Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Exposure Research
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Research & Development > Exposure Research > Publications/Presentations > End Hierarchical Links

 

Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2005

spacer
spacer

This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2005, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 135 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

spacer
Presented/Published
BOOK Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. a Security Issue 12/13/2005
KEPNER, W. G., J. L. RUBIO, D. A. MOUAT, AND F. PEDRAZZINI. Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. a Security Issue. William G. Kepner, Jose L. Rubio, David A. Mouat, Fausto Pedrazzini (ed.). Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., , Germany, 3, (2005).
Abstract: Desertification (representing soil degradation) is one of the three nature-induced (climate change, hydrological cycle) and of three primarily human-induced challenges (population growth, urbanisation and food) of global environmental change. These six components closely interact and contribute to fatal outcomes: primarily to extreme weather events and hydro-meteorological disasters (drought, flash floods, storms) and environmentally-induced migrations. These two fatal outcomes may have "in some cases" societal repercussions that may trigger or contribute to domestic, regional and international crisis and conflicts and thus they may become an issue of both human, societal, national and international security. To illustrate the causal linkages: for example in Morocco in the 1980's and 1990's, the following chain of events could be observed: severe drought, increase in food prices, hunger riots, general strikes, the police and armed forces interfered to repress these violent upheavals and subsequently hundreds of casualties could be deplored. These cases were not listed as a conflict in the relevant conflict data bases.
The book is organized in three parts: In the first part, the complex casual interactions among six factors of global environment change, two fatal outcomes and three societal repercussions: crises, conflicts and conflict avoidance, prevention and resolution will be discussed. In the second part, different security concepts will be reviewed that may be of relevance for dealing with desertification as a security issue. In the third part, possible security relevance pro-active political strategies will be considered, to avoid, and prevent that desertification issues can pose security challenges, and to contribute to a resolution of the desertification driven violence.

BOOK CHAPTER Forward: Desertification in the Mediterranean Region: A Security Issue 12/13/2005
KEPNER, W. G. AND J. L. RUBIO. Forward: Desertification in the Mediterranean Region: A Security Issue. , Chapter For, Kepner, Rubio, Mouat, Pedrazzini, and Gonzalez (ed.), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., , Germany, Xi - XV, (2005).
Abstract: The Workshop focused on two basic concepts: security and desertification and their linkages. Since the end of the Cold War, traditional security concepts based on national sovereignty and territorial security have increasingly been brought under review. Currently, a broader definition of security that would incorporate non-traditional threats and their causes, including environmental stress, has been advocated. Most current research indicates that global environmental change and its subsequent socio-economic effects are likely to continue and intensify in the future. The intensity as well as the interdependence of these problems will have affects not only at local scales, but also on an international scale and will begin to impact developing and industrialized countries more directly. These challenges call for mutual cooperation at the international level which provides for multi-disciplinary integration of both technical and policy-making individuals involved in the areas of environment, development of natural resources, foreign relations, and security.

BOOK CHAPTER Introduction: Desertification and Security Perspectives for the Mediterranean Region 12/13/2005
KEPNER, W. G. Introduction: Desertification and Security Perspectives for the Mediterranean Region. , Chapter 1, William G. Kepner, Jose L. Rubio, David A. Mouat, Fausto Pedrazzini (ed.), Desertification and Security - Perspectives for the Mediterranean Region. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., , Germany, 3 - 9, (2005).
Abstract: This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003, which was sponsored by the NATO Science Committe and NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society.
The Workshop was organized into five special sessions dealing with consequences of degradation on social, economic, and political issues (especially food security and human migration): soil and vegatation monitoring techniques and programs; water resources and management; and forecasting techniques and advanced technologies. The workshop provided a multi-lateral forum for cooperation, information exchange, and dialogue among the environmental, development, foreign and security policy communities with the Mediterranean Region and the chapters that follow reflect the important presentation and discussion of that engagement.

BOOK CHAPTER Rana Onca Cope 1875 Relict Leopard Frog 08/25/2005
Bradford, D F., R. D. Jennings, AND J R. Jaeger. Rana Onca Cope 1875 Relict Leopard Frog. , Chapter 14, Michael Lannoo (ed.), Status and Conservation of US Amphibians. University of California Press at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 567-568, (2005).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

BOOK CHAPTER Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States 08/12/2005
Bradford, D F. Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States. , Chapter 23, Michael Lannoo (ed.), Lannoo, M.J. (ed) Declining Amphibians: A United States Repsonse to the Global Problem. University of California Press at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 915-951, (2005).
Abstract: Factors adversely affecting amphibian populations in the US were evaluated using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors (Volume 2 of this book). For each species, factors implicated by the authors (i.e., known or suspected) as affecting the persistence of populations were identified. Each species was also classified by status with regards to change in its historical geographic range or number of sites within the range, and region of the US. Information was sufficient to classify the status of 81 % of the 91 anuran species native to the US, and 61% of the 176 native caudate species. Species classified as Major Decline or Some Extirpations (collectively referred to as adversely affected species) comprised 49% of the anurans and 38% of the caudates. Approximately a quarter of the species were classified as No Change for both anurans (26%) and caudates (23%), and relatively few species were classified as Increase (5% of anurans and 0% of caudates). The frequency of adversely affected species was exceptionally high for ranids in the western US, whereas no differences in frequency of adversely affected anurans were evident among non-western ranids, western non-ranids, and non-western non-ranids. Specific adverse factors were identified for 58% (53) of the 91 anurans and 53% (93 ) of the 176 caudates. Of the species with adverse factors implicated, land use was the most frequently implicated for both anurans (77% of the 53 species) and caudates (91% of the 93 species). Exotic species were the second most frequently 40 - implicated adverse factor for anurans and third for caudates (IO%). Chemical contamination ranked third for anurans (I 9%) and second for caudates (I7%). Less frequently implicated factors were disease, water source modification, collecting/harvesting, and UV-B radiation. Among the anurans with adverse factors implicated, exotic species were implicated significantly more frequently in the western US (76% of 21 species) than in the other regions (16% of 32 species). Among caudates chemical contamination was implicated significantly more frequently in the non-western US (23% of 65 species) than the western US (4% of 28 species).

