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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2006

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2006, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 147 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Biogeophysics: the Effects of Microbial Processes on Geophysical Properties of the Shallow Subsurface 12/18/2006
ATEKEWANA, E., D. D. WERKEMA, AND E. ATEKWANA. Biogeophysics: the Effects of Microbial Processes on Geophysical Properties of the Shallow Subsurface. Chapter 6, H. Vereecken (ed.), Applied Hydrogeophysics. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1:161-193, (2006).
Abstract: This chapter provides a brief review of how microbial interactions with the geologic media may translate to changes in the bulk physical properties of the subsurface
which are potentially measurable by geophysical techniques. The results of select pioneering laboratory and field investigations that have been completed in this new field of biogeophysics are presented.

BOOK CHAPTER Changes in Anthropogenic Inpervious Surfaces, Precipitation and Daily Streamflow Discharge: A Historical Perspective in a Mid-Atlantic Subwatershed 10/23/2006
Jennings, D B. AND S T. Jarnagin. Changes in Anthropogenic Inpervious Surfaces, Precipitation and Daily Streamflow Discharge: A Historical Perspective in a Mid-Atlantic Subwatershed. , Chapter 1, David Hester (ed.), United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geographic Analysis & Monitoring (GAM) Urban Dynamics, Status & Trends Circular Report. United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO, 17(5):471-489, (2006).
Abstract: Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining long term urban landscape change and, with concurrent daily streamflow and precipitation records, allows the historical relationship of impervious surfaces and streamflow to be explored. Impervious surface area in the upper Accotink Creek subwatershed was mapped from six dates of rectified historical aerial photography ranging from 1949 to 1994. Results show that anthropogenic impervious surface area has grown from approximately 3% in 1949 to 33% in 1994. Coincident to this time period, analysis of historical mean daily streamflow rate shows a statistically significant increase in standardized streamflow discharge rates (per meter of precipitation) associated with "normal" and "extreme" daily precipitation thresholds. Simultaneously, the magnitude and frequency of "normal" and "extreme" precipitation events show no statistically significant change. Historical changes in streamflow discharge rate in this basin appear to be related to increases in impervious surface cover. Historical aerial photography is a viable tool for revealing long-term landscape and ecosystem relationships, and allows landscape investigations to extend beyond the temporal and spatial constraints of historical satellite remote sensing data.
The views expressed here are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The manuscript was prepared by scientists in EPAs Office of Research and Development (ORD) and has been administratively reviewed and approved for publication. Mention of trade names does not constitute endorsement or recommendation.

BOOK CHAPTER An Overview of the Stressors and Ecological Impacts Associated With Regional and Global Patterns of Population, Land Use, and Land Cover Change 06/02/2006
Jarnagin, S T. An Overview of the Stressors and Ecological Impacts Associated With Regional and Global Patterns of Population, Land Use, and Land Cover Change. , Chapter 7, William Acevedo, Janis Taylor, Dave Hester, Carol Mladinich and Sonya Glavac (ed.), Rates, Trends, Causes, and Consequences of Urban Land-Use Change in the United States. USGS, Corvallis, OR, 189-200, (2006).
Abstract: This report provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and re~ona1 to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential of those activities. LULC change alters nutrient cycling, hydrology, ecology, ecosystem and community functioning, species diversity, and enhances the spread of invasive species and communicable disease. Drivers of LULC change and methods of quantification are discussed. This report does not attempt to examine in detail the specific consequence of each potential change in land use and land cover at a global scale. Rather, it concentrates on the human drivers of land use and land cover change, regional patterns of change, and their resulting stressors and ecological impacts.

BOOK CHAPTER Uncertainty in Scaling Nutrient Export Coefficients 04/14/2006
WICKHAM, J. D., B. JONES, T. G. WADE, AND K. H. RIITTERS. Uncertainty in Scaling Nutrient Export Coefficients. , Chapter 12, Methods and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, 225-237, (2006).
Abstract: The Innov-X XT400 portable XRF analyzer features a miniature, rugged x-ray tube excitation source for analyzing a wide variety of elements and sample materials, including alloys, environmental solids, and other analytical samples. The x-ray tube source and Light Element Analysis Program (LEAP) technology analyzes elements that would require three isotope sources in an isotope-based XRF analyzer. Other features of the XT400 include: multiple x-ray beam filters, multiple calibration methods, and adjustable tube voltages and currents. The analyzer weighs 4.5 pounds and can be powered in the field with a lithium-ion battery or 110-volt alternating current (AC). The XT400 XRF analyzer utilizes a Hewlett-Packard (HP) iPAQ personal data assistant (PDA) for data storage of up to 10,000 tests with spectra in its 64 megabyte memory. The iPAQ has a color, high resolution display with variable backlighting and can be fitted with Bluetooth® wireless printing and data downloading, an integrated bar-code reader, and wireless data and file transfer accessories. The XT400 analyzer can analyze elements from potassium to uranium in suites of 25 elements simultaneously. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the XT400 analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the XT400 analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs. The Innov-X XT400 portable XRF analyzer features a miniature, rugged x-ray tube excitation source for analyzing a wide variety of elements and sample materials, including alloys, environmental solids, and other analytical samples. The x-ray tube source and Light Element Analysis Program (LEAP) technology analyzes elements that would require three isotope sources in an isotope-based XRF analyzer. Other features of the XT400 include: multiple x-ray beam filters, multiple calibration methods, and adjustable tube voltages and currents. The analyzer weighs 4.5 pounds and can be powered in the field with a lithium-ion battery or 110-volt alternating current (AC). The XT400 XRF analyzer utilizes a Hewlett-Packard (HP) iPAQ personal data assistant (PDA) for data storage of up to 10,000 tests with spectra in its 64 megabyte memory. The iPAQ has a color, high resolution display with variable backlighting and can be fitted with Bluetooth® wireless printing and data downloading, an integrated bar-code reader, and wireless data and file transfer accessories. The XT400 analyzer can analyze elements from potassium to uranium in suites of 25 elements simultaneously. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the XT400 analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the XT400 analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

DATA Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks Using Landscape Ecology Metrics: Upper White River Browser (V2.0) 12/20/2006
LOPEZ, R. D., M. S. NASH, D. T. HEGGEM, L. BICE, E. EVANSON, L. WOODS, R. VAN REMORTEL, M. JACKSON, D. W. EBERT, AND T. HARRIS. Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks Using Landscape Ecology Metrics: Upper White River Browser (V2.0). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-06/017, 2006.
Abstract: The principal focus of this project is the mapping and interpretation of landscape scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among contributing watersheds of the Upper White River, and the development of geospatial models of water quality vulnerability for several suspected non-point source pollutants in the region. These analyses utilize a combination of existing field water quality monitoring station data, remote sensing information, and a priori information about the ecological interactions between land cover types and configuration (or more generally, landscape conditions), and water quality in streams and rivers of the associated watershed. The analyses are conducted at multiple geographic scales, from the site-specific water quality measurement (fine-scale) to the watershed analyses (broad-scale), which are reported to the user of this browser among 8-digit US Geological Service's hydrologic units (i.e., 8-digit HUCs) or among 244 subwatersheds, which are customized for this project. The 244 subwatersheds have been customized for this project in order to increase the precision and accuracy of the water quality vulnerability predictions, and are based upon a single water quality pour point for each subwatershed. The water quality pour points are based upon the existence of Federal and State field-based water sampling locations, which have been extensively aggregated and quality checked specifically for this project. Much is still unknown about how land cover type, land cover configuration, environmental change, and human activities may affect the chemical and biological characteristics of surface water of the Upper White River region. The information provided in this browser provides the first broad-scale predictions of water quality vulnerability from chemical and biological constituents, and the distribution of potential drivers (i.e., land cover types, land cover configurations, and human activities) of water quality conditions. We encourage the user to explore the water quality vulnerability maps, the landscape metric maps - analysis by decade status, and the landscape metric change maps - analysis by decadal interval that were used to make the predictions to better understand how best to manage the watersheds of the Upper White River.

DATA EMAP-West Metric Browser 07/07/2006
HEGGEM, D. T., E. EVANSON, K. HERMANN, T. SELLE, R. HALL, AND S. AUGUSTINE. EMAP-West Metric Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-06/006, 2006.
Abstract: This is the first step in the process to develop landscape ecological condition indicators. When fully developed, these indicators will allow state, local and federal agencies to easily and cost-effectively locate both pristine surface waters, as well as surface waters at risk of impairment from nonpoint source pollution at very large scales.

EXTRAMURAL DOCUMENT Simulated Changes in Runoff and Sediment in Developing Areas Near Benson, Arizona 11/30/2006
LEVICK, L., D. J. SEMMENS, D. GOODRICH, W. G. KEPNER, J. BRUSH, R. LEIDY, AND E. GOLDMANN. Simulated Changes in Runoff and Sediment in Developing Areas Near Benson, Arizona. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2006.
Abstract: Residential and commercial development is occurring with unprecedented speed throughout the American Southwest. It is projected that from 1995 to 2025, the population in the six Southwestern states of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado will increase by more than 50%, while the remainder of the country is projected to grow only 10 to 15%. More recently the Arizona Department of Commerce has projected the state's population will increase three-fold in the next several decades. This scale and rapid pace of development presents special challenges to the review and permitting process as required under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Many of the areas undergoing rapid development are in arid and semiarid regions whose watersheds and associated streams exhibit ephemeral or intermittent flow. The standard process for CWA permitting associated with new development rarely considers the special attributes and circumstances encountered in these environments. In addition, rapid urbanization can present a challenge in assessing the cumulative impacts of development on watersheds and landscapes when permitting is conducted piecemeal over multiple parcels in the same region.
Geospatial tools are needed to enable the rapid assessment of proposed developments to identify circumstances that may require more in-depth analysis. The Automated Geospatial Watershed ssessment (AGWA) tool is a GIS-based interface for the well established Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model (KINEROS2) watershed models, and is capable of such assessments (see http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa/ and/or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/). In this study AGWA was applied to an 8,200-acre study area proposed for development located near Benson, Arizona. Pre- and proposed postdevelopment land-cover conditions were simulated using KINEROS2 through the AGWA interface and subjected to several design storms. Changes in runoff and sediment yield due to the proposed changes in land cover were computed for five watersheds encompassing the study area and extending to the main-stem of the San Pedro River. The largest average changes in runoff volume (~+413%) and sediment yield (~ +231%) across the five watersheds occurred for the two-year, one-hour design storm. For the 10-year, one-hour design storm these changes in runoff and sediment yield were reduced to roughly +23%.

This analysis represents a preliminary, qualitative assessment of anticipated hydrologic change resulting from proposed development in the Benson area. Results definitively indicate that the proposed land-use changes will result in significant alteration of the hydrologic regime both within and downstream of the impacted watersheds where they empty into the San Pedro River. Quantitative predictions of these impacts would require substantial additional information that is not presently available for the ungauged study-area watersheds. Insufficient information on the design and placement of flood mitigation measures (detention basins, riparian buffers, water harvesting, recharge wells, open space infiltration galleries), for example, did not allow this study to assess the impacts of such structures on runoff changes. In addition, a larger-scale analysis of development within the San Pedro River Basin would be necessary to ascertain cumulative impacts to the river and identify areas of critical concern.

JOURNAL Environmental Analytical Chemistry of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products: the Separations Focus Turns to Polar Analytes 12/31/2006
MOTTALEB, M. A. AND W. C. BRUMLEY. Environmental Analytical Chemistry of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products: the Separations Focus Turns to Polar Analytes. Trends in Chromatography. Research Trends, Trivandrum, India, 2:11-29, (2006).
Abstract: Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools applied, and has revealed the need for awareness of the parallel developments in pharmaceutical analysis and biomedical analysis. We place particular emphasis on the separations that undergird successful analysis of PPCPs and the final separation/detection that provides the primary data upon which risk assessments and other determinations will ultimately be based. We suggest that the new emphasis on PPCPs has now defined a turning point in environmental analysis and set the stage for a significant new challenge that we briefly explore in this appraisal of the field.

JOURNAL Integrating Lidar and Satellite Optical Depth With Ambient Monitoring for 3-Dimensional Particulate Characterization 12/30/2006
ENGEL-COX, J. A., R. M. HOFF, R. ROGERS, F. DIMMICK, A. C. RUSH, J. SZYKMAN, J. AL-SAADI, A. CHU, AND E. R. ZELL. Integrating Lidar and Satellite Optical Depth With Ambient Monitoring for 3-Dimensional Particulate Characterization. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(40):8056-8067, (2006).
Abstract: A combination of in-situ PM2.5, sunphotometers, upward pointing lidar and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) instruments have been employed to better understand variability in the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 at the surface. Previous studies have shown good correlation between these measures, especially in the US east, and encouraged the use of satellite data for spatially interpolating between ground sensors. This work shows that cases of weak correlation can be better understood with knowledge of whether the aerosol is confined to the surface planetary boundary layer (PBL) or aloft. Lidar apportionment of the fraction of aerosol optical depth that is within the PBL can be scaled to give better agreement with surface PM2.5 than does the total column amount. The study has shown that lidar combined with surface and remotely sensed data might be strategically used to improve our understanding of long-range or regionally transported pollutants in multiple dimensions.

