAX software offers graphical and classification tools to analyze multivariate data using the parallel coordinates.

PUBLISHED REPORT Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans 02/26/2008
KOHL, N. W., G. BRILIS, C. MIDDLETON, R. Strohman, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, T. R. Smith, L. M. PETTERSON, JEFFEREY C. WORTHINGTON, AND A. LOWE. Interim Guidance for Developing Global Positioning System Data Collection Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Project Plans. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/020, 2008.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency Geospatial Quality Council developed this document to harmonize the process of collecting, editing, and exporting spatial data of known quality using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Each organizational entity may adopt this document as the core of their Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) manual on GPS data collection procedures.

SITE DOCUMENT Performance of the Cape Technologies Df1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit for Soil and Sediment Samples 02/29/2008
BILLETS, S. AND J. L. GOETZ. Performance of the Cape Technologies Df1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit for Soil and Sediment Samples. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-08/002, 2008.
Abstract: A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. The objectives of the demonstration included evaluating each participating technology’s accuracy, precision, sensitivity, sample throughput, tendency for matrix effects, and cost. The test also included an assessment of how well the technology’s results compared to those generated by established laboratory methods using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The demonstration objectives were accomplished by evaluating the results generated by each technology from 209 soil, sediment, and extract samples. The test samples included performance evaluation (PE) samples (i.e., contaminant concentrations were certified or the samples were spiked with known contaminants) and environmental samples collected from 10 different sampling locations. The PE and environmental samples were distributed to the technology developers in blind, random order. One of the participants in the original SITE demonstration was CAPE Technologies, which demonstrated the use of the DF1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit. The developers and potential users of the technologies provided feedback after the demonstration. There was significant interest in evaluating the performance of these technologies on a site-specific basis. This would more closely represent the expected application of the technologies than was the case during the original demonstration, which targeted technology performance when challenged with a broad range of sample types. Consequently, a second test (referred to as the “site-specific study”) was conducted in which the developers were given a total of 112 samples that were segregated by site of origin. In contrast to the original demonstration, in which all sample information was unknown, environmental information for each site was provided to the developers to more closely represent the background information that would be available to contractors supporting a site-specific application. Each batch included some samples previously analyzed as part of the SITE Dioxin Demonstration and some unique samples in archive that were not used as part of the SITE Dioxin Demonstration, along with replicates and quality control (QC) samples. Only dioxin and furan concentrations were evaluated in this study. The developers were given the HRMS data from the SITE Dioxin Demonstration so that they would have the opportunity to utilize a site-specific calibration and knowledge regarding typical congener patterns at a particular site. Data analysis focused on analytical performance on a site-specific basis, and included an evaluation of comparability to the HRMS total dioxin/furan toxicity equivalents (TEQD/F) results over a range of TEQ concentrations from 10 to 12,000 picogram/gram, precision on replicate analyses, and QC sample results. This report describes the experimental design of the site-specific study, the analytical methods used, and comparisons of the TEQD/F results from the HRMS data to those reported by CAPE Technologies. The data generated and evaluated during the site-specific study showed that the TEQ data produced by the DF1 was more comparable to the HRMS TEQD/F data than was the data reported during the original SITE demonstration. The quantitative correlation with HRMS TEQD/F was 0.94 for all the samples in the site specific study. The average percent recovery value was 122% with a range between 48% and 354%. The average relative standard deviation for the site specific study was 26%, with a range between 6% and 63%. These results show that the DF1 kit could be used as an effective screening tool to determine areas of greatest concern for cleanup at a site and could help to minimize the number of more expensive analyses needed for specific analytes, particularly considering that the cost and the time to analyze samples is significantly less than that of HRMS analyses.

 

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