DATA Nevada Geospatical Data Browser 12/15/2005
KEPNER, W. G., T. D. SAJWAJ, D. T. HEGGEM, D. F. BRADFORD, AND E. J. EVANSON. Nevada Geospatical Data Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-05/005, 2005.
Abstract: The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services Office (Las Vegas, NV). Its purpose is to centralize and distribute the geospatial data used to create the land cover, vertebrate habitat models and land stewardship data produced for the Nevada eco-regional component of the Southwest Regional GAP Analysis (SW ReGAP) project. It includes complete Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages and meta-data for the entire state of Nevada. The intent of Nevada Geospatial Data Browser is to 1) develop a central repository for the Nevada SWReGAP spatial data and 2) to provide a mechanism for public distribution of Nevada geospatial information to other researchers, public agencies, resource managers, non-governmental organizations, decision-makers, and user groups. The coverages are available for download and the meta-data include important information relative to acquisition, location, processing level, file size and format. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sensing (Landsat 7) and GIS technology to assemble and view large amounts of biological and land management data to identify areas (gaps) where conservation efforts may not be sufficient to maintain diversity of living natural resources. Historically, GAP has been conducted by individual states, however this has resulted in inconsistencies in mapped distributions of vegetation types and animal habitat across state lines because of differences in mapping and modeling protocols. This was further compounded from the lack of a national vegetation classification nomenclature. In response to these limitations, GAP embarked on a second-generation effort to conduct the program at a regional scale using 1) a vegetation classification scheme applicable across the U.S.; 2) ecoregional units as the basis for segmenting the landscape into manageable units; and 3) interagency investigator teams with land cover analysis and environmental protection expertise. The program's first formalized multi-state effort includes five Southwestern tates (i.e., Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) which comprise nearly one-fifth of the conterminous United States.

DATA Draft Landsat Data Mosaic: Montgomery County, Texas; Harris County, Texas; Fort Bend County, Texas; Brazoria County, Texas; Galveston County, Texas 10/25/2005
LOPEZ, R. D. Draft Landsat Data Mosaic: Montgomery County, Texas; Harris County, Texas; Fort Bend County, Texas; Brazoria County, Texas; Galveston County, Texas. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-05/018, 2005.
Abstract: This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 2000.

DATA Site Characterization Library Version 3.0 07/23/2005
VAN EE, J. Site Characterization Library Version 3.0. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-05/001, 2005.
Abstract: The Site Characterization Library is a CD that provides a centralized, field-portable source for site characterization information. Version 3 of the Site Characterization Library contains additional (from earlier versions) electronic documents and computer programs related to the characterization of hazardous waste sites. The resources contained in the library were recommended by experts in the field of site characterization. The Site Characterization Library CD contains over 31,000 pages of guidance in the form of files, software programs, video files, and web links. All of the documents are in Adobe Acrobats Portable Document Format (PDF) form. The documents retain their original appearance, and the entire collection can be easily searched. A free Adobe Acrobat Reader is on the CD for convenience.
General topics covered in the Site Characterization Library include: an overview of cleanup programs; conceptual site models and hazardous waste sites; project planning; managing uncertainty during implementation; and long-term response actions, operations, and maintenance. A section on the Triad Approach has been added to provide easy access to information on this innovative site characterization methodology.

JOURNAL Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1999? 12/13/2005
Nash, M S., T G. Wade, D T. Heggem, AND J D. Wickham. Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1999? William G. Kepner, Jose L. Rubio, David A. Mouat, Fausto Pedrazzini (ed.), KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., , Germany, 305-323, (2005).
Abstract: Climatic variation and human activities are major factors resulting in land degradation in arid and semiarid lands. In the Mediterranean region and over history, climatic drying was coincidental with developing agricultural technology and the rapid increase of the population and their dependence on the grain field, timber, and animal products. As a result of human population demand, it is evident that depletion of natural resources, such as water (surface or ground) and soil (e.g., soil erosion) and reduction of farm productivity, leads many farmers to move to alternative lands or to urban areas. This has a major impact on socioeconomics resulting in a decrease of per-capita food production affecting the political stability of the region and enhancing poverty.
Desertification can be evaluated using environmental degradation. However, it is important to separate degradation that occurred naturally (fire, flood, drought, etc.) or as a result of anthropogenic human activities (urbanization, livestock grazing, etc. ). Here we report the use of advanced technology to map changes in vegetation cover that enables managers to geographically locate major changes in loss or gain of vegetation cover. Vegetation cover was assessed over a 10-year period (1990-1999) using 1 km Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) biweekly composites.

JOURNAL Distributional Changes and Population Status for Amphibians in the Eastern Mojave Desert 12/12/2005
Bradford, D F., J. R. Jaeger, AND S. A. Shanahan. Distributional Changes and Population Status for Amphibians in the Eastern Mojave Desert. Western North American Naturalist 65(4):462-472, (2005).
Abstract: A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert of western North America, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distributional changes for amphibians were investigated in a 20,000 km2 area in the eastern Mojave Desert in two ways. For upland sites, where wetland habitat consists almost exclusively of spring encounter surveys were conducted at 128 sites in 1997-1999, and these results were compared to historical (pre.: 1970) lacality records. For lowland sites, i.e., sites in the major valleys and river flood plains, locality records and field observations were reviewed and compared between recent and historical times. Amphibians were found at 79% of the upland sites. By far the most common species was the red-spotted toad (73% of sites), followed by the Pacific chorus frog, Woodhouse's toad, relict leopard frog, and the introduced American bullfrog. Taxa recently observed or collected in the lowlands were Woodhouse's toad, Pacific chorus frog, American bullfrog, and the introduced tiger salamander. Taxa with historical records but no evidence of occurrence in the study area within the past five decades are the Vegas Valley leopard frog, Arizona toad, Great Plains toad, and Great Basin spadefoot. The amphibian fauna of the study area has changed dramatically in the past century, primarily at lowland sites where habitat loss and modification have been extreme. Striking changes are the nearly complete replacement of native leopard frogs (i.e., Vegas Valley and relict leopard frogs) by the introduced bullfrog, and the complete replacement of the Arizona toad in Las Vegas Valley by Woodhouse ' s toad or hybrids with predominantly Woodhouse's traits. In contrast, the distributions of two species characteristic of upland springs, red-spotted toad and Pacific chorus frog, appear to have changed relatively little from their historic distributions, despite consiuderable habitat modification at many sites.