JOURNAL Calculation of Electron Affinities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Sovation Energies of Their Anions 12/04/2006
Betowski, L D., M. Enlow, L A. Riddick, AND D. H. Aue. Calculation of Electron Affinities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Sovation Energies of Their Anions. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 110(47):12927-12946, (2006).
Abstract: Electron affinities (EAs) and free energies for electron attachment have been calculated for 42 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and related molecules by a variety of theoretical models, including Koopmans' theorem methods and the L1E method from differences in energy between the neutral hydrocarbon and radical anion. Standard errors from linear regressions between theoretical and experimental free energies are about 0.09 eV for the L1E method using density functional theory (DFT) methods, B3L YP/6-311 G(d,p) and B3L YP/6- 31 +G(d,p). With the Hartree-Fock and MP2 methods, spin contamination is a problem, and Electron affinities (EAs) and free energies for electron attachment have been calculated for 42 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and related molecules by a variety of theoretical models, including Koopmans' theorem methods and the L1E method from differences in energy between the neutral hydrocarbon and radical anion. Standard errors from linear regressions between theoretical and experimental free energies are about 0.09 eV for the L1E method using density functional theory (DFT) methods, B3L YP/6-311 G(d,p) and B3L YP/6- 31 +G(d,p). With the Hartree-Fock and MP2 methods, spin contamination is a problem, and larger standard errors of 0.14 eV or more are found, even with correction for the quartet spin state contamination by the PMP2 spin-projection methods.

JOURNAL The Use of Spatial Analytical Techniques to Identify Potential Brownfields Sites 10/23/2006
TILLEY, J. S., R. PAUL, E. SLONECKER, AND E. WALKOWIAK. The Use of Spatial Analytical Techniques to Identify Potential Brownfields Sites. C. S. Mladinich, and S. Glavac (ed.), USGS STATUS AND TRENDS REPORT 2003. USGS, Corvallis, OR, 200, (2006).
Abstract: Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or underutilized properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. Most Brownfields sites are located in urban, commercial, and industrial areas. Under the Brownfields Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency provides grants, technical assistance, and liability relief to encourage the remediation and/or redevelopment of these properties.
One of the key information requirements in any successful Brownfields Program is the ability to identify and inventory potential Brownfields sites. Because the current alternatives of ground-based surveys, informal real-estate listings, or general perceptions are time consuming and unreliable, we hypothesize that spatial information technologies can playa critical role in providing this inventory of potential sites. In this research, spatial analytical techniques and several diverse GIS datasets are used to efficiently and quickly identify potential Brownfields sites over a city-wide area. A defensible and repeatable geographic methodology will benefit any community in identifying properties that could be potentially returned to higher and better uses. With such an application, cost savings could be applied in the other processes of Brownfields revitalization or urban redevelopment.


JOURNAL The Effect of Appalachian Mountaintop Mining on Interior Forest 10/19/2006
WICKHAM, J. D., K. RIITTERS, T. G. WADE, M. COAN, AND C. HOMER. The Effect of Appalachian Mountaintop Mining on Interior Forest. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY. Springer, New York, NY, 22(2):179-197, (2007).
Abstract: Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest. We used spatial convolution to identify interior forest at multiple scales on circa 1992 and 2001 land-cover maps of the Southern Appalachians. Our analyses show that interior forest loss was 1.75 to 5.0 times greater than the direct forest loss attributable to mountaintop mining. Mountaintop mining in the southern Appalachians has reduced forest interior area more extensively than the reduction that would be expected based on changes in overall forest area alone. The loss of Southern Appalachian interior forest is of global significance because of the worldwide rarity of large expanses of temperate deciduous forest.

JOURNAL Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams 08/30/2006
MEHAFFEY, M. H., M. S. NASH, A. C. NEALE, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. Springer, New York, NY, 124(1-3):141-156, (2006).
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sites were selected from eight-two independent watersheds across the region for sampling and analyses. Clustering of the watersheds by landscape resulted in three distinct groups (forest, crop, and urban) which coincided with watersheds dominant land cover or use. We used non-parametric analyses to test differences in benthos and water chemistry between groups, and used regression analyses to evaluate responses of benthic communities to water chemistry within each of the landscape groups. We found that typical water chemistry measures associated with urban runoff such as specific conductance and dissolved chloride were significantly higher in the urban group. In the crop group, we found variables commonly associated with farming such as nutrients and pesticides significantly greater than in the other two groups. Regression analyses demonstrated that the numbers of tolerant and facultative macroinvertebrates increased significantly in forested watersheds with small shifts in pollutants, while in human use dominated watersheds the intolerant macroinvertebrates were more sensitive to shifts in chemicals present at lower concentrations. The results from this study suggest that landscape based clustering can be used to link upstream landscape characteristics, water chemistry and biotic integrity in order to assess stream condition and likely cause of degradation without the use of reference sites.

JOURNAL Evaluating Ecoregions for Sampling and Mapping Land-Cover Patterns 07/11/2006
RIITTERS, K. H., J. D. WICKHAM, AND T. G. WADE. Evaluating Ecoregions for Sampling and Mapping Land-Cover Patterns. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 72(7):781-788, (2006).
Abstract: Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification by ecoregions, administrative units, and watersheds. Ecoregions accounted for 65% to 75% of the total variance of percent agriculture and percent forest because dominant land cover is included in ecoregional definitions. In contrast, ecoregions explained only 13% to 34% of the variance of seven other pattern indices. After accounting for differences in amount of forest, ecoregions explained less than 5% of the variance of eight forest pattern indices. None of the stratifications tested would be effective mapping units for environmental management because within-unit variance of land-cover pattern is typically two to four times larger than between-unit vanance.

JOURNAL Land-Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data 06/19/2006
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, J. EDIRIWICKREMA, JOHNG LYON, AND DORSEY D. WORTHY. Land-Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, (105):142-154, (2006).
Abstract: Monitoring the locations and spatial distributions of land-cover changes and patterns is important for establishing links between policy decisions, regulatory actions and resulting landuse activities. The monitoring of change patterns across the landscape can also supply valuable information for assessing ecosystem condition and potentially serve as an early warning indicator for impending functional impairment. Past activities including two-date change detection efforts using Landsat data have tended to be performance limited for applications in biologically diverse systems. This study explored the use of 250 m multi-temporal MODIS NDVI 16-day composite data to detect land-cover change on a one-year time-step for the 52,000 km2 Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System (APES) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Detection accuracy was assessed for 2002 at 87.9%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (21.9%) and change omission errors (27.5%) and Kappa coefficient of 0.67. Annual change detection rates across the APES over the entire study period (2002-2004) were approximately 0.6% per annum and varied from an estimated low of 0.4% (2003) and high of 0.9% (2004). These results represented a substantial advancement over past change detection capabilities previously reported for the APES using Landsat data. An important aspect of this research was the development of an automated protocol to first filter the MODIS NDVI data to remove poor (corrupted) data values and then estimate the missing data values using a Fourier transformation technique – to provide a high quality uninterrupted data stream to support the change detection analysis.

JOURNAL Spatial Association Between Speciated Fine Particles and Mortality 06/19/2006
Fuentes, M., H. Song, S. Ghosh, D M. Holland, AND J. Davis. Spatial Association Between Speciated Fine Particles and Mortality. BIOMETRICS DOI: 10,1111/j.(1541-0420..0052):1-9, (2006).
Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) has been linked to a range of serious cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Some of the recent epidemiologic studies suggest that exposures to PM may result in tens of thousands of excess deaths per year and many more cases of illness among the US population. The main objective of our research is to quantify uncertainties about the impacts of fine PM exposure on mortality. We develop a mutivariate spatial regression model for estimation of the risk of mortality associated to fine PM and its components across all counties the conterminous US. Our approach adjust for meteorology and other confounding influences, such as socioeconomic factors, age, gender and ethnicity, characterizes different sources of uncertainty of the data, and models the spatial structure of several components of fine PM. We consider a flexible Bayesian hierarchical model for a space-time series of counts (mortality) by constructing a likelihood based version of a generalized Poisson regression model. The model has the advantage of incorporating both over and under dispersion in addition to correlations that occur in space and time. We apply these methods to monthly mortality county counts and measurements of total and several components of fine PM from: national monitoring networks in the U.S.
Our results seem to suggest an increase by a factor of 2 in the risk of mortality due to fine particles with respect to coarse particles. Our study also shows that in the Western U.S., the nitrate and crustal components of the speciated fine PM seem to have more impact on mortality that the other components. On the other hand, in the Eastern U.S. sulfate and ammonium explain most of the PM fine effect.

JOURNAL The Effects of Uncertainty on Estimating the Relative Environmental Quality of Watersheds Across a Region 06/15/2006
SMITH, BETSY R., P. MCKINNIS, L. T. TRAN, AND R. V. O'NEILL. The Effects of Uncertainty on Estimating the Relative Environmental Quality of Watersheds Across a Region. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY. Springer, New York, NY, 21:225-231, (2006).
Abstract: Landscape ecologists may be faced with ranking the relative environmental quality of watersheds across a region. The results show that watersheds in the best and the worst condition have rankings that are robust to uncertainty but intermediate watersheds may be difficult or impossible to assign to a rank.

JOURNAL Electron Affinities of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Sensitivities 06/05/2006
BETOWSKI, L. D., M. ENLOW, AND D. H. AUE. Electron Affinities of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Sensitivities. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ION PROCESSES. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 255-256:123-129, (2006).
Abstract: Negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NICI MS) has the potential to be a very useful technique in identifying various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and sediment samples. Some PAHs give much stronger signals under NICI MS conditions than others. On the other hand, positive ion signals are largely comparable under the same source conditions. An extensive set of newly reevaluated experimental electron affinities (EAs), or free energies of electron attachment, are now available, as well as reliable predicted electron affinities from quantum theoretical calculations or from solution reduction potentials and theoretically predicted solvation energies. In order to show a high negative-ion sensitivity, a PAH must have an EA that exceeds a Threshold of approximately of 0.5 eV. Comparisons between the negativeion to positive-ion sensitivities (N/P ratios) and these new electron affinities shows a rough correlation between the two, but naphthacene and perylene are exceptions to this relationship with much lower sensitivities than expected from their high EA values. By calculating the EA for a PAH, one can predict whether a sensitivity enhancement under NICI MS conditions is to be
expected. Since aliphatic hydrocarbons and many other substances have negative or very low EAs, NICI MS is expected to be a good technique for detecting PAHs in samples contaminated with other hydrocarbons or compounds with low EAs.

JOURNAL Watershed-Based Survey Designs 05/14/2006
DETENBECK, N., D. CINCOTTA, J. DENVER, S. GREENLEE, A. OLSEN, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Watershed-Based Survey Designs. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. Springer, New York, NY, DOI: 10,1007/s(10661-005-4774-):59-81, (2005).
Abstract: Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain Streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

JOURNAL Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination: Analysis of Urobilin and Pharmaceuticals in Source Waters 04/03/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination: Analysis of Urobilin and Pharmaceuticals in Source Waters. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, Uk, 8:472-478, (2006).
Abstract: Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough densities that they can be measured easily. However, most of these microbes, for example E. coli, do not serve as specific markers for any one host species and many can have origins other than feces. As an alternative, chemicals shed in feces and urine might be used to detect human waste contamination of environmental waters. One potential chemical marker of human waste is the compound urobilin. Urobilin is one of the final by-products of hemoglobin breakdown. Urobilin is excreted in both the urine and feces from many mammals, particularly humans. Source waters from 21 sites in New England, Nevada, and Michigan were extracted using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS). As a marker of human waste, urobilin was detected in many of the source waters at concentrations ranging from not detectable to 300 ng/L. Besides urobilin, zithromycin, an antibiotic widely prescribed for human-use only in the US, was also detected in many of these waters, with concentrations ranging from not detectable to 77 ng/L. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give public water authorities a definitive method for tracing the sources of human waste contamination. The analysis and detection of urobilin in surface waters by HPLC-ES-MS has not been previously reported in the peer-reviewed literature.

JOURNAL Evaluation of Short-Term Ogawa Passive, Photolytic, and Federal Reference Method Sampling Devices for Nitrogen Oxides in El Paso and Houston, Texas 03/30/2006
SATHER, M. E., E. SLONECKER, J. MATHEW, H. DAUGHTREY, AND D. D. WILLIAMS. Evaluation of Short-Term Ogawa Passive, Photolytic, and Federal Reference Method Sampling Devices for Nitrogen Oxides in El Paso and Houston, Texas. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, Uk, DOI:10.1039/b601113f, (2006).
Abstract: Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a common urban air pollutant that results from the combustion of fossil fuels. It causes serious human health effects, is a precursor to the formation of ground level ozone, another serious air pollutAnt, and is one of the six criteria air pollutants established by the Clean Air Act (CAA). Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) for NO2 were collocated and operated at six NO2 Federal Reference Method (FRM) monitor locations in the El Paso, Texas area for the 2004 calendar year. Passive samples were taken at 2-week, 3-week, and 4-week intervals and compared against the continuously operating FRM monitors. Results showed that the collective NO2 annual arithmetic mean for all passive monitors was identical to the mean for all FRM monitors. Of the individual locations, three passive annual NO2 means were identical to their corresponding FRM means, and three passive annual NO2 means differed from their corresponding FRM means by only one part per billion (ppb ). Linear correlation analysis between all readings of the individual NO2 PSDs and FRM values showed an average absolute difference of 1.2 ppb with an r2 of 0.95. Paired comparison between high and low concentration annual NO2 sites, seasonal and topographic considerations, and interlab quality control comparisons all showed excellent results. The ease of deployment, reliability, and the cost- savings that can be realized with NO2 PSDs could make them an attractive alternative to FRM monitors and even possibly an equivalent method for annual NO2 monitoring. More studies are needed in different ecosystem and climate regimes.