JOURNAL Determination of Ion and Neutral Loss Compositions and Deconvolution of Product Ion Mass Spectra Using An Orthogonal Acceleration, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and An Ion Correlation Program 12/06/2005
GRANGE, A. H., M. C. ZUMWALT, AND G. SOVOCOOL. Determination of Ion and Neutral Loss Compositions and Deconvolution of Product Ion Mass Spectra Using An Orthogonal Acceleration, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and An Ion Correlation Program. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 20(2):89-102, (2006).
Abstract: Exact masses of monoisotopic ions and the relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) of ions greater in mass by 1 and 2 Da than the monoisotopic ion are independent and complementary physical properties useful for istinguishing among ion compositions possible for a given nominal mass. Using these properties to determine compositions of product ions and neutral losses increases the mass of precursor ions for which unique compositions can be determined. Precursor ion, product ion, and neutral loss compositions aid mass spectral interpretation and guide modest chemical literature searches for candidate standards to be obtained for confirmation of tentative compound identifications. This approach is essential for compound characterization or identification due to the absence of commercial libraries of ESI and APCI product ion spectra. For a series of 34 exact mass measurements, an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer provided 34 and 29 values accurate to within 2 and 1 mDa, respectively, for ions from eight simulated unknowns with [M+H] ion masses between 166 and 319 Da. Of 36 RIA + measurements for +1 Da or +2 Da ions, 35 were accurate to within 20% of their predicted values (or to within 0.4 RIA % when the RIA value was less than 1%) in the absence of obvious interferences, when the onoisotopic ion peak areas were at least 1.7 x 10 counts, and the ion 5 masses exceeded 141 Da. An Ion Correlation Program (ICP) provided the unique and correct compositions for all but three of the 34 ions studied. Manual inspection of the data eliminated the incorrect compositions. To test the utility of the ICP for deconvoluting composite product ion spectra, all 34 ions were tested for correlation. Six of eight precursor ions were identified as such, while two were compositional subsets of others and were not properly identified. The six precursor ion compositions were still found by the ICP even though ions with masses less than 158 Da were not considered since they could no longer be correlated with a single precursor ion. Finally, two unidentified analytes were characterized, based on data published by others and using the ICP together with mass spectral interpretation.

JOURNAL Evaluating the Relative Roles of Ecological Regions and Land-Cover Composition for Guiding Establishment of Nutrient Criteria 11/05/2005
Wickham, J D., K. H. Riitters, T G. Wade, AND K B. Jones. Evaluating the Relative Roles of Ecological Regions and Land-Cover Composition for Guiding Establishment of Nutrient Criteria. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 20:791-798, (2005).
Abstract: The continuing expansion of anthropogenic influence across the continental United States has motivated the establishment of nutrient criteria for streams, lakes, and estuaries as a means to promote the protection of aquatic resources. Nutrient criteria have been established based on ecoregional differences, recognizing that geographic variation in climate, topography, geology, and land use require use of different criteria values for different regions of the continental United States. Several studies have demonstrated that land-cover composition also strongly influences nutrient concentrations and yields. We examined the relative roles of ecoregions and watershed land-cover composition in explaining variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by re-analyzing the National Eutrophication Survey (NES) data reported by Omemik (1977). The variance of N concentrations among land-cover composition classes within ecoregions was six times larger than the variance among ecoregions. For P concentrations, land-cover composition within ecoregions accounted for 3 times more variance than , ecoregions themselves. Variance across ecoregions was only weakly significant after accounting for variance in land-cover composition within ecoregions. The results suggest that the relationship between land-cover composition and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems should also be used to help guide establishment of nutrient criteria.

JOURNAL Proceedings from a Nato/Ccms Pilot Study Meeting at Lecce, Italy: Linkages Among Landscape Assessment, Quality of Life and Environmental Security 11/01/2005
PETROSILLO, I., G. ZURLINI, W. G. KEPNER, AND F. MUELLER. Proceedings from a Nato/Ccms Pilot Study Meeting at Lecce, Italy: Linkages Among Landscape Assessment, Quality of Life and Environmental Security. Petrosillo, I.,G. Zurlini, W. Kepner, Muller, F. (ed.), Ecosys Beiträge zur Ökosystemforschung. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., , Germany, 1-4, (2005).
Abstract: From 5-9 September 2004 the international working group of the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on the "Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment" met in Lecce, Italy. The results of this meeting are documented and the scientific presentations and results are published in EcoSys (a University of Kiel [Germany] scientific journal; ISSN:0940-7782). The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was created in 1969 by the North Atlantic Council for the purpose of addressing problems affecting the environment of the member nations and the quality of life of their citizens. A key goal of the NATO/CCMS is to utilize a science framework to promote international cooperation. To meet the challenges associated with evaluating environmental problems related to land use at multiple spatial scales the CCMS initiated a pilot study on the Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment in March 2001. Specifically, the pilot study has been developed to explore the potential of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources (including security) by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geographic information systems, spatial statistics, and process models with landscape ecology theory. The research is focused on the interaction between landscape patterns and ecological processes and their relation to environmental security. Environmental assessment is defined as a process by which scientific evidence and technological information are analyzed for the purpose of evaluating present condition or forecasting the outcomes of alternative future courses of action. The assessments are directed toward specific ecological resources and socially relevant endpoints such as watershed condition (water quality, quantity, and vulnerability to flooding), landscape resilience (ability to sustain ecological goods and services when subjected to conditions of anthropogenic and natural stress), and biodiversity (wildlife habitat).The research and implementation agendas are being accomplished through the completion of multiple national studies throughout Europe and the United States which emphasize thematic areas related to landscape characterization, land cover change detection, landscape indicators, landscape assessment, and landscape theory and models. The Pilot Study participants meet annually to report their findings and share their results. The information is consolidated into published proceedings and is made publicly available via the NATO/CCMS Pilot Studies website (see http://www.nato.int/ccms/pilot-studies/lsea/ lsea-index.htm).
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and pproved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of trade names and commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

JOURNAL Editorial: Linkages Among Landscape Assessment, Quality of Life and Environmental Security 11/01/2005
PETROSILLO, I., G. ZURLINI, W. G. KEPNER, AND F. MUELLER. Editorial: Linkages Among Landscape Assessment, Quality of Life and Environmental Security. James Porteus (ed.), Ecosys Beiträge zur Ökosystemforschung. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Victoria, Australia, 11:1-168, (2005).
Abstract: The purpose and scope of the landscape sciences pilot study is to establish a working group representative of NATO Member and Partner nations to exchange information about landscape science approaches useful for environmental assessment and to transfer landscape assessment technologies among the study group participants for use in environmental protection and preservation programmes. Both land use and land cover characterization and the use of landscape indicators will be demonstrated for environmental assessment. Multiple geographic areas in Europe and the continental United States have been selected for this demonstration study. The pilot study will explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources (including security) by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geographic information systems, spatial statistics, and process models with landscape ecology theory.

JOURNAL Improving National Air Quality Forecasts With Satellite Aerosol Observations 10/02/2005
AL-SAADI, J. A., J. SZYKMAN, R. B. PIERCE, C. KITTAKA, D. O. NEIL, D. A. CHU, L. REMER, L. GUMLEY, E. PRINS, L. WEINSTOCK, C. MACDONALD, R. WAYLAND, F. DIMMICK, AND F. FISHMAN. Improving National Air Quality Forecasts With Satellite Aerosol Observations. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 86(9):1249-1261, (2005).
Abstract: Air quality forecasts for major US metropolitan areas have been provided to the public through a partnership between the US Environmental Protection Agency and state and local air agencies since 1997. Recent years have witnessed improvement in forecast skill and expansion of forecasts to additional pollutants and lacalities. Accurate air quality forecasts allow individuals to minimize the adverse health impacts of poor air quality by adjusting their plans for outdoor activities to reduce exposure. Accurate forecasts can also allow the severity of pollution episodes to be reduced by enabling timely implementation of mitigation strategies. Yet air quality forecasting is quite complex; in addition to all the difficulties associated with weather forecasting, it requires knowledge of local and regional pollution conditions and the ability to predict the evolution and transformation of the trace constituents comprising pollution. While pollution episodes are commonly attributed to nearby emissions and local meteorological conditions, it is increasingly recognized that long-range transport of non-local pollutants is often a factor (NARSTO, 2003). Therefore local air quality forecasts depend on knowledge of pollutant concentrations and emissions at surrounding, and potentially distant, locations. The most direct way to obtain this knowledge is from the pollutant measurements routinely made at surface monitoring stations across the country. However, large regions of the US are devoid of surface monitors and coastal regions are often influenced by polluted air approaching over water. In addition, pollution may be transported aloft, undetected by surface monitors, and then descend to influence air at the ground.

JOURNAL Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Amount and Source of Dissolved Organic Carbon: Implications for UV Exposure in Amphibian Habitats 09/23/2005
Brooks, P. D., C. M. O'Reilly, S A. Diamond, D. H. Campbell, R. A. Knapp, D F. Bradford, P. S. Corn, B. Hossack, AND K. E. Tonnessen. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Amount and Source of Dissolved Organic Carbon: Implications for UV Exposure in Amphibian Habitats. ECOSYSTEMS 8:478-487, (2005).
Abstract: The amount, chemical composition, and source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), together with in situ ultraviolet-B radiation (UV -B; 280 to 320 nm) attenuation, were measured at one to two week intervals throughout the summers of 1999,2000, and 2001 at four sites in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado). Eight additional sites, four in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park/John Muir Wilderness (California) and four in Glacier National Park (Montana), were sampled during the summer of 2000. UV -B attenuation was significantly related to DOC concentrations over the three years in Rocky Mountain (R2 = 0.39, F=25.71, p<0.0001) and across all parks in 2000 (R2 = 0.44, F=38.25, p

JOURNAL New Applications of LC-MS and LC-Ms2 Toward Understanding the Environmental Fate of Organometallics 09/17/2005
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND G. MOMPLAISIR. New Applications of LC-MS and LC-Ms2 Toward Understanding the Environmental Fate of Organometallics. TRENDS IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 24(7):590-595, (2005).
Abstract: Over the last 40 years, many organometallic compounds have been synthesized and used in a variety of consumer, agricultural, and industrial products. Including wastewater effluents, leaching, and direct land and water applications, there are many pathways that can disperse organometallics to the environment. Many of these compounds reach environmental compartments unchanged while others are transformed into chemical entities having different availability or toxicity to living organisms. Differences in the toxicological, biochemical, and environmental behavior of the various chemical forms of a trace-element often make the determination of the total element concentration inadequate. Considerable analytical progress in organometallic speciation has been made over the past decade, where hyphenated techniques involving highly efficient separation and sensitive detection have become the techniques of choice. Methods based on liquid chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection have revealed new organometallic compounds in environmental and biological matrices, contributing to a better understanding of biological effects and environmental fate of organometallics. This article surveys recent applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC- MS-MS) for the determination of organometallic compounds in environmental matrices.

JOURNAL Linking Land Cover and Water Quality in New York City's Water Supply Watersheds 09/09/2005
Mehaffey, M H., M S. Nash, T G. Wade, C M. Edmonds, D W. Ebert, K B. Jones, AND A. H. Rager. Linking Land Cover and Water Quality in New York City's Water Supply Watersheds. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING & ASSESSMENT 107:29-44, (2005).
Abstract: The Catskill/Delaware reservoirs supply 90% of New York City's drinking water. The City has implemented as series of watershed protection measures, including land acquisition, aimed at preserving water quality in the Catskill/Delaware watersheds. The objective of this study was to examine how relationships between landscape and surface water measurements change between years. Thirty-two drainage areas delineated from surface water sample points (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria concentrations) were used in stepwise regression analyses to test landscape and surface-water quality relationships. Two measurements of land use, percent agriculture and percent urban development, were positively related to water quality and consistently present in all regression models. Together these two land uses explained 25 to 75% of the regression model variation. However, the contribution of agriculture to water quality condition showed a decreasing trend with time as overall agricultural land cover decreased. Results from this study demonstrate that relationships between land cover and surface water concenctrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria counts over a large area can be evaluated using a relatively simple geographic information system method. Land managers may find this method useful for targeting resources in relation to a particular water quality concern, focusing best management efforts, and maximizing benefits to water quality with minimal costs.