JOURNAL Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Fine Particulate Matter 03/29/2006
SAHU, S., A. GELFAND, AND D. M. HOLLAND. Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Fine Particulate Matter. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS. American Statistical Association, Alexandria, VA, 11(1):1-26, (2006).
Abstract: Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipate urban/rural differences with regard to both mean levels and variability. Hence, we introduce two random effects components, one for rural or background levels and the other as a supplement for urban areas. These are specified in the form of spatio-temporal processes. Weighting these processes through a population density surface results in nonstationarity in space. We analyze daily PM2.5 concentrations in three Midwestern U.S. states for the year 2001. A fully Bayesian model is implemented, using MCMC techniques, which enables full inference with regard to process unknowns as well as predictions in time and space.

JOURNAL Evaluation of N-Methyl-N-Tert-Butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide for Environmental Analysis Under Both Eims and Electron Capture Nicims Conditions and Comparison to Trimethylsilyl Reagents Under Eims 03/27/2006
Gentry, E. L., L A. Riddick, AND W C. Brumley. Evaluation of N-Methyl-N-Tert-Butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide for Environmental Analysis Under Both Eims and Electron Capture Nicims Conditions and Comparison to Trimethylsilyl Reagents Under Eims. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A 86(5):299-312, (2006).
Abstract: Sewage effluent was analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) by extracting one liter of water using liquid-liquid extraction and determined by GC/MS operated in the negative ion chemical ionization (electron capture) mode, TCP is the major metabolite of the commonly used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, and herbicide trichlorpyridinol. The recoveries using dichloromethane as the extractant were 59% with a relative standard deviation of 2% This method was used to investigate levels of TCP in sewage effluent. During this analysis a tentatively identified additional isomer of TCP (X-TCP) was found. The 3,5,6-TCP, the common chlorpyrifos metabolite and the synthesized isomer, 3,4,5-TCP were compared with X-TCP. All three isomers have significantly different retention times. The average level of 3,5,6-TCP was 3.4 ng/L while the level of X-TCP was 39.8 ng/L.

JOURNAL Multiscale Relationships of Landscape Characteristics and Nitrogen Concentrations in Streams 03/21/2006
Jones, K B., A C. Neale, T G. Wade, J D. Wickham, M S. Nash, C M. Edmonds, K. H. Riitters, E R. Smith, AND R. D. Van Remortel. Multiscale Relationships of Landscape Characteristics and Nitrogen Concentrations in Streams. Jianguo, Wu, K. Bruce Jones, Li Harbin, Orie L. LOoucks (ed.), Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology Methods and Application. Columbian University Press, Cambridge, NY, 205-224, (2006).
Abstract: There have been numerous papers reporting relationships between watershed andlandscape characteristics and chemnical, physical,m and biological attributes of streams (see summary in Lee et al. 2001). Some of these studies have shown strong linkages between stream and near-site landscape conditions (Lammert et al. 1999, Stauffer et al, 2000, Talmage et al. 2002), while others show stronger linkages between stream and watershed scale,landscape conditions (Roth et al. 1996, Allan et al, 1997, Herligy et al. 1998, Davies et al. 2000, Jones et al. 2001a). Moreover, there are differences in the importance of environmental variables in explaining variation in stream condition among the various studies ( for example, see Roth et al. 1996 and Lee et al. 2001, for a comparison).
Differences in results are not surprising given the wide range of scales and biophysical settings in which these studies were conducted, and the potential for variation in environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation and flow) among the years in which these studies were conducted. Scaling is considered to be one of the top challenges facing environmental managers and ecologists alike (Wu 1999, Wu and Hobbs 2002). Stream chemistry , including nitrogen concentration, seems to be controlled by overall watershed conditions (Carpenter et al. 1998, Herlihy et al. 1998, Jones et al. 2001), although point sources and atmospheric nitrogen deposition also can be a significant sources of nitrogen in streams (Behrendt 1996 and Smith et al. 1997, respectively). Studies of the importance of land cover and land use in riparian zones is well documented (Lowrance et al. 1984, Peterjohn and Correll1984), but most have been limited in geographic scope and biophysical variability .Moreover, little is known on how effective forested riparian buffers are in filtering nitrogen in different biophysical settings across broad regions.

JOURNAL The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool 03/06/2006
MILLER, S., D. J. SEMMENS, D. GOODRICH, M. HERNANDEZ, R. MILLER, W. G. KEPNER, AND P. GUERTIN. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool. ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING AND SOFTWARE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, (22):365-377, (2006).
Abstract: A toolkit for distributed hydrologic modeling at multiple scales using a geographic information system is presented. This open-source, freely available software was developed through a collaborative endeavor involving two Universities and two government agencies. Called the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA), this software is written for the ArcView GIS platform and is distributed as an extension via the Internet. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Kinematic Runoff and Erosion model (KINEROS2). These two distributed hydrologic models operate at different time scales and are suitable for application across a range of spatial scales.

JOURNAL Assessing Accuracy of Net Change Derived from Land Cover Maps 02/15/2006
Stehman, S. V. AND J D. Wickham. Assessing Accuracy of Net Change Derived from Land Cover Maps. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, 72(2):175-186, (2006).
Abstract: Net change derived from land-cover maps provides important descriptive information for environmental monitoring and is often used as an input or explanatory variable in environmental models. The sampling design and analysis for assessing net change accuracy differ from traditional methods focusing on single date or gross change maps. Different metrics are needed to describe net change accuracy, and implementing stratified sampling is more complicated because of the many different estimates required. Mean absolute deviation estimated for user-defined reporting domains is used to characterize net change accuracy. If stratified sampling is implemented to improve precision for high priority reporting domains ( e.g., high net change), the number and identity of strata must be chosen with the recognition that improved precision for some estimates is achieved at the expense of poorer precision for other estimates. The accuracy assessment strategy and a design evaluation protocol are demonstrated using net change derived from the 1992 and preliminary 2001 National Land-Cover Data of the United States.

NON-EPA PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS Geophysics Applied to Contaminant Studies: Papers Presented at Sageep from 1988 to 2006 04/15/2006
WERKEMA, D. D. Geophysics Applied to Contaminant Studies: Papers Presented at Sageep from 1988 to 2006. Syposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering & Environmental Problems, Seattle, WA, April 03 - 07, 2006. Werkema, Douglas D. (ed.), Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, Denver, CO, 1(1):0, (2006).
Abstract: This special CD was compiled from the proceedings of the annual Symposium for the Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems (SAGEEP) hosted by the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS). For a history of EEGS and information on the Society, please go to the Society's web site at www.eegs.org.

PAPER IN EPA PROCEEDINGS 25th Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems 04/27/2006
Sastry, R., H. Kahn, M. S. NASH, AND R. D. LOPEZ. 25th Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems. In Proceedings, 25th Annual Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Austin, TX, April 24 - 27, 2006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1-12, EPA/600/R-06/036 (NTIS PB2007-107218), 2006.
Abstract: The model results may help landscape ecologists produce indicators of surface water condition, such that unique combinations of these indicators can be used to infer the potential cause(s) and origin(s) of non-point pollution, which may lead to eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems, the loss of aquatic ecosystem function, and the injury of humans that consume from (or recreate in) the aquatic resources of the Ozarks. Sensitivity analyses for the above model and the PLS results discussed in this presentation are actively being used to prioritized subwatersheds in the Ozarks for watershed management activities.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS A Retrospective Analysis of Model Uncertainty for Forecasting Hydrologic Change 07/12/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., M. HERNANDEZ, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. A Retrospective Analysis of Model Uncertainty for Forecasting Hydrologic Change. In Proceedings, 2006 International Environmental Modeling and Software Society, Burlington, VT, July 09 - 12, 2006. International Society for Ecological Modeling, Severna Park, MD, 1-6, (2006).
Abstract: GIS-based hydrologic modeling offers a convenient means of assessing the impacts associated with land-cover/use change for environmental planning efforts. Alternative future scenarios can be used as input to hydrologic models and compared with existing conditions to evaluate potential environmental impacts as part of this process. Model error, however, can be significant and potentially compounded when projecting future land-cover/use change and management conditions. To address this problem we have utilized repeat observations of land cover/use as a proxy for projected future conditions. A systematic analysis of model efficiency during simulations based on observed land-cover/use change is used to quantify error associated with simulations for a series of known "future" landscape conditions over a 24-year period. Calibrated and uncalibrated assessments of relative change over different lengths of time are also presented to determine the types of information that can reliably be used in planning efforts for which calibration is not possible.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS Hydrologic Model Uncertainty Associated With Simulating Future Land-Cover/Use Scenarios: A Retrospective Analysis 05/18/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., M. HERNANDEZ, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. Hydrologic Model Uncertainty Associated With Simulating Future Land-Cover/Use Scenarios: A Retrospective Analysis. In Proceedings, Proceedings of the 2nd Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Otto, NC, May 16 - 18, 2006. USDA Forest Service, 33-40, (2006).
Abstract: GIS-based hydrologic modeling offers a convenient means of assessing the impacts associated with land-cover/use change for environmental planning efforts. Alternative future scenarios can be used as input to hydrologic models and compared with existing conditions to evaluate potential environmental impacts as part of this process. Model error, however, can be significant and potentially compounded when projecting future land-cover/use change and management conditions. To address this problem we have utilized repeat observations of land cover/use as a proxy for projected future conditions. A systematic analysis of model efficiency during simulations based on observed land-cover/use change is used to quantify error associated with simulations for a series of known future landscape conditions over a 24-year period. Calibrated and uncalibrated assessments of relative change over different lengths of time are also presented to determine the types of information that can reliably be used in planning efforts for which calibration is not possible.

PRESENTATION Coupled Geophysical-Hydrological Modeling of a Controlled Napl Spill 12/15/2006
KOWALSKY, M., E. MAJER, J. PETERSON, S. FENSTERLE, AND A. MAZZELLA. Coupled Geophysical-Hydrological Modeling of a Controlled Napl Spill. Presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 11 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: Past studies have shown reasonable sensitivity of geophysical data for detecting or monitoring the movement of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. However, heterogeneity in subsurface properties and in NAPL distribution commonly results in non-unique data
interpretation. Combining multiple geophysical data types and incorporating constraints from hydrological models will potentially decrease the non-uniqueness in data interpretation and aid in site characterization. Large-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted over several years to evaluate the use of various geophysical methods, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR), seismic, and electrical methods, for monitoring controlled spills of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a hazardous industrial solvent that is pervasive in the subsurface. In the current study, we consider an experiment in which PCE was introduced into a large sand tank containing a heterogeneous distribution of sand and clay mixtures, and allowed to migrate while time-lapse geophysical data were collected. We consider two approaches for interpreting the surface GPR and crosswell seismic data. The first approach involves (a) waveform inversion of the surface GPR data using a non-gradient based optimization algorithm to estimate the dielectric constant distributions and (b) conversion of crosswell seismic travel times to acoustic velocity distributions; the dielectric constant and acoustic velocity distributions are then related to NAPL saturation using appropriate petrophysical models. The second approach takes advantage of a recently developed framework for coupled hydrogeological-geophysical modeling, providing a hydrological constraint on interpretation of the geophysical data and additionally resulting in quantitative estimates of the most relevant hydrogeological parameters that determine NAPL behavior in the system. Specifically, we simulate NAPL migration using the multiphase multicomponent flow simulator TOUGH2 with a 2-D radial model that takes advantage of radial symmetry in the experimental setup. The flow model is coupled to forward models for simulating the GPR and seismic measurements, and joint inversion of the multiple data types results in time-varying NAPL saturation distributions. Comparison of the two approaches with results of the post-experiment excavation indicate that combining geophysical data types and incorporating hydrogeological constraints improves estimates of NAPL saturation relative to the conventional interpretation of

the geophysical data sets.

PRESENTATION High Resoltuion Geoelectrical Measurements of Biodegradation and Surfactant Remediation: Lab and Field Studes and a New Characterization Test Cell Field Research Site 11/16/2006
WERKEMA, D. D. AND S. P. GARDNER. High Resoltuion Geoelectrical Measurements of Biodegradation and Surfactant Remediation: Lab and Field Studes and a New Characterization Test Cell Field Research Site. Presented at High Resolution Site Characterization & Monitoring Symposium, Long Beach, CA, November 14 - 16, 2006.
Abstract: Laboratory and field high vertical resolution geophysical research has shown that geoelectrical measurements can detect and monitor the natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results have lead to the continued development and refinement of the conductive model for hydrocarbon contamination during natural attenuation. Secondly, surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation is a practical remediation strategy for dense non-aqueous liquids. Full experimental design laboratory experiments show that some of the typically used surfactants result in considerable electrical conductivity enhancements.
Future larger scale high resolution experiments will be conducted in EPA's new Characterization Test Cell (CTC) being constructed at the Naval Base Ventura County. The CTC will be a large scale field test facility where these high resolution geophysical methods, new geophysical methods, and groundwater sampling technologies will be researched and developed. The CTC will be an important tool in the understanding of high resolution subsurface measurements and in the collaboration and multidisciplinary

science between government, academia, and industry.