JOURNAL Cryptic Neogene Vicariance and Quaternary Dispersal of the Red-Spotted Toad (Bufo Punctatus) Insights on the Evolution of North American Warm Desert Biotas 08/22/2005
Jaeger, J R., B. R. Riddle, AND D F. Bradford. Cryptic Neogene Vicariance and Quaternary Dispersal of the Red-Spotted Toad (Bufo Punctatus) Insights on the Evolution of North American Warm Desert Biotas. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 14:3033-3048, (2005).
Abstract: We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of biotas associated with the major warm desert regions of western North America. To complement deeper scale phylogenetic analyses, we nested parsimony-based haplotype networks within the major identified evolutionary lineages and applied nested clade analysis (NCA) to further elucidate and evaluate more recent phylogeographic patterns potentially associated with Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene) vicariance and dispersal. We assessed mtDNA variation among 187 samples from 80 sites located throughout most of the species range. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three monophyletic clades within B. punctatus. Sequence divergences among these major clades were almost identical, and phylogenetic analyses revealed no support for any particular branching order among the clades. The observed divergence levels and congruence with postulated events in earth history implicate a Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Pliocene) time-frame for the separation of the major mtDNA lineages. The geographic distributions of haplotypes within the three major clades showed little overlap and corresponded to the general boundaries of the Peninsular Desert, and two continental desert clades, Eastern (Chihuahuan Desert-Colorado Plateau) and Western (Mojave-Sonoran deserts), geographically separated along the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Madre Occidental (roughly the continental divide). Evaluation of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and interpretations from NCA revealed that Eastern clade populations on the Colorado Plateau are a result of recent range expansion, most likely post-Pleistocene, from populations in the Chihuahuan Desert. The Western clade appears to have maintained some populations within the Mojave Desert during recent Pleistocene times. We identified two locations where the major continental clades are in current contact and speculate as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials during the Pleistocenerecent range expansion, most likely post-Pleistocene, from populations in the Chihuahuan Desert. The Western clade appears to have maintained some populations within the Mojave Desert during recent Pleistocene times. We identified two locations where the major continental clades are in current contact and speculate as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials during the Pleistocene.

JOURNAL Development and Evaluation of a Fish Assemblage Index of Biotic Integrity for Northwestern Great Plains Streams 08/13/2005
BRAMBLETT, R. G., T. R. JOHNSON, A. V. ZALE, AND D. T. HEGGEM. Development and Evaluation of a Fish Assemblage Index of Biotic Integrity for Northwestern Great Plains Streams. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, 134:624-640, (2005).
Abstract: Quantitative indicators of biological integrity are needed for streams in the Great Plains of North America, but it was not known if the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) approach would be effective in this semi-arid region. Great Plains streams have a depauperate and tolerant ichthyofauna and highly variable physicochemical conditions that may mask the effects of non-point source pollution and stream habitat degradation. We developed an IBI based on fish assemblages by screening metrics for range, responsiveness to human influence, precision, and lack of redundancy and tested the IBI's ability to detect anthropogenic effects by validating the index with an independent data set. The IBI was composed of 10 metrics based on species richness and composition, trophic and reproductive guilds, and age structure. These 10 metrics had many significant correlations with substrate and water chemistry variables but had fewer significant correlations with riparian condition and watershed variables. Of the watershed variables, road density had the highest number of significant correlations with 14 final IBI metrics. The IBI was validated by demonstrating its responsiveness to aggregate measures of human influence, site-level habitat, and water chemistry, and lack of responsiveness to factors that varied naturally, such as stream size and site elevation. The IBI was also temporally stable in repeat visits within and between years to a subset of sampled reaches. This IBI can be used as a measure of biological integrity for management of prairie streams faced with threats such as introduced species, intensive agriculture, grazing, and coalbed natural gas extraction. Although we developed this IBI based on data from Montana prairie streams only, our IBI can likely serve as a framework for other North American plains streams and our results suggest that the IBI approach may be useful in other semi-arid regions of the world.

JOURNAL Complementary CO-Kriging: Spatial Prediction Using Data Combined from, Several Pollution Monitoring Networks 08/02/2005
Zimmerman, D. AND D M. Holland. Complementary CO-Kriging: Spatial Prediction Using Data Combined from, Several Pollution Monitoring Networks. ENVIRONMETRICS 16(3):219-234, (2005).
Abstract: We consider the problem of optimal spatial prediction of an environmental variable using data from more than one sampling network. A model incorporating spatial dependence and measurement errors with network-specific biases and variances serves as the basis for the analysis of the combined data from all networks. We develop the associated optimal pre- diction methodology, which we call complementary co-kriging because (a) data from each network complements the other, and (b) the solutions to several prediction problems of interest are co-kriging predictors. A hypothetical example illustrates how much better the complementary co-kriging predictor can be, when compared to the ordinary kriging predictors from each network alone and to a "naive" combined predictor. We use the methodology to obtain optimal predictions of wet nitrate concentration data over the eastern U .S. using data combined from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Net- work (NADP/NTN) and the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet).

JOURNAL Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin: Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics Determination By Gc-Nici-MS for a Sentinel Species 06/24/2005
Mottaleb, M. A., W C. Brumley, AND G W. Sovocool. Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin: Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics Determination By Gc-Nici-MS for a Sentinel Species. American Biotechnology Laboratory. International Scientific Communications, Inc., Shelton, CT, 23(7):26-29, (2005).
Abstract: Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabolites exhibited kinetics with a presumed exponential decay and a half-life estimated to be 1-2 days. This suggests that a robust mechanism of elimination of the adducts exists in fish erythrocytes apparently analogous to that observed in mammals.
Two sick fish were observed to yield from 5 to 24 times the amount of adducts of similarly exposed fish, suggesting that this elimination mechanism may have been impaired or lacking in susceptible individual fish. It appears that adducts are destroyed in times far shorter than the expected life spans of the erythrocytes. This finding may have implications for the use of Hb biomarkers as integrative measures of exposure in some contexts. Additional conclusions from these preliminary data include the additive burden of exposure to multiple compounds and the increased susceptibility and direct observation of metabolic differences of individual members of the species completely independent of habitat and feeding habit variations.