PRESENTATION Integration of Satellite, Modeled, and Ground Based Aerosol Data for Use in Air Quality and Public Health Applications 11/15/2006
KONDRAGUNTA, S., J. SZYKMAN, C. XU, A. GILLILAND, C. KITTAKA, F. DIMMICK, AND D. M. HOLLAND. Integration of Satellite, Modeled, and Ground Based Aerosol Data for Use in Air Quality and Public Health Applications. Presented at Asia-Pacific SPIE Meeting, Goe, INDIA, November 15, 2006.
Abstract: Case studies of severe pollution events due to forest fires/dust storms/industrial haze, from the integrated 2001 aerosol dataset, will be presented within the context of air quality and human health.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Modis (Mod15a2) Lai 8-Day Composite Product in the Southeastern United States 11/09/2006
IIAMES, J. S. Assessment of Modis (Mod15a2) Lai 8-Day Composite Product in the Southeastern United States. Presented at ASPRS Fall Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 07 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Buddleja Davidii (Butterfly Bush): A Growing Threat to Riparia? 11/09/2006
TALLENT-HALSELL, N. G., H. TURNBULL, L. WALKER, AND J. CABREZAM. Buddleja Davidii (Butterfly Bush): A Growing Threat to Riparia? Presented at National Tribal Invasive Species Conference, Sparks, NV, November 07, 2006 - November 09, 2007.
Abstract: Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, railroad embankments and road edges. Buddleja grows rapidly, matures quickly, and is capable of producing millions of wind-dispersed seeds starting in its first year. It can recover from anthropogenic and natural disturbance quickly by producing adventitious shoots and roots on fragments of buried or cut stems. Buddleja establishes as dense thickets that may affect river hydrology as well as access to water. Control mechanisms include removal, cutting, treating with glyphospate herbicides, and or biocontrol using Cleopus japonicus and Microctonus aethropoides (at this time in New Zealand only). Removal efforts are labor and resource intensive. The Jamestown S'Klallam tribe in northwestern Washingon has removed Buddleja viamechanical and herbicide treatment in 2005 and 2006. Small-scale removal by cutting and herbicide has released small areas from Buddleja in the Dungeness River. The Jamestown Tribe's project is funded by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant. A better understanding of the factors that promote Buddleja invasions is needed for land managers to address Buddleja control Our research characterizes Buddleja habitat, in particular Buddleja impacts on native species richness, species interactions, soil N and P, and successional trajectories.

PRESENTATION Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Tadpoles of the California Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains 11/09/2006
STANLEY, K., C. DAVIDSON, D. F. BRADFORD, S. SIMONICH, AND N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL. Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Tadpoles of the California Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Presented at SETAC Conference, Montreal, QC, CANADA, November 05 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: The semi-volatile organic contaminants (SOCs)present in the tadpoles from the two mountain ranges and the comparison between pesticide content in the Sierra snow and tadpoles are presented.

PRESENTATION Landscape Assessment for Targeted Monitoring, Guiding Criteria Development, and Forecasting Recovery Potential 11/08/2006
WICKHAM, J. D. Landscape Assessment for Targeted Monitoring, Guiding Criteria Development, and Forecasting Recovery Potential. Presented at Office of Water/Office of Research and Development Seminar Series, Washington, DC, November 08, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Ecology Approaches for Assessing Ecological Conditions in the Great Lakes Basin 11/06/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. Landscape Ecology Approaches for Assessing Ecological Conditions in the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at Center for Urban Evironmental Research and Policy, Chicago, IL, November 06, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predictions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution 11/05/2006
LOPEZ, R. D., M. S. NASH, D. T. HEGGEM, AND D. W. EBERT. Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predictions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution. Presented at Poster/Sigma Xi Conference, RTP, NC, November 02 - 05, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development have mapped and interpreted landscape-scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among watersheds in the upper White River watershed, producing the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerability in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas (USA).These analyses utilized a combination of partial least squares (PLS), existing field water quality monitoring station data, remote sensing information, and a priori information about landscape conditions of the associated subwatershed(s). The analyses were conducted at multiple geographic scales, from the site-specific water quality measurements (fine-scale) to the broader-scale watershed analyses, which have been reported among 8-digit U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic units and 244 customized subwatersheds. The 244 subwatersheds were customized for this project to increase the precision and accuracy of water quality vulnerability predictions and were based on watershed terrain and a single "pour point" for each subwatershed where all runoff exits the watershed. Using PLS, we determined four different (surface) water quality conditions among the 244 customized subwatersheds of the Ozarks, which may be useful for important management decisions in the region: (1) subwatersheds that have high concentrations of total ammonia, high concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of Escherichia coli (E. coli); (2) subwatersheds that have high concentrations of total ammonia, low concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of E. coli; (3) subwatersheds that have low concentrations of total ammonia, low concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of E. coli; and (4) subwatersheds that have moderate concentrations of both total ammonia and total phosphorus and moderate E. coli cell counts. The results of this project provide watershed managers with the first broad-scale predictions that can be used to explain how land cover type, land cover configuration, environmental change, and human activities may affect the chemical and biological characteristics of surface water in the Upper White River region. The amount of variability in surface water constituents explained by each model reflects the composition of the contributing landscape metrics. The landscape-water model developed using PLS explains 59%, 93%, and 81% of the variation in surface water total phosphorous, total ammonia, and E. coli, respectively.

PRESENTATION Fate of Synthetic Musk Compounds in An Aquatic Environment 11/05/2006
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. Fate of Synthetic Musk Compounds in An Aquatic Environment. Presented at SETAC North American 27th Annual Meeting, Montreal, QC, CANADA, November 05 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: To be presented is an overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of concentrations obtained from the analysis of a suite of these compounds (e.g., Galaxolide®, musk xylene, and amino musk xylene) in different environmental compartments.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predicitions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution 11/05/2006
LOPEZ, R. D., M. S. NASH, D. T. HEGGEM, AND D. W. EBERT. Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predicitions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution. Presented at Sigma Xi Conference, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 02 - 05, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency¿s Office of Research and Development have mapped and interpreted landscape-scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among watersheds in the upper White River watershed, producing the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerability in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas (USA). These analyses utilized a combination of partial least squares (PLS), existing field water quality monitoring station data, remote sensing information, and a priori information about landscape conditions of the associated subwatershed(s). The analyses were conducted at multiple geographic scales, from the site-specific water quality measurements (fine-scale) to the broader-scale watershed analyses, which have been reported among 8-digit U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic units and 244 customized
subwatersheds. The 244 subwatersheds were customized for this project to increase the precision and accuracy of water quality vulnerability predictions and were based on

watershed terrain and a single `pour point¿ for each subwatershed where all runoff exits the watershed. Using PLS, we determined four different (surface) water quality

conditions among the 244 customized subwatersheds of the Ozarks, which may be useful for important management decisions in the region: (1) subwatersheds that have high

concentrations of total ammonia, high concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of Escherichia coli (E. coli); (2) subwatersheds that have high concentrations of total ammonia, low concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of E. coli; (3) subwatersheds that have low concentrations of total ammonia, low concentrations of total phosphorus, and high cell counts of E. coli; and (4) subwatersheds that have moderate

concentrations of both total ammonia and total phosphorus and moderate E. coli cell counts. The results of this project provide watershed managers with the first broad-scale predictions that can be used to explain how land cover type, land cover configuration, environmental change, and human activities may affect the chemical and biological characteristics of surface water in the Upper White River region. The amount of variability in surface water constituents explained by each model reflects the composition of the contributing landscape metrics. The landscape¿water model developed using PLS explains 59%, 93%, and 81% of the variation in surface water total phosphorous, total ammonia, and E. coli, respectively.

PRESENTATION Ppcps as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science 10/28/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Ppcps as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Gulf Coast Society of Toxicology Conference, Waco, TX, October 27 - 28, 2006.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants that
can enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individuals

as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/). Excretion, bathing, and disposal of leftover medications are the three primary routes of release from human activities

(http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf). As trace environmental contaminants in waters,

sediments, and sewage sludge, they are largely unregulated in the U.S. The concentrations of individual active ingredients in environmental samples such as surface waters often range from parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion ¿ micrograms to nanograms per liter. Multiple active ingredients and their degradates, however, frequently occur together. The total, combined levels of these substances in a given environmental sample can be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their individual levels in waters, or up to the mg/kg level in treated sewage sludge ("biosolids," which is often disposed via application to land). While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, the types, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on the waste treatment technologies employed and the geographic locale and time of year; contributing variables are variations in geographic prescribing and consumption practices. The efficiencies by which PPCPs can be removed from waste and

water spans the entire spectrum (from nil to complete) as a function of the technology and the physicochemical properties of each PPCP. This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure.

PRESENTATION Prescribing for the Environment 10/24/2006
RUHOY, I. Prescribing for the Environment. Presented at Third Annual Unused Medicient Return and Disposal Conference, Portland, MA, October 23 - 24, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Geographic Modeling at EPA's Landscape Ecology Branch 10/23/2006
WICKHAM, J. D. Geographic Modeling at EPA's Landscape Ecology Branch. Presented at Geographic Modeling at EPA, National Academy of Sciences, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Washington, DC, October 23, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Investigating Environmental Sinks of Macrolide Antibiotics With Analytical Chemistry 10/18/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Investigating Environmental Sinks of Macrolide Antibiotics With Analytical Chemistry. Presented at 19th Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Tucson, AZ, October 15 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under the Contact Field.

PRESENTATION Investigating Environmental Sinks of Macrolide Antibiotics With Analytical Chemistry 10/15/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Investigating Environmental Sinks of Macrolide Antibiotics With Analytical Chemistry. Presented at 19th Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society "Chemistry at the Borders", Tucson, AZ, October 15 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Possible environmental sinks (wastewater effluents, biosolids, sediments) of macrolide antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin)are investigated using state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques.

PRESENTATION Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene in Controlled Spill Experiments 10/06/2006
MAZZELLA, A. AND E. MAJER. Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene in Controlled Spill Experiments. Presented at Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Meeting, New Orleans, LA, October 01 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: The purpose of the work was to determine the capability of various geophysical methods to detect PCE in the subsurface. Measurements were made with ten different geophysical techniques before, during, and after the PCE injection. This approach provided a clear identification of any geophysical anomalies associated with the presence of the PCE.

PRESENTATION Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene in Controlled Spill Experiments 10/06/2006
MAZZELLA, A. AND E. MAJER. Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene in Controlled Spill Experiments. Presented at Society of Exploration Geophysicists International Meeting, New Orleans, LA, October 01 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: This paper presents some of the results of five of the techniques: cross borehole complex resistivity (CR) also referred to as spectral induced polarization (SIP), cross borehole high resolution seismic (HRS), borehole self potential (SP), surface ground penetration radar (GPR), and borehole video (BV).

PRESENTATION Presentation - Pharaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance in Water Recycling 09/28/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Presentation - Pharaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance in Water Recycling. Presented at PPCPs and Water Reuse/Recycling, LA chapter of the Physicians for Social Responsibility, Metropolitan Water District, Los Angeles, CA, September 28, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Group (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html).

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Sgnificance in Water Recycling 09/28/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Sgnificance in Water Recycling. Presented at PPCPs and Water Reuse/Recycling, Los Angeles, CA, September 28, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Group (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr. html).

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Sources, Concerns, and Solutions 09/26/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Sources, Concerns, and Solutions. Presented at Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Webinar series organized by the EPA National Regional Science Council's PPCPs (Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products) Cross-Regional Team, Las Vegas, NV, September 26, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Force (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html).

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Sources, Concerns, and Solutions 09/26/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Sources, Concerns, and Solutions. Presented at Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Las Vegas, NV, September 26, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Force (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html).

PRESENTATION Land Cover and Indicators of Enviromental Quality 09/22/2006
SLONECKER, E. Land Cover and Indicators of Enviromental Quality. Presented at North American Land Cover Summit, Washington, DC, September 22, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If futher information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under contact field. The website is
http://www.aag.org/nalcs/index.cfm

PRESENTATION Locating Areas of Concern 09/22/2006
NASH, M. S. Locating Areas of Concern. Presented at Bombined GIS and Statistical Analyses; EPA-GIS Workgroup, Cincinnati, OH, September 19 - 22, 2006.
Abstract: A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledge could be substituted where data was not available. Areas of decreasing vegetation cover and unchanged or increasing rainfall is likely under stress from a source that can be managed, such as excessive timber harvesting or grazing, urban growth, etc. AOC may represent optimal locations for land managers to take protective or remedial action. AVHRR data are useful for evaluating large areas, but finer scale studies can be performed using higher resolution imagery.

PRESENTATION Presentation - Ppcps: Overview of Sources, Environmental Impacts, and Solutions 09/20/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Presentation - Ppcps: Overview of Sources, Environmental Impacts, and Solutions. Presented at Annual Conference of the National Estuary Program, San Francsico, CA, September 20, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Group (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html).

PRESENTATION Ppcps: Overview of Sources, Environmental Impacts, and Solutions 09/20/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Ppcps: Overview of Sources, Environmental Impacts, and Solutions. Presented at Annual Conference of the National Estuary Program, San Francisco, CA, September 20, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Group (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP¿s (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html).

PRESENTATION Using Remote Sensing and Landscape Ecology to Assess the Condition of Great Lakes Wetlands 08/28/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. Using Remote Sensing and Landscape Ecology to Assess the Condition of Great Lakes Wetlands. Presented at 2006 Association of Wetland Managers Meeting, Traverse City, MI, August 28 - 31, 2006.
Abstract: Geospatial modeling approaches are being used to locate and assess the condition of natural resources (particularly wetland ecosystems) in the Great Lakes Basin.