JOURNAL Implementing and Auditing Electronic Recordkeeping Systems Used in Scientific Research and Development 06/14/2005
Brilis, G M., J G. Lyon, J. Worthington, AND R. Lysakowski. Implementing and Auditing Electronic Recordkeeping Systems Used in Scientific Research and Development. QUALITY ASSURANCE: GOOD PRACTICE, REGULATION, AND LAW. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 11:5-24, (2005).
Abstract: Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing hadwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for Research and Development organizations because of the potential to transform a discovery into a patent, and at times patent application contests are resolved in litigation. This paper provides a basis for the development, implementation, and subsequent assessment of a Research and Development recordkeeping policy. The approach described in this paper should be tailored by the organization adopting this approach to meet the needs of their organization.

JOURNAL Role of Laboratory Sampling Devices and Laboratory Subsampling Methods in Optimizing Representativeness Strategies 05/02/2005
Nocerino, J M., B A. Schumacher, AND C C. Dary. Role of Laboratory Sampling Devices and Laboratory Subsampling Methods in Optimizing Representativeness Strategies. ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 6:35-44, (2005).
Abstract: Sampling is the act of selecting items from a specified population in order to estimate the parameters of that population (e.g., selecting soil samples to characterize the properties at an environmental site). Sampling occurs at various levels and times throughout an environmental site characterization process. Typically, initial (primary) sampling occurs in the field while subsequent stages of sample size reduction (subsampling) occur until the final laboratory analysis stage. At each step in the measurement process, from planning, site selection, sample collection, sample preparation, through sample analysis, errors can occur that propagate, leading to uncertainty associated with the final result upon which decisions will ultimately be made. The goal of all sampling efforts should be to select samples that are representative of the population (i.e., site) in question. General guidelines, with supporting background and theory, for obtaining representative subsamples for the laboratory analysis of particulate materials using "correct" sampling practices and "correct" sampling devices are presented ("correct" as defined by Gy sampling theory; see Pitard 1993). Considerations are given to: the constitution and the degree of heterogeneity of the material being sampled, the methods used for sample collection (including what proper tools to use ), what it is that the sample is supposed to represent, the mass of the sample needed to be representative, and the bounds of what "representative" actually means.

JOURNAL Roxarsone and Transformation Products in Chicken Manure: Determination By Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectromerty 04/13/2005
Rosal, C G., G M. Momplaisir, AND E M. Heithmar. Roxarsone and Transformation Products in Chicken Manure: Determination By Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectromerty. ELECTROPHORESIS. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 26(7-8):1606-1614, (2005).
Abstract: The determination of the animal feed additive roxarsone (3-nitro-4- hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) and six of its possible transfonnation products (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) in chicken manure was investigated using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICPMS). Initial method development was conducted using ultraviolet (UV) detection for ruggedness and time efficiency. Separation of these seven arsenic species was effected using a 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 5.7. The CE-ICPMS limits of detection in terms of As for each of the species was in the low ugL-1 range, corresponding to absolute detection limits in the range 20-70 fg As (based on a 23-nL injection). Overall, the method developed in this study provides high selectivity and low limits of detection (1-3 ug L-1 or low-ppb, based on As), uses small sample volume (low nL), and produces minimal wastes.

JOURNAL Association of Landscape Metrics to Surface Water Biology in the Savannah River Basin 04/04/2005
Nash, M S., D J. Chaloud, AND S E. Franson. Association of Landscape Metrics to Surface Water Biology in the Savannah River Basin. JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS 1(1):29-34, (2005).
Abstract: Surface water quality for the Savannah River basin was assessed using water biology and landscape metrics. Two multivariate analyses, partial least square and cannonical correlation, were used to describe how the structural variation in landscape variable(s) that contribute the most to variation in surface water quality. Our results showed that the key landscape metrices in this study area were: percent forest, percent of total area in agriculture (row crops + pasture) on moderately erodible soils, percent of total area with slopes greater than 3 percent, and stream density. The first two canonical variates describe the linear combinations of the two data sets (r=0.74 and 0.63), weighted mainly by percent of total area with slopes greater than 3 percent, taxa richness of sensitive insects to pollution (EPT; Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera Index), algal growth potential and percent total area in agriculture on moderately erodible soils.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

JOURNAL Estimating Ground Level PM 2.5 in the Eastern United States Using Satellite Remote Sensing 03/10/2005
Sarnat, J., V Kilaru, D. J. Jacobs, AND P. Koutrakis. Estimating Ground Level PM 2.5 in the Eastern United States Using Satellite Remote Sensing. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 39(9):3269-34278, (2005).
Abstract: An empirical model based on the regression between daily average final particle (PM2.5) concentrations and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was developed and tested using data from the eastern United States during the period of 2001. Overall, the empirical model explained 48% of the variability in PM2.5 concentrations. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the model was 6.2 ug/m3 with a corresponding average PM2.5 concentration of 13.8 ug/m3. When PM2.5 concentrations greater than 40 ug/m3 were removed, model results were unbiased estimation of observations. Several factors, such as planetary boundary layer height, relative humidity , season, and other geographical attributes of monitoring sites were found to influence the association between PM2.5 and AOT. The findings of this study illustrate the potential application of satellite remote sensing for regional ambient air quality monitoring. With the continuous advancement of remote sensing technology and global data assimilation systems, AOT measurements, derived from satellite remote sensors, may provide a cost-effective approach as a supplemental source of information for determining ground level particle concentrations.

JOURNAL Use of Road Maps in National Assessments of Forest Fragmentation in the United States 02/15/2005
Riitters, K. H., J D. Wickham, AND J. W. Coulston. Use of Road Maps in National Assessments of Forest Fragmentation in the United States. C.S. Holling, Carl Folke, Lance Gunderson, Michelle Lee, Allyson Quinlan (ed.), CONSERVATION ECOLOGY 9(2):13,online, (2005).
Abstract: Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads was highest in the Pacific Northwest and Appalachian Mountain regions. Elsewhere, roads were typically associated with sufficient nonforest land-cover that most of the road-mediated fragmentation was already evident on land-cover maps. Over most of the United States, land-cover maps alone accounted for at least 80 percent of forest edge, and depending on the observation scale, 89 to l00 percent of the fragmentation of core forest. Using roads to delineate forest patches caused indices of the number, size, and distance between forest patches to change much more substantially but, in many places, illogically.