PRESENTATION A Hybrid Thermal Video and Fttr Spectrometer for Rapidly Locating and Characterizing Gas Leaks 08/13/2006
WILLIAMS, D. J., D. STONE, C. SALVAGGIO, AND D. A. MESSINGER. A Hybrid Thermal Video and Fttr Spectrometer for Rapidly Locating and Characterizing Gas Leaks. Presented at SPIE Optics and Photonics, San Diego, CA, August 13 - 17, 2006.
Abstract: Undiscovered gas leaks, known as fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. An efficient, accurate and cost-effective method for detecting and quantifying gas leaks would both save industries money by identifying production losses and improve regional air quality. Results from lab tests and field experiments will be discussed.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing Damage Assessment of Chemical Plants and Refineries Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 08/13/2006
WILLIAMS, D. J., H. FRY, DREW N. PILANT, JOHNG LYON, AND L. D. WORTHY. Remote Sensing Damage Assessment of Chemical Plants and Refineries Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Presented at SPIE Optics and Photonics, San Diego, CA, August 13 - 17, 2006.
Abstract: The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case studies from this operation will be discussed.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Modis Lai (W4) in Loblolly Pine (P. Taeda) Forest Type, Appomattox, Virginia 08/08/2006
IIAMES, J. S., R. CONGALTON, DREW N. PILANT, AND T. LEWIS. Assessment of Modis Lai (W4) in Loblolly Pine (P. Taeda) Forest Type, Appomattox, Virginia. Presented at NTSG Global Vegetation Workshop, Missoula, MT, August 08 - 10, 2006.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated MODIS MODI5A2LAI validation research (2002) in the evergreen needle leaf biome, as defined in the MOD12 classification, in a regional study located in the southeastern United States.

PRESENTATION In Situ and Modis Mod15a2 Leaf Area Index Measurements of a Mid-Atlantic Decidous Forest Site: Perspectives from Four-Years of Field Studies 07/31/2006
PILANT, A. N., J. S. IIAMES, AND T. E. LEWIS. In Situ and Modis Mod15a2 Leaf Area Index Measurements of a Mid-Atlantic Decidous Forest Site: Perspectives from Four-Years of Field Studies. Presented at IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS 2006, Denver, CO, July 31 - August 04, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in leaf area index as it pertains to biogenic emissions, atmospheric pollutant deposition, ecological indicators, vegetation phenology, and land cover mapping.

PRESENTATION Abstract Presentation - Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminats: An Overview of the Science 07/14/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Abstract Presentation - Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminats: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Pacific Southwest Organics Residual Symposium, Sacramento, CA, July 13 - 14, 2006.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use.

PRESENTATION Using Remore Sensing and Landscape Ecology to Assess the Condition of Great Lakes Wetlands 07/14/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. Using Remore Sensing and Landscape Ecology to Assess the Condition of Great Lakes Wetlands. Presented at Region 7 Meetings, Kansas City, KS, July 10 - 14, 2006.
Abstract: Geospatial modeling approaches are being used to locate and assess the condition of natural resources (particularly wetland ecosystems) in the Great Lakes Basin. These assessments involve measuring landscape characteristics at multiple scales, primarily focusing
on surface water quality, hydrologic connectivity I and biological diversity. Wetland ecosystems in the Great Lakes present special challenges to landscape ecologists because they are a transitional ecosystem, containing a mixture of aquatic and upland biophysical characteristics. Although the response of ecosystems to landscape conditions has been generally postulated and tested for decades at a fine-scale, broad-scale applications are lacking, particularly for wetlands. Hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing techniques are both being used to address these challenges in order to increase capabilities for protecting and restoring wetlands. These techniques are leading to a forecasting method for

understanding the influence of landscape structure and pattern on wetland ecosystems, and the Great Lakes Basin as a whole. Results from wetland detection and mapping; opportunistic plant species detection and mapping; and the broad-scale assessment of landscape condition will

be presented.

PRESENTATION Classification of States on Southeastern Arizona Rangeland 07/14/2006
NASH, M. S., P. HEILMAN, AND W. G. KEPNER. Classification of States on Southeastern Arizona Rangeland. Presented at 15th Annual Jornada Symposium, Las Cruces, NM, July 14, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Slide Presentation - Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science 07/14/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Slide Presentation - Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science. Presented at Pacific Southwest Organics Residual Symposium, Sacramento, CA, July 13 - 14, 2006.
Abstract: While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsumption practices.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Ecology to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution in the White River Watershed 07/10/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. AND M. S. NASH. Using Landscape Ecology to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution in the White River Watershed. Presented at EPA Region 7 Meeting, Kansas, KS, July 10 - 14, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Watershed Assessment of Landscape Change and Impacts to Aquatic Resources: A Multi-Scale Case Study of Oregon (USA) With Future Scenarious Analysis 07/03/2006
KEPNER, W. G., M. HERNANDEZ, D. J. SEMMENS, AND D. GOODRICH. Watershed Assessment of Landscape Change and Impacts to Aquatic Resources: A Multi-Scale Case Study of Oregon (USA) With Future Scenarious Analysis. Presented at NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on the Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment, St. Petersburg, RUSSIA, July 03 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: Studies of plausible future management and policy options provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences.

PRESENTATION Regional Vulnerability Assessment: Ecoindicators 06/27/2006
MEHAFFEY, M. H., P. F. WAGNER, AND BETSY R. SMITH. Regional Vulnerability Assessment: Ecoindicators. Presented at EcoRisk Workshop, Research Triangle Park, NC, June 27 - 29, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Temporal Variation in Pesticide Levels in Surface Waters of the Southern Nevada, California 06/24/2006
BRADFORD, D. F., E. M. HEITHMAR, G. MOMPLAISIR, C. G. ROSAL, N. G. TALLENT-HALSELL, L. A. RIDDICK, AND K. E. VARNER. Temporal Variation in Pesticide Levels in Surface Waters of the Southern Nevada, California. Presented at Workshop: Knowledge, Uncertainties and Research Needs in Evaluationg the Role of Pesticides in Amphibian Population Declines in California and Globally, Society for Conservation Biology, San Jose, CA, June 24, 2006.
Abstract: We sampled surface waters in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks in the Sierra Nevada of California from mid June to mid October 2003. Two pesticides found commonly in previous studies of pesticides in Sierra Nevada waters, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, were found only rarely.

PRESENTATION Knowledge, Uncertainties and Research Needs in Evaluationg the Role of Pesticides in Amphibian Population Declines in California and Globally 06/24/2006
DAVIDSON, C. AND D. F. BRADFORD. Knowledge, Uncertainties and Research Needs in Evaluationg the Role of Pesticides in Amphibian Population Declines in California and Globally. Presented at Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, San Jose, CA, June 24 - 28, 2006.
Abstract: Many of the dramatic population declines of amphibians around the world in recent years have occurred in well protected habitat, such as much of the Sierra Nevada mountains of California.

PRESENTATION A Finite-Difference, Discrete-Wavenumber Method for Calculating Radar Traces 06/22/2006
ELLEFSEN, K. J., A. MAZZELLA, AND J. E. LUCIUS. A Finite-Difference, Discrete-Wavenumber Method for Calculating Radar Traces. Presented at 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Columbus, OH, January 19 - June 22, 2006.
Abstract: A hybrid of the finite-difference method and the discrete-wavenumber method is developed to calculate radar traces. The method is based on a three-dimensional model defined in the Cartesian coordinate system; the electromag-netic properties of the model are symmetric with respect to a vertical plane.

PRESENTATION A Finite-Difference, Discrete-Wavenumber Method for Calculating Radar Traces 06/22/2006
ELLEFSEN, K. J., A. MAZZELLA, AND J. E. LUCIUS. A Finite-Difference, Discrete-Wavenumber Method for Calculating Radar Traces. Presented at 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Columbus, OH, June 12 - 22, 2006.
Abstract: A hybrid of the finite-difference method and the discrete-wavenumber method is developed to calculate radar traces. The method is based on a three-dimensional model defined in the Cartesian coordinate system; the electromagnetic properties of the model are symmetric with respect to a vertical plane.

PRESENTATION Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Across Domestic and International Borders 06/21/2006
VARNER, K. E. Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Across Domestic and International Borders. Presented at EPCglobal US Chemical Industry Summit, Houston, TX, June 21, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions 06/20/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions. Presented at Frankfort, GERMANY, June 20, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Field Portable and Airborne Remote Imaging Systems 06/20/2006
WILLIAMS, D. J., B. L. FELDMAN, A. N. PILANT, R. B. HAMMAT, M. SATHER, P. G. LUCEY, D. FURRY, L. D. WORTHY, AND J. G. LYON. Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Field Portable and Airborne Remote Imaging Systems. Presented at Air & Waste Management Association, Proceedings, New Orleans, LA, June 20 - 23, 2006.
Abstract: Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field environments. Remote sensing and imaging technologies provide a tool to quickly identify the source of high leaking components by allowing the user to rapidly detect emissions, in some cases in real time. These capabilities allow an investigator to quickly scan large areas containing tens to hundreds of potential leaks. Imaging spectrometers and cameras can be deployed on fixed wing or helicopter platforms, which allows for emission monitoring over large areas. Some are very portable and can lend themselves to more detailed ground investigations of smaller areas.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions 06/20/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions. Presented at Challenge Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Frankfort, GERMANY, June 20, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Ecological Regions and Land-Cover Composition for Guiding Establishment of Nutrient Criteria 06/04/2006
WICKHAM, J. D., K. H. RIITTERS, T. G. WADE, AND B. JONES. Comparison of Ecological Regions and Land-Cover Composition for Guiding Establishment of Nutrient Criteria. Presented at Annual Meeting, North American Benthological Society, Anchorage, AK, June 04 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has promoted the use of ecoregions for developing criteria guidance for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in surface waters. This study has been published in Landscape Ecology 20:791-798.

PRESENTATION Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams 06/04/2006
MEHAFFEY, M. H., M. S. NASH, A. C. NEALE, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams. Presented at North American Benthological Society 54th Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK, June 04 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams 06/04/2006
MEHAFFEY, M. H., M. S. NASH, A. C. NEALE, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Biological Integrity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Headwater Streams. Presented at North American Benthological Society, NABS 54th Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK, June 04 - 09, 2006.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Ecology to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution in the Ozarks 06/01/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. AND M. S. NASH. Using Landscape Ecology to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution in the Ozarks. Presented at Nutrient Loading and Removal in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Data, Trends, and Opportunities, New Orleans, LA, June 01 - 02, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, and U.S. EPA Region 7 have collaborated to map and interpret landscape-scale (i.e. broad-scale) ecological metrics among watershed of the Upper White River, and have produced the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerability in the Ozarks.

PRESENTATION Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks 06/01/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. AND M. S. NASH. Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks. Presented at Lower Mississippi River Symposium, New Orleans, LA, June 01 - 02, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: A Perspective from the U.S. 05/29/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: A Perspective from the U.S. Presented at CleanMed Europe, The International Healthcare Congress on Sustainable Products and Practices, Stockholm, SWEDEN, May 29 - 31, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known, and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for effects on wildlife, the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure.

PRESENTATION Rapid Identification and Area Delineation of Dispersed Chemicals Using a Surface-Sampling Tofms, Ion Correlation Program, and Inexpensive Autosampler 05/28/2006
GRANGE, A. H., R. J. CODY, AND G. SOVOCOOL. Rapid Identification and Area Delineation of Dispersed Chemicals Using a Surface-Sampling Tofms, Ion Correlation Program, and Inexpensive Autosampler. Presented at 54th American Society for Mass Spectrometry Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 28 - June 01, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Automated Elemental Composition Determination and Correlation of Precursor With Product Ions Based on Orthogonal Acceleration, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectra 05/28/2006
SOVOCOOL, G., M. C. ZUMWALT, AND A. H. GRANGE. Automated Elemental Composition Determination and Correlation of Precursor With Product Ions Based on Orthogonal Acceleration, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectra. Presented at 54th American Society for Mass Spectrometry Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 28 - June 01, 2006.
Abstract: For more than a decade in our laboratory, elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra havebeen routinely determined by measuring exact masses and relative isotopic abundances of ions in isotopicclusters using a GC coupled to a double focusing mass spectrometer.1 HPLC interfaced to both an accuratemass triple quadrupole and orthogonal acceleration, time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometers provide largermass and/or RIA errors than a double focusing mass spectrometer.2,3 To compensate, an Ion CorrelationProgram (ICP) was developed to provide molecular ion or precursor ion compositions, despite the largermeasurement errors. In references 2 and 3, the ICP successfully correlated product and precursor ions andprovided their compositions. In addition, the ICP provided ion non-correlations, so that a simulated compositemass spectrum could be deconvoluted.3 Manual input into the ICP of exact masses, RIAs, and error levels wererequired. This poster reports on an automated ICP that imports ASCII files of m/z ratios and ion chromatogrampeak areas to yield ion compositions and to deconvolute mass spectra.

PRESENTATION An Updated Model for the Anomalous Resisitivity of Lnapl Plumes in Sandy Environments 05/23/2006
SAUCK, W., E. ATEKWANA, AND D. D. WERKEMA. An Updated Model for the Anomalous Resisitivity of Lnapl Plumes in Sandy Environments. Presented at Spring American Geophysical Union Joint Assembly, Baltimore, MD, May 23 - 26, 2006.
Abstract: Anomalously low resistivities have been observed at some sites contaminated by light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) since 1997. The conductive model that has been used to explain this phenomenon was published in 2000. The working hypothesis in the conductive model invokes both physical mixing and bacterial action to explain the low resistivities near the base of the vadose zone and the upper part of the aquifer.

PRESENTATION Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment: Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River 05/22/2006
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, S. D. BASSETT, D. A. MOUAT, AND D. C. GOODRICH. Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment: Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River. Presented at Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy, Rio Rico, AZ, May 22 - 24, 2006.
Abstract: Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences.