JOURNAL Modeling the Distribution of Nonpoint Nitrogen Sources and Sinks in the Neuse River Basin of North Carolina, USA 02/10/2005
Lunetta, R S., R. G. Greene, AND J G. Lyon. Modeling the Distribution of Nonpoint Nitrogen Sources and Sinks in the Neuse River Basin of North Carolina, USA. SOIL AND SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 41(5):1129-1147, (2005).
Abstract: This study quantified nonpoint nitrogen (N) sources and sinks across the 14,582 km2 Neuse River Basin (NRB) located in North Carolina, to provide a tabular database to initialize in-stream N decay models and graphic overlay products for the development of management approaches to best achieve established N reduction goals. Modeling efforts included the development of a remote sensing derived land-cover classification to identify individual landscape modeling elements, followed by mass-balance modeling to quantify potential sources of excess N, and precipitation event driven hydrologic modeling to effectively transport N to individual stream reaches with subsequent labeling of transported N values corresponding to source origin. Results indicated that agricultural land contributed 55.3% of the total annual NPS-N loadings, followed by forested land at 23.0% (background), and urban areas at 20.9%. Average annual N source contributions were quantified for agricultural (1.4 kg/ha), urban (1.2 kg/ha) and forested cover types (0.5 kg/ha). NPS-N source contributions were greatest during the winter (39.8%), followed by spring (31.7%), summer (28.2%), and fall (0.3%).
Seasonal total N loadings shifted from urban and forest dominated sources during the winter, to agricultural sources in the spring and summer. A quantitative assessment of the significant NRB land-use activities indicated that high and medium density urban development (>35% 1 impervious) were the greatest contributor on NPS- N on a unit area basis (1.9 and 1.6 kg/ha/yr, respectively), followed by row crops and pasture and hay agricultural cover types (1.4 kg/ha/yr).

JOURNAL Sand Flux in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA, and the Influence of Mesquite-Dominated Landscapes 02/04/2005
GILLETTE, D. AND A M. Pitchford. Sand Flux in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA, and the Influence of Mesquite-Dominated Landscapes. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 109:doi: 10.1029/2003JF0, (2004).
Abstract: This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) that land dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is the most important area for active sand movement at the Jornada Experimental Range, located in the northern part of the Chihuahuan desert, and (2) that the most active sand movement in the mesquite-dominated ecosystems takes place on elongated bare soil patches ( "streets") having sandy-textured soil texture between the mesquite plants oriented in the direction of the strongest winds. Both hypotheses were confirmed by the evidence discussed in this paper. To integrate the wind observations, vegetation mapping, and sand flux monitoring described in this paper, we modeled the spatial and temporal mean airborne sand mass flux. The model had the form of an expectation integral that used information on the following: the increase in sand flux with street length, a function for the horizontal mass flux based on friction velocity and threshold friction velocity, wind speed probability versus wind direction, probability of street length versus direction, and probability of friction velocity being exceeded. The model's calculations of mean sand flux movement showed fairly good proportionality with the observed mean sand fluxes at three sites dominated by mesquite vegetation.

JOURNAL Mapping Spatial Thematic Accuracy With Fuzzy Sets 01/25/2005
Tran, L. T., J D. Wickham, S T. Jarnagin, AND C. G. Knight. Mapping Spatial Thematic Accuracy With Fuzzy Sets. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 71(1):29-36, (2005).
Abstract: Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (e.g., confusion or error matrix, kappa coefficient of agreement, etc) are inadequate in analyzing the spatial variation of thematic map accuracy. This paper presents a method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic land-cover map using fuzzy set concept. First, we defined a multi-level agreement between sample pixel sand map-based pixels. Then we formulated a discrete fuzzy set of agreement regarding a particular land-cover type for each pixel on the map using a modified inverse distance weighted approach. We illustrated the method by constructing accuracy maps of several land-cover types for the Mid-,4tlantic Region Results showed that the method provided valuable information of thematic map accuracy

for both remote sensing /GIS scientists and decision-makers.

NON-EPA PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Airborne Lwir Hyperspectral Imaging 06/01/2005
WILLIAMS, D. J., A. N. PILANT, DORSEY D. WORTHY, B. FELDMAN, T. WILLIAMS, AND P. LUCEY. Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Airborne Lwir Hyperspectral Imaging. SPIE Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI, November 08 - 11, 2004. SPIE/International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 5655:1-8, (2005).
Abstract: Airborne longwave infrared LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in sourthern Texzas. The Airborne Hysperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawaii was flown over a petrochemical facility and a confined animal feeding operation on a modified DC-3 during April, 2004. Data collected by the AHI system was successfully used to detect and identify numerous plumes at both sites. Preliminary results indicate the presence of benzene and ammonia and several other organic compounds. Emissions were identified using regression analysis on atmospherically compensated data. Data validation was conducted using facility emission inventories. This technology has great promise for monitoring and inventorying facility emissiosns, detecting emissions not identified by conventional methods, and may be used as means to assist ground inspectiong teams to focus on actual fugitive emission points.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS Rapid Post-Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment Using the Agwa GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool 07/22/2005
GOODRICH, D. C., H. E. CANFIELD, I. S. BURNS, D. J. SEMMENS, S. N. MILLER, M. HERNANDEZ, L. R. LEVICK, D. P. GUERTIN, AND W. G. KEPNER. Rapid Post-Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment Using the Agwa GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool. In Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers Watershed Management Conference, Williamsburg, VA, July 19 - 22, 2005. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 12, (2005).
Abstract: Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources.
These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in nature and require a distributed hydrological modeling approach. The extensive data requirements and the task of building input parameter files have presented obstacles to the timely and effective use of complex distributed rainfall-runoff and erosion models by BAER teams and resource managers. Geospatial tools and readily-available digital sources of pre-fire land cover, topography, and soils combined with rainfall-runoff and erosion models can expedite assessments if properly combined, provided a post-fire burn-severity map is available. The AGWA (Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment)hydrologic modeling tool was developed to utilize nationally available spatial data sets and both empirical (SWAT) and more process-based (KINEROS2) distributed hydrologic models (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa). Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then run, and the results are imported back into AGWA for graphical display. AGWA can difference results from pre- and post-fire model simulations and display the change on the modeled watershed. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where mitigation activities can be focused. An overview of AGWA and an application of it to the 2003 Aspen fire north of Tucson, Arizona are discussed herein.