PRESENTATION Contribution of Nutrients and E.COLI to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks: Part II Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predictions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution 05/16/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. AND M. S. NASH. Contribution of Nutrients and E.COLI to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks: Part II Using Landscape Ecology and Partial Least Squares Predictions to Map Watersheds That Are Vulnerable to Non-Point Source Pollution. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The results of this project provide watershed managers with the first broad-scale predictions that can be used to explain how land cover type, land cover configuration, environmental change, and human activities may affect the chemical and biological characteristics of surface water in the Upper White River region.

PRESENTATION Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Across Domestic and International Borders 05/16/2006
VARNER, K. E., D. KOPSICK, AND J. BEARDEN. Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Across Domestic and International Borders. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Radio-frequency identification system (RFID) is an emerging commodity tracking technology that is being tested and implemented in a large number of applications worldwide. RFID is a method of transmitting data using radio waves, usually through communication with a tag. Both active and passive RFID tags may be tested to track hazardous waste shipments, originating in the Mexican and Canadian border zones. The RFID tags will be tested under a variety of conditions to mimic truck transportation scenarios and warehouse storage conditions. There are physical characteristics of chemical wastes and waste containers that may interfere with the radio frequency signal. These tests will determine if the RFID reader can gather, process, and transmit information about the location of the tagged hazardous waste as it moves from one site to another. The viability, effectiveness, cost, and scalability will be evaluated. Interferences affecting the use of the technology will be identified and possible solutions to these interferences will be identified. Situations that cause degradation of the signal will be noted. This poster highlights an ESTE project which offers opportunities to achieve results consistent with EPA?s environmental sustain ability goals and objectives.

PRESENTATION Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks I. Using Partial Least Squares Predictions When Standard Regression Assumptions Are Violated 05/16/2006
NASH, M. S. AND R. D. LOPEZ. Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks I. Using Partial Least Squares Predictions When Standard Regression Assumptions Are Violated. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: We present here the application of PLS regression to predicting surface water total phosphorous, total ammonia and Escherichia coli from landscape metrics. The amount of variability in surface water constituents explained by each model reflects the composition of the contributing landscape metrics.

PRESENTATION Monitoring Air Pollution Transport 05/16/2006
KEATING, T., S. FALKE, R. HUSAR, G. STELLA, R. ROSEN, J. SZYKMAN, V. FONG, D. LOWE, J. BAXTER, J. G. LYON, F. DIMMICK, R. SCHEFFE, A. RUSH, S. EBERLY, R. BALDAUF, E. THOMA, M. LANDIS, AND J. RYAN. Monitoring Air Pollution Transport. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16, 2006 - May 18, 2008.
Abstract: The Advancements in the remote sensing of environmental conditions over the past decade have been recognized by governments around the world and led to the development of the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan.

PRESENTATION Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment 05/16/2006
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, S. D. BASSETT, D. A. MOUAT, AND D. C. GOODRICH. Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences.

PRESENTATION Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Acorss Domestic and International Borders 05/16/2006
KOPSICK, D., J. BEARDEN, K. E. VARNER, AND JOHNG LYON. Use of Rfid to Track Hazardous Waste Shipments Acorss Domestic and International Borders. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This poster highlights an ESTE project which offers opportunities to achieve results consistent with EPA's environmental sustain ability goals and objectives.

PRESENTATION Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks 05/16/2006
LOPEZ, R. D. AND M. S. NASH. Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, and U.S. EPA Region 7 have collaborated to map and interpret landscape-scale (i.e., broad-scale) ecological metrics among watersheds of the Upper White River, and have produced the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerability in the Ozarks.

PRESENTATION Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks. I. Using Partial Least Squares Predictions When Standard Regression Assumptions Are Violated 05/16/2006
NASH, M. S. AND R. D. LOPEZ. Contribution of Nutrients and E. Coli to Surface Water Condition in the Ozarks. I. Using Partial Least Squares Predictions When Standard Regression Assumptions Are Violated. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: We present here the application of Partial least square (PLS) regression to predicting surface water total phosphorous, total ammonia and Escherichia coli from landscape metrics.

PRESENTATION Accuracy Assessment of the National Land Cover Database 2001 (Nlcd 2001) Imperviousness Data 05/16/2006
JARNAGIN, S., J. W. JONES, AND S. G. WINTERS. Accuracy Assessment of the National Land Cover Database 2001 (Nlcd 2001) Imperviousness Data. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Landscape conditions of watersheds strongly influence the sustainability of aquatic resources valued by society, including quality of drinking water, diversity of stream life, and resilience to catastrophic flooding.

PRESENTATION Quantifying An Uncertain Future: Hydrologic Model Performance for a Series of Realized "FUTURE" Conditions 05/16/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., M. HERNANDEZ, Y. MOHAMOUD, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. Quantifying An Uncertain Future: Hydrologic Model Performance for a Series of Realized "FUTURE" Conditions. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: GIS-based hydrologic modeling offers a convenient means of assessing the impacts associated with land-cover/use change for environmental planning efforts. Future scenarios can be developed through a combination of modifications to the land-cover/use maps used to parameterize hydrologic models and to the model representation of specific hydraulic structures and/or management activities that impact water movement in a watershed.

PRESENTATION Monitoring Air Pollution Trasport 05/16/2006
KEATING, T., S. FALKE, R. HUSAR, G. STELLA, R. ROSEN, J. SZYKMAN, V. FONG, D. LOWE, J. BAXTER, J. G. LYON, F. DIMMICK, R. SCHEFFE, A. RUSH, S. EBERLY, R. BALDAUF, E. THOMA, M. LANDIS, AND J. RYAN. Monitoring Air Pollution Trasport. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The Advancements in the remote sensing of environmental conditions over the past decade have been recognized by governments around the world and led to the development of the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10- Year Implementation Plan.

PRESENTATION Quantifying An Uncertain Future: Hydrologic Model Performance for a Series of Realized "/Future" Conditions 05/16/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., M. HERNANDEZ, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. Quantifying An Uncertain Future: Hydrologic Model Performance for a Series of Realized "/Future" Conditions. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: A systematic analysis of model performance during simulations based on observed landcover/use change is used to quantify errors associated with simulations of known "future" conditions. Calibrated and uncalibrated assessments of relative change over different lengths of time are also presented to determine the types of information that can reliably be used in planning efforts for which calibration to future conditions is not possible. Analyses are carried out for the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model in the San Pedro River Basin where four classified land-cover/use maps were developed during the period of 1973-1997.

PRESENTATION Accuracy Assessment of the National Land Cover Database 2001 (Nlcd 2001) Imperviousness Data 05/16/2006
JARNAGIN, S., J. W. JONES, AND S. G. WINTERS. Accuracy Assessment of the National Land Cover Database 2001 (Nlcd 2001) Imperviousness Data. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Landscape conditions of watersheds strongly influence the sustainability of aquatic resources valued by society, including quality of drinking water, diversity of stream life, and resilience to catastrophic flooding. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change.

PRESENTATION Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment 05/16/2006
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, S. D. BASSETT, D. A. MOUAT, AND D. C. GOODRICH. Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences of a Future Environment. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The San Pedro River in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico is an area that has undegone rapid changes in land use and cover, and subsequently is facing keen environmental crises related to water resources.

PRESENTATION Hydrologic Model Uncertainty Associated With Simulating Future Land-Cover/Use Scenarios 05/15/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., M. HERNANDEZ, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. Hydrologic Model Uncertainty Associated With Simulating Future Land-Cover/Use Scenarios. Presented at 2nd Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Otto, NC, May 15 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Indicators for Pesticides, Nutrients, Emerging Contaminants, and Aquatic Biology in Midwestern Corn Belt Streams 05/11/2006
STARK, J. R., S. J. KALKHOFF, A. M. PITCHFORD, T. A. WINTERSTEIN, AND D. L. LORENZ. Landscape Indicators for Pesticides, Nutrients, Emerging Contaminants, and Aquatic Biology in Midwestern Corn Belt Streams. Presented at National Water Quality Monitoring Conference, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: This study is part of a long-term cooperative national research project among the US EPA and the USGS to collect comparable water-quality data from small streams and to develop regional predicitive models that use landscape characteristics to estimate pesticide and nutrient concentrations in small streams.

PRESENTATION USEPA Epic Impervious Surface Research in the Mid-Atlantic 05/10/2006
JARNAGIN, S. USEPA Epic Impervious Surface Research in the Mid-Atlantic. Presented at USGS Eastern Geographic Science Center Seminar with USGS and EPA ORD NERL Landscape Researchers, Reston, VA, May 10, 2006.
Abstract: Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change. As a single variable, it serves to integrate a number of concurrent interactions that directly influence a watershed¿s hydrology, stream chemical quality and thus the in-stream habitat. We have been studying impervious surfaces in several different ways in an attempt to estimate both their extent and predicted impact in watersheds. This research involves two primary components: (1) high-resolution watershed mapping of impervious surfaces over time, and (2) coordinated monitoring of physical and biological parameters of streams coupled with impervious surfaces mapping as watersheds are developed.

PRESENTATION Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Non-Tidal Headwater Streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain 05/08/2006
NEALE, A. C., S. ATOR, J. DENVER, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Non-Tidal Headwater Streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Presented at 5th National Monitoring Conference, Monitoring Networks: Connecting for Clean Water, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Nontidal Headwater Streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain 05/07/2006
NEALE, A. C., J. M. DENVER, S. ATOR, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Nontidal Headwater Streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Presented at 5th National Monitoring Conference, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: Water quality in nontidal headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) during base flow in the late winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural or human influences in contributing watersheds.

PRESENTATION Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination in Source Waters: A Simplified Analytical Approach 05/07/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination in Source Waters: A Simplified Analytical Approach. Presented at 5th National Monitoring Conference, Monitoring Networks: Connecting for Clean Water, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give public water authorities a rapid (24- hrs) and definitive method for measuring human waste contamination

PRESENTATION Assessment of Nutrients and Selected Organic Contaminants in Small Streams in the Midwestern United States, 2004 05/07/2006
STARK, J. R., S. J. KALKHOFF, A. M. PITCHFORD, T. A. WINTERSTEIN, AND D. L. LORENZ. Assessment of Nutrients and Selected Organic Contaminants in Small Streams in the Midwestern United States, 2004. Presented at National Water Quality Monitoring Council, National Monitoring Conference, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), collected water samples from 120 small streams (watersheds less than 200 square kilometers) across the Midwestern United States during the summer and fall of 2004. This study is part of a long-term cooperative national research project among the US EPA and the USGS to collect comparable water-quality data from small streams and to develop regional predictive models that use landscape characteristics to estimate pesticide and nutrient concentrations in small streams.

PRESENTATION Monitoring Synthetic Musk Compounds in Municipal Wastewater and Estimating Biota Exposure in the Receiving Waters 05/07/2006
OSEMWENGIE, L. I. Monitoring Synthetic Musk Compounds in Municipal Wastewater and Estimating Biota Exposure in the Receiving Waters. Presented at 5th National Monitoring Conference, San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds are manufactured as fragrance materials for consumer products and are consumed in very large quantities worldwide.

PRESENTATION Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination in Source Waters: A Simplified Analytical Approach 05/07/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. Chemical Markers of Human Waste Contamination in Source Waters: A Simplified Analytical Approach. Presented at 5th National Monitoring Conference, Monitoring Networks: Connecting for Clean Water , San Jose, CA, May 07 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give public water authorities a rapid (24- hrs) and definitive method for measuring human waste contamination.

PRESENTATION A Comparison of Inter-Analyst Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Etm+ Scene in South-Central Virginia 05/01/2006
IIAMES, J. S. AND R. CONGALTON. A Comparison of Inter-Analyst Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Etm+ Scene in South-Central Virginia. Presented at ASPRS 2006 Annual Conference, Reno, NV, May 01 - 05, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION A Comparison of Inter-Analyst Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Tem+ Scene in South-Central Virginia 05/01/2006
IIAMES, J. S. AND R. CONGALTON. A Comparison of Inter-Analyst Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Tem+ Scene in South-Central Virginia. Presented at ASPRS 2006 Annual Conference, Reno, NV, May 01 - 05, 2006.
Abstract: This study examined inter-analyst classification variability based on training site signature selection only for six classifications from a 10 km2 Landsat ETM+ image centered over a highly heterogeneous area in south-central Virginia. Six analysts classified the image at the 30 m ETM+ resolution varying only location and number of training sites. These classifications were then degraded to coarser resolutions, assigning the dominant land cover to the new cell resolution. Analyst-to-analyst differences were noted at the varying scales as well as overall accuracy assessment results compared to a land cover map digitized from an August 3, 2002, Ikonos panchromatic image. Results indicated that highest accuracies for all six analysts occurred at the 450 m scale resolution (i.e. 20.25ha), corresponding to a 364m2 (13.25 ha) average patch size for all classes. Spectral separability for training site data was analyzed for each of the six classifications. These tests included a Euclidean Distance, Transformed Divergence, and Jeffries-Matusita Distance evaluation. All spectral separability tests pointed to areas of class confusion within each interpretation, but prediction of an analyst accuracy ranking based on separability amongst all six interpretations was not achieved. This study was initiated to examine land cover variability between analysts as it applies to the process of creating leaf area index (LAI) surface maps used in the validation of medium resolution LAI products.

PRESENTATION A Comparison of Inter-Operator Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Etm+ Scene in South-Central Virginia 05/01/2006
IIAMES, J. S. AND R. CONGALTON. A Comparison of Inter-Operator Differences in the Classification of a Landsat Etm+ Scene in South-Central Virginia. Presented at ASPRS 2005 Annual Conference, Reno, NV, May 01 - 05, 2006.
Abstract: A comparison of multiple classifications of Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery comparing differences between classifications and the effect of this variability on land cover proportions.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science 04/26/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science. Presented at End User Drug Disposal Conference, Drug Enforcement Administration, Seattle Field Office, Portland, OR, April 24 - 26, 2006.
Abstract: This important outcome results from the way risk is perceived, which in turn is little affected by factual weight-of-evidence. Essentially, drugs in drinking water supplies are considered "out-of-place" chemicals and as such are sometimes looked upon as "chemical weeds" by the consumer.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science 04/25/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants: An Overview of the Science. Presented at End User Drug Disposal Conference, Drug Enforcement Administration, Portland, OR, April 25 - 26, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Partial Least Squares (Pls) Regression for Small Sample With Collinear Predictors in Landscape Ecology 04/24/2006
NASH, M. S. AND R. D. LOPEZ. Partial Least Squares (Pls) Regression for Small Sample With Collinear Predictors in Landscape Ecology. Presented at 25th Annual Conference on managing Environmental Quality System, Austin, TX, April 24 - 27, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Assessing the Accuracy of the Modis Lai 1-Km Product in Southeastern United States Loblolly Pine Plantations: Accounting for Measurement Variance from Ground to Satellite 04/13/2006
IIAMES, J. S. Assessing the Accuracy of the Modis Lai 1-Km Product in Southeastern United States Loblolly Pine Plantations: Accounting for Measurement Variance from Ground to Satellite. Presented at North Carolina Forest Nutrition Cooperative, Raleigh, NC, April 13, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Pollutants from Everyday Activities 04/10/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Pollutants from Everyday Activities. Presented at Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Seminar, University of California, CA, April 10, 2006.
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence.

PRESENTATION The San Pedro River, An Example of An Integrated System for Transborder Environmental Management Using Geospatial Data and Process Models 04/10/2006
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, D. C. GOODRICH, C. J. WATTS, AND K. G. BOYKIN. The San Pedro River, An Example of An Integrated System for Transborder Environmental Management Using Geospatial Data and Process Models. Presented at USGS/SCERP US-Mexico Binational GIS Summit, El Paso, TX, April 10 - 12, 2006.
Abstract: These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape compostion and pattern indicators as sensitive measures of large-scale environmental change and thus may provide an effective and economical method for evaluating watershed conition related to disturbance from human and natural stresses.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Pollutants from Everyday Activities 04/10/2006
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Pollutants from Everyday Activities. Presented at Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Seminar, Davis, CA, April 10, 2006.
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence.

PRESENTATION Slde Presentation for Conductivity Profile Rate of Change from Field and Laboratory Data Within Biodegrading Petroleum Hydrocarbon 04/06/2006
WERKEMA, D. D., E. ATEKWANA, AND E. ATEKWANA. Slde Presentation for Conductivity Profile Rate of Change from Field and Laboratory Data Within Biodegrading Petroleum Hydrocarbon. Presented at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental Engineering Problems, Bellevue, WA, April 02 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: Results suggest using geoelectric rate of change to guide or monitor natural attenuation investigations. Geoelectrical rates of change may provide insight into the physical manifestations of biogeochemical processes and the rates at which these change occur.

PRESENTATION Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrological Modeling Tool for Watershed Management and Landscape Assessment 04/06/2006
GOODRICH, D., S. SCOTT, S. BURNS, M. HERNANDEZ, A. CATE, P. GUERTIN, W. G. KEPNER, D. J. SEMMENS, AND C. UNKRICH. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrological Modeling Tool for Watershed Management and Landscape Assessment. Presented at Third Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Reno, NV, April 02 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/agwa/introduction.htm and www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa) tool is a GIS interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Arizona to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. By employing these two models AGWA can conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple time and space scales. AGWA uses commonly available, national, GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both the SWAT and KINEROS2. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then run, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visual display. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA can difference results from multiple simulations to examine relative change over a variety of input scenarios (e.g. climate/storm change, land cover change, present conditions and alternative futures). AGWA 1.5 (ArcView) is being released at the 3rd Federal Interagency Hydrological Modeling Conference in Reno, NV during the first week of April 2006. A variety of new capabilities have been incorporated into the new AGWA Version 1.5. They include: 1) Watershed group delineation and simulation; 2) SWAT Hydrologic Response Unit and nitrogen and phosphorus modeling; 3) Nested watershed delineation and discretization handling; 4) Burn Severity Land Cover Modification for post-fire watershed assessments; 5) KINEROS riparian buffer modeling tool; 6) Support for USGS Gap Analysis Program land cover datasets; 7) KINEROS batch processing; 8) Contributing source area enforcement for more uniformly sized model elements; 9) Watershed Metadata to allow transfers of previous AGWA assessments to new projects; and, 10) Additional display options including a time series viewer. AGWA 2.0 (ArcGIS) has been developed in beta release and will provided in final format in 2007.

PRESENTATION Telephonic Presentation: Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively 04/05/2006
HINNERS, T. A. Telephonic Presentation: Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively. Presented at ORD/OSWER Seminar Series, Las Vegas, NV, April 05, 2006.
Abstract: While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury.

PRESENTATION Towards An Automated Tool for Channel-Network Characterizations, Modeling, and Assessment 04/05/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., S. N. MILLER, AND D. C. GOODRICH. Towards An Automated Tool for Channel-Network Characterizations, Modeling, and Assessment. Presented at 3rd Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Reno, NV, April 02 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: Detailed characterization of channel networks for hydrologic and geomorphic models has traditionally been a difficult and expensive proposition, and lack of information has thus been a common limitation of modeling efforts. With the advent of datasets derived from high-resolution mapping techniques such as LIDAR (light detection and ranging), however, it is possible to resolve a great deal of information useful for hydrologic and geomorphic modeling. A channel-characterization tool is being developed to automate the extraction and reduction of data from high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to derive meaningful information about channel morphology at a reach scale. The tool, with some initial guidance from users, will automate the process of extracting cross-sections, at user-defined intervals, perpendicular to channels throughout a watershed channel network. In the current version some user interaction is still needed to identify channel banks, but the tool is able to extract channel and flood-plain characteristics for ephemeral stream networks. Channel characteristics derived using the new tool were compared with field measurements and mapping to evaluate performance on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeastern Arizona. The channel characterization tool was designed to compliment the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool by facilitating parameterization of the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion model (KINEROS2). It is anticipated that future versions of the tool will incorporate vegetation characterization along riparian corridors. This information will further assist with hydrologic model parameterization, and can also be combined with geomorphic conditions/indicators and output from the hydrologic models to evaluate channel condition and vulnerability on a reach basis.

PRESENTATION Presented 04/05/2006: Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively 04/05/2006
HINNERS, T. A. Presented 04/05/2006: Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively. Presented at ORD/OSWER Seminar Series, Las Vegas, NV, April 05, 2006.
Abstract: While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury.

PRESENTATION Conductivity Profile Rate of Change from Field and Laboratory Data Within Biodegrading Petroleum Hydrocarbon 04/02/2006
WERKEMA, D. D., E. A. ATCKWANA, AND E. A. ATCKWANA. Conductivity Profile Rate of Change from Field and Laboratory Data Within Biodegrading Petroleum Hydrocarbon. Presented at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Bellevue, WA, April 02 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. In the field, bulk conductivity was obtained monthly from vertical probes installed at a hydrocarbon contaminates site undergoing biodegradation. In the laboratory, conductivity measurements were made in sand columns simulating the biodegradation of diesel fuel. In general, both the field and laboratory results show increasing bulk conductivity over time from depth zones impacted with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The highest increase was observed above the water table where hydrocarbon contamination was in residual and free phase (petroleum smear zone). We fitted the temporal bulk conductivity change in the contaminated sediments and the uncontaminated sediments to an exponential model and then subtracted the two resulting in the bulk conductivity rate of change due to the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons (kdsigma). The highest rate constant, or kdsigma (the slope of the model line), was 0.0061 per day for the field data and 0.0023 per day for the laboratory sand columns. The laboratory data showed a broad conductivity rate increase occurring stratigraphically coincident with the hydrocarbon contamination in the free and residual phase above the saturated zone. The field data showed a general increasing rate of conductivity change within the zone, but also included zones of decreasing change. This is interpreted in part to a dynamic water table and the development of a hydrocarbon smear zone which contains a variable air-water-LNAPL (light non-aqueous phase liquid) mixture. The petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate of 0.0539 per day was determined for sediments in the saturated zone and 0.107 for sediment in the unsaturated zone. These values are consistent with higher bulk conductivity rates of change in the unsaturated zone except these rates are increasing versus decreasing for the LNAPL concentration rate of change. The bulk conductivity results suggest that the greatest rate of change occurred stratigraphically within hydrocarbon contaminated zones and the magnitude of the rate of change is much less than the magnitude of the hydrocarbon degradation rate. Within the hydrocarbon impacted zone, the kdsigma data reveal an inverse relationship with the hydrocarbon concentration rate of change.

PRESENTATION Monitoring Hydrocarbon Biodegradtion With Dc Resistity 04/02/2006
WERKEMA, D. D., E. ATEKEWANA, E. ATEKEWANA, S. ROSSBACH, J. DURIS, J. ALLEN, L. SMART, AND W. SAUCK. Monitoring Hydrocarbon Biodegradtion With Dc Resistity. Presented at Application of Geophysics to Environmental & Engineering Problems, Seattle, WA, April 02 - 06, 2006.
Abstract: Results suggest that geophysical measurements may be used to infer the rate of change of biodegradation and alteration of the subsurface hydrocarbon impacted media.

PRESENTATION Examining Multi-Scale Changes in Forest Fragmentation 03/28/2006
WICKHAM, J. D., K. H. RIITTERS, AND T. G. WADE. Examining Multi-Scale Changes in Forest Fragmentation. Presented at Annual Meeting, U.S. Chapter of Innternational Association of Landscape Ecology, San Diego, CA, March 28 - April 01, 2006.
Abstract: Forest fragmentation is a key measurement of forest condition. In comparison to the Chesapeake Bay region, dominant forest loss in New Jersey was less sensitive to forest loss, which may be attributable the protected status of the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

PRESENTATION An Ion Correlation Program for Deconvoluting Composite Mass Spectra Acquired Using a Direct Surface Ionization Source Interfaced to a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer 03/12/2006
GRANGE, A. H., R. B. CODY, AND G. SOVOCOOL. An Ion Correlation Program for Deconvoluting Composite Mass Spectra Acquired Using a Direct Surface Ionization Source Interfaced to a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Presented at Pittcon Conference, Orlando, FL, March 12 - 17, 2006.
Abstract: The rapid sampling provided by the DART in ambient air will allow rapid delineation of areas of dispersed chemicals after natural or man-made disasters. Exact masses and RIAs of dimer, precursor, and product ions measured by the oa-TOFMS entered dinto the Ion Correlation Program to provide ion and neutral loss compositions will enable identification of one or more chemicals associated with such an event without recourse to time and labor intensive sample extraction, clean-up, and chromatographic separation. Deconvolution of mass spectra will also provide cleaner mass spectra for comparison with a mass spectral library after one is compiled.
The research described in the abstract for this poster has been published in Grange, AH: Zumwalt, MC; Sovocool, GW "Determination of Ion and Neutral Loss Compositions and Deconvolution of Product Ion Mass Spectra Using an Orthogonal Acceleration, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and an Ion Correlation Program" Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 2006, 20, 89-102. The contents of this poster present our most current work.

PRESENTATION 2006, Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape 03/01/2006
SLONECKER, E. 2006, Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape. Presented at Virginia Commonwealth University Seminar, Richmond, VA, March 01, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for on-going remedial activities.

PRESENTATION Presented 03/01/2006: 2006 Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape 03/01/2006
SLONECKER, E. Presented 03/01/2006: 2006 Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape. Presented at Virginia Commonwealth University Seminar, Richman, VA, March 01, 2006.
Abstract: During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite

PRESENTATION U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Requirements for Aq Monitoring and Regulation 02/21/2006
LYON, JOHNG. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Requirements for Aq Monitoring and Regulation. Presented at NCAR Community Workshop on Air Quality Remote Sensing from Space:, Boulder, CO, February 21 - 23, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Correlation of Chemical Markers Nitrate and Urobilin as Identifiers of Human Waste in Source Waters 02/21/2006
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND J. R. BATISTA. Correlation of Chemical Markers Nitrate and Urobilin as Identifiers of Human Waste in Source Waters. Presented at Nevada Water Resources Association Annual Conference, Mesquite, NV, February 21 - 23, 2006.
Abstract: Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection.

PRESENTATION Geoss and the EPA 01/31/2006
LYON, JOHNG. Geoss and the EPA. Presented at American Meteorology Society Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, January 31, 2006.
Abstract: GEOSS is an important element of national global strategies for managing our natural resources in a sustainable way.

PRESENTATION Landscape Assessment Tools for Watershed Characterization 01/25/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., D. T. HEGGEM, D. W. EBERT, W. G. KEPNER, A. M. PITCHFORD, S. JARNAGIN, D. B. JENNINGS, J. D. WICKHAM, L. EXUM, AND D. NORTON. Landscape Assessment Tools for Watershed Characterization. Presented at BOSC Water Quality Program Review, Cincinnati, OH, January 01, 2005.
Abstract: A combination of process-based, empirical and statistical models has been developed to assist states in their efforts to assess water quality, locate impairments over large areas, and calculate TMDL allocations. By synthesizing outputs from a number of these tools, LIPS demonstrates their collective value for targeted monitoring and other applications.