PRESENTATION Advancing Site Characterization and Monitoring Through Client Collaborations 12/14/2005
SCHUMACHER, B. A., J. H. ZIMMERMAN, AND J. M. NOCERINO. Advancing Site Characterization and Monitoring Through Client Collaborations. Presented at BOSC Review of Land Research Program, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: There is no astract available for htis product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliogaphic citation and contact the person listed under Contract field.

PRESENTATION Innovations in Soil Sampling and Data Analysis 12/14/2005
SCHUMACHER, B. A., J. H. ZIMMERMAN, AND J. M. NOCERINO. Innovations in Soil Sampling and Data Analysis. Presented at BOSC Review of Land Research Program, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: There is no astract available for htis product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliogaphic citation and contact the person listed under Contract field.

PRESENTATION Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic) 12/13/2005
GAROFALO, D. AND M. J. BENGER. Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic). Presented at BOSC Review of ORDs Goal 3, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratories, and all 10 EPA Regional Offices.

PRESENTATION Innovations in Soil Sampling and Data Analysis 12/13/2005
SCHUMACHER, B. A., J. H. ZIMMERMAN, AND J. M. NOCERINO. Innovations in Soil Sampling and Data Analysis. Presented at BOSC review of Land Research Program, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: Successful research outcomes from the VOC in soils work will provide the Agency with methods and techniques that provide the accurate VOC concentrations so that decisions related to a contaminated site can be made to optimize the protectiveness to the environment and human health and the cost effectiveness of remedial decisions.

PRESENTATION EPA's Eye in the Sky: the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic) 12/13/2005
GAROFALO, D. AND M. J. BENGER. EPA's Eye in the Sky: the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic). Presented at BOSC Review of ORD's Goal 3, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic) 12/13/2005
GAROFALO, D. AND M. J. BENGER. Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic). Presented at BOSC Review of ORDs Goal 3, Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratories, and all 10 EPA Regional Offices.

PRESENTATION Overview Technical Support Center for Monitoring and Site Characterization Las Vegas, Nv 12/13/2005
PEARSON, G. Overview Technical Support Center for Monitoring and Site Characterization Las Vegas, Nv. Presented at US EPA BOSC Meeting , Cincinnati, OH, December 13 - 15, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Impervious Surface Research in the Mid-Atlantic 12/07/2005
JARNAGIN, S. AND D. B. JENNINGS. Impervious Surface Research in the Mid-Atlantic. Presented at Paired Platform Presentations at the US EPA OWOW Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, December 07, 2005.
Abstract: Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change. As a single variable, it serves to integrate a number of concurrent interactions that directly influence a watershed's hydrology, stream chemical quality and thus the in-stream habitat. We have been studying impervious surfaces in several different ways in an attempt to estimate both their extent and predicted impact in watersheds. This research involves two primary components: (1) high-resolution watershed mapping of impervious surfaces over time and (2) coordinated monitoring of physical and biological parameters of streams coupled with impervious surfaces mapping as watersheds are developed.

PRESENTATION The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser 12/06/2005
KEPNER, W. G., T. D. SAJWAJ, D. F. BRADFORD, AND E. J. EVANSON. The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser. Presented at Nationa Gap Analysis Conference and Interagency Symposium, Reno, NV, December 06 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services (Las Vegas, NV).

PRESENTATION The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser: A Spatial Data Archive for the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project 12/06/2005
KEPNER, W. G., T. D. SAJWAJ, D. F. BRADFORD, AND E. J. EVANSON. The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser: A Spatial Data Archive for the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Presented at Nationa Gap Analysis Conference and Interagency Symposium, Reno, NV, December 06 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis project (SWReGAP) is a 5-state (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify areas (gaps) where conservation efforts may not be sufficient to maintain diversity of living natural resources.

PRESENTATION Swregap Data to Estimate Change in Watershed Condition for Selected Nevada Watersheds Using a GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Approach 12/06/2005
GOODRICH, D. C., W. G. KEPNER, S. N. MILLER, AND D. P. GUERTIN. Swregap Data to Estimate Change in Watershed Condition for Selected Nevada Watersheds Using a GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Approach. Presented at National Gap Analysis Conference and Interagency Symposium, Reno, NV, December 06 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are an important contemporary requisite for almost all natural resource agencies. An overview of the utility of SWReGAP data for watershed assessment and conservation will be presented using specific examples in Nevada.

PRESENTATION Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project: the Second Generation 12/06/2005
KEPNER, W. G. Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project: the Second Generation. Presented at 2005 National GAP Analysis Conference and Interagency Symposium, Reno, NV, December 06 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: The project goal of providing useful information to the regional, state, and community stakeholders to assist them in understanding the environment, setting priorities, and making important decisions relative to conservation and sustainable resource management.

PRESENTATION Simplified Identification of Mystery Pollutants Detected By Mass Spectrometry 12/05/2005
GRANGE, A. H. Simplified Identification of Mystery Pollutants Detected By Mass Spectrometry. Presented at OSWER/ORD Seminar Series, Las Vegas, NV, December 05, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Consumption and Use 12/01/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Consumption and Use. Presented at Renewable Natural Resources Foundation Congress , Washington, DC, December 01 - 02, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Rs-GIS QA Tools 11/16/2005
BRILIS, GEORGE M. AND JOHNG LYON. Rs-GIS QA Tools. Presented at ASPRS Southwest Region Technical Meeting, DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, November 16, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under
the contact field.

PRESENTATION Geoinformation and Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) 11/14/2005
MEHAFFEY, M. H., BETSY R. SMITH, AND P. F. WAGNER. Geoinformation and Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva). Presented at PEER Geoinformatics Seminar, Montpellier, FRANCE, November 14 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: Since its inception in 1970, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has monitored air, water, land and human health. Currently, EPA's mission is centered on a set five goals: Clean Air, Clean Water, Land Preservation, Healthy Communities, and Stewardship. As part of these goals, and as one of its contributions to GEOSS, the Agency continually collects and utilizes a wide variety of data. There is now widespread recognition within EPA that in order to successfully address the increasingly complex environmental problems we face requires an integrative and innovative approach to analyzing, modeling, and developing these extensive and diverse data sets. Recent advances in fields such as computational methods, visualization, and database interoperability provide practical means to overcome such problems. One program within EPA that has been working to develop such an integrative approach is the Regional Vulnerability