PRESENTATION Landscape Assessment Tools for Watershed Characterization 01/25/2006
SEMMENS, D. J., D. T. HEGGEM, D. W. EBERT, W. G. KEPNER, A. M. PITCHFORD, S. JARNAGIN, D. B. JENNINGS, J. D. WICKHAM, L. EXUM, AND D. NORTON. Landscape Assessment Tools for Watershed Characterization. Presented at BOSC Water Quality Program Review, Cincinnati, OH, January 25, 2006.
Abstract: Several steps in identifying and restoring impaired waters (the 303d listing/TMDL development process) can involve landscape-scale analysis to maximize effectiveness while minimizing cost. Research and development in support of the TMDL process have addressed these steps in a number of different ways to provide practical tools and methodologies that exploit a range of standardized, national geospatial datasets.

PRESENTATION Evaluating Landscape Change and Hydrological Consequences in a Semi-Arid Environment 01/17/2006
KEPNER, W. G., D. J. SEMMENS, L. R. LEVICK, D. C. GOODRICH, AND D. P. GUERTIN. Evaluating Landscape Change and Hydrological Consequences in a Semi-Arid Environment. Presented at U.S. EPA Region IX and OW/OW Management, Los Angeles, CA, January 17, 2006.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Determination of Organophosphorus Compounds By Gc-Icpms 01/08/2006
ROSAL, C. G., G. MOMPLAISIR, AND E. M. HEITHMAR. Determination of Organophosphorus Compounds By Gc-Icpms. Presented at 2006 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry, Tucson, AZ, January 08 - 14, 2006.
Abstract: Accidental or intentional release of neurotoxic organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and OP chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are potential threats to public health and the environment. Such a release could involve any number of a large suite of OP chemicals. These compounds, as well as their transformation products, would be widely distributed in all environmental media. Therefore, effective exposure assessment and remediation would require analytical methods that could detect a wide range of OP analytes after rapid, and preferably automated, extraction from the matrix. Conventional extraction methods, such as purge-and-trap for volatiles and Soxhlet for semivolatiles, can be time-consuming and suffer from matrix effects. The most widely used technique to determine OP compounds is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which can be adversely affected by concomitants that mask the OP mass spectra. Therefore, the Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory in Las Vegas (EPA Las Vegas) is investigating alternatives to conventional extraction and analytical methods.
Vacuum distillation (VD) is a technique developed at EPA Las Vegas that rapidly extracts both volatile and semivolatile analytes from a wide range of matrices, and injects them into an on-line GC [1]. ICPMS can provide sensitive, multielemental detection of phosphorus and other heteroatoms found in OP pesticides and CWAs. Therefore EPA Las Vegas is currently investigating the application of VD-GC-ICPMS for the analysis of environmental samples for OP pesticides and CWAs. This presentation discusses preliminary results of the first phase of that project, developing and evaluating the GC-ICPMS method.

PUBLISHED REPORT Monitoirng of a Controlled Dnapl Spill Using a Prototype Dielectric Logging Tool 09/30/2006
BROWN, P., A. MAZZELLA, AND D. WRIGHT. Monitoirng of a Controlled Dnapl Spill Using a Prototype Dielectric Logging Tool. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/092 (NTIS PB2007-101961), 2006.
Abstract: The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilized their prototype dielectric logging tool to monitor a controlled Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) spill into a large tank located at the University of California Richmond Field Station (RFS) containing multiple sand and clayey sand layers. To assist in the interpretation of the logging results, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical simulations were performed using a model that approximated the physical experiment. Modeling results agree well with the physical results and demonstrate qualitatively how the tool responded to the DNAPL spilled in the tank. Logging results show that the tool successfully monitored DNAPL movement throughout the duration of the experiment and was sensitive to changes in relative DNAPL saturation. Anomalous zones in the data correspond to areas where DNAPL was observed in images recorded by a color borehole video camera. Results presented in this discussion suggest that a quantitative interpretation of the dielectric tool data is possible given necessary system calibration data.

SITE DOCUMENT Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan: Xrf Technologies of Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment 05/09/2006
BILLETS, S. Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan: Xrf Technologies of Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/009 (NTIS PB2006-110698), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 2005, at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The purpose of the demonstration was to verify the performance of various instruments that employ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement technologies for the determination of 13 toxic elements in a variety of soil and sediment samples. Instruments from the technology developers listed below were demonstrated.
o Innov-X Systems, Inc.

o NITON LLC (2 instruments )

o Oxford Instruments Portable Division (formerly Metorex, Inc.) .Oxford Instruments Analytical .Rigaku, Inc.

o RONTEC USA Inc.

o Xcalibur XRF Services Inc. (Division of Elvatech Ltd. )

This demonstration plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of the XRF instruments provided by these technology developers. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to perform this verification. A separate innovative technology verification report (ITVR) will be prepared for each instrument.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Oxford X-Mte 3000tx Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Oxford X-Mte 3000tx Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/008 (NTIS PB2006-109038), 2006.
Abstract: The Elvatech, Ltd. ElvaX (ElvaX) x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer distributed in the United States by Xcalibur XRF Services (Xcalibur), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the ElvaX analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the ElvaX analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The ElvaX is a portable bench-top energy-dispersive XRF analyzer. The ElvaX is capable of detecting elements from sodium through plutonium and can be applied in the jewelry, metallurgy, customs, forensics, medical diagnostics, food testing, and environmental testing markets. The ElvaX can be used for qualitative or quantative analysis of metal alloys, liquid food, and biological samples. The ElvaX can analyze liquids and powders as well as samples deposited on surfaces or filters. The ElvaX analyzer system includes two primary components: an XRF spectrometer and a personal computer. The XRF spectrometer contains a 5-watt x-ray tube excitation source with tungsten, titanium, or rhodium as the anode target material and with an adjustable 4- to 50-kilovolt power supply. The detector is a Peltier-cooled, solid-state silicon-PiN diode with 180-electron volt resolution. The XRF spectrometer may be set up in the field but must be in a stable environment. No portable battery systems are currently available for the ElvaX spectrometer. A personal computer (laptop) with Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition® software is used to operate the XRF spectrometer and specifically to select x-ray tube parameters, store data, and provide radiation safety. The laptop is also used to display the x-ray spectrum and to process the data. Some examples of data processing steps included automatic peak search, overlapped peak deconvolution, background removal, automatic element identification, and background subtraction. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the ElvaX analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the ElvaX analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Rigaku Zsx Mini 11 Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Rigaku Zsx Mini 11 Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/001 (NTIS PB2006-109039), 2006.
Abstract: The Rigaku ZSX Mini II (ZSX Mini II) XRF Services x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demon-strated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the ZSX Mini II analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the ZSX Mini II analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The ZSX Mini II is a “wavelength-dispersive” XRF analyzer that can analyze for elements ranging in mass from fluorine to uranium. The ZSX Mini II differentiates the x-ray energies emitted from a sample by dispersing the x-rays into different wavelength ranges using crystals. By contrast, more common “energy-dispersive” XRF analyzers differentiate between x-ray energies based on voltages measured by the detector. For some applications, wavelength-dispersive XRF analyzers can achieve high resolutions and very good sensitivity through the reduction of interelement interferences. Wavelength-dispersive XRFs have historically been large, laboratory-bound instruments with significant requirements for power and cooling. The ZSX Mini II is a smaller, transportable unit that can operate without additional cooling fluids on standard 110-volt circuits. The unit can employ an economical gas proportional counter as a detector rather than a diode detector with a multi-channel analyzer (common in energy-dispersive instruments) because wavelength resolution is achieved with the crystals. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the ZSX Mini II analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the ZSX Mini II analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Innov-X Xt400 Series Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Innov-X Xt400 Series Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/002 (NTIS PB2006-109034), 2006.
Abstract: The Innov-X Systems (Innov-X) XT400 series (XT400) x-ray flurescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XT400 analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Rontec Picotax Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Rontec Picotax Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/005 (NTIS PB2006-109040), 2006.
Abstract: The Rontec PicoTAX x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the PicoTAX analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the PicoTAX analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The PicoTAX is a transportable bench-top device that provides quantitative and semi-quantitative multi-element microanalysis of soils and sediments using total reflection XRF spectroscopy. The spectrometer includes a 40-watt metal-ceramic x-ray tube excitation source and a thermoelectrically cooled silicon drift (Si Drift) x-ray detector. The PicoTAX is capable of detecting up to 75 elements from aluminum to yttrium and from palladium to uranium. The PicoTAX uses an internal standard for instrument calibration; thus, initial calibration is not required. A solution of internal standard that contains a project-specific element is added to each sample to establish response factors (determined by the software). Element quantitation is determined by comparing the response to the unknown element to the response of the internal standard with a known concentration. A laptop computer is used to monitor and control all aspects of PicoTAX system operation. Rontec’s Quantum software, which is loaded into the laptop computer, calibrates the instrument, handles measurement data and methods, controls all hardware functions, and provides statistical functions, reporting functions, and data and spectra export. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the PicoTAX analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the PicoTAX analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Niton Xlt700 Series Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Niton Xlt700 Series Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/004 (NTIS PB2006-1090036), 2006.
Abstract: The Niton XLt 700 Series (XLt) XRF Services x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XLt analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the XLt analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The Niton XLt is a small, field-portable instrument designed for chemical characterization of soils, sediment, and other thick homogeneous samples (plastics and metals). The analyzer features a miniaturized x-ray tube for the excitation source and a Peltier-cooled Si-PiN x-ray detector. The analyzer’s standard software is programmed to analyze and automatically report 25 elements. The Niton XLt analyzer is designed to be used as either a hand-held instrument for in situ analysis or as a bench-top instrument, in a test stand with a sample drawer below the instrument, for ex situ analysis. The Niton XLt analyzer can be used to analyze elements under three primary scenarios: (1) bulk sample mode (includes soils, sediments, and metal alloys); (2) thin film mode (includes dust wipes and filters); and (3) plastics mode. XRF analyses using the Niton XLt analyzer comply with EPA Method 6200, “Field Portable XRF Spectrometry for the Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Soil and Sediment.” This report describes the results of the evaluation of the XLt analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the XLt analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Xcalibur Elvax Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Xcalibur Elvax Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/006 (NTIS PB2006-109028), 2006.
Abstract: The Innov-X XT400 Series (XT400) x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XT400 analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the XT400 analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The Innov-X XT400 portable XRF analyzer features a miniature, rugged x-ray tube excitation source for analyzing a wide variety of elements and sample materials, including alloys, environmental solids, and other analytical samples. The x-ray tube source and Light Element Analysis Program (LEAP) technology analyzes elements that would require three isotope sources in an isotope-based XRF analyzer. Other features of the XT400 include: multiple x-ray beam filters, multiple calibration methods, and adjustable tube voltages and currents. The analyzer weighs 4.5 pounds and can be powered in the field with a lithium-ion battery or 110-volt alternating current (AC). The XT400 XRF analyzer utilizes a Hewlett-Packard (HP) iPAQ personal data assistant (PDA) for data storage of up to 10,000 tests with spectra in its 64 megabyte memory. The iPAQ has a color, high resolution display with variable backlighting and can be fitted with Bluetooth® wireless printing and data downloading, an integrated bar-code reader, and wireless data and file transfer accessories. The XT400 analyzer can analyze elements from potassium to uranium in suites of 25 elements simultaneously. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the XT400 analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the XT400 analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SITE DOCUMENT Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Oxford Ed2000 Xrf Analyzer 04/07/2006
BILLETS, S. Innovative Technology Verification Report Xrf Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment Oxford Ed2000 Xrf Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-06/007 (NTIS PB2006-109037), 2006.
Abstract: The Oxford ED2000 x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the ED2000 analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the ED2000 analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the XRF instrument’s results with data generated by a fixed laboratory (the reference laboratory). The reference laboratory performed element analysis using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), in accordance with EPA Method 3050B/6010B, and using cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury only, in accordance with EPA Method 7471A. The Oxford ED2000 bench-top XRF analyzer is an energy dispersive XRF analyzer that can be operated in a mobile laboratory or similar setting. The ED2000 can analyze up to 75 elements in a variety of sample matrices, including contaminated soils and sediments, liquids, powders, granules, filter papers, or films. The measurement of light-end elements (sodium to iron) can be determined when the samples are prepared as pressed pellets. Oxford provides a calibration service as an option to customers for specific projects and applications using this analyzer. This report describes the results of the evaluation of the ED2000 analyzer based on the data obtained during the demonstration. The method detection limits, accuracy, and precision of the instrument for each of the 13 target analytes are presented and discussed. The cost of element analysis using the ED2000 analyzer is compiled and compared to both fixed laboratory costs and average XRF instrument costs.

SUMMARY Verification of Portable Optical and Thermal Imaging Devices for Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants 10/30/2006
WILLIAMS, D. J. Verification of Portable Optical and Thermal Imaging Devices for Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-06/035, 2006.
Abstract: Optical and thermal imaging devices are remote sensing systems that can be used to detect leaking gas compounds such as methane and benzene. Use of these systems can reduce fugitive emission losses through early detection and repair at industrial facilities by providing an efficient and cost effective method for monitoring and inspection of components. This verification study will determine the ability of these systems to provide accurate information to the air quality inspection and monitoring community

 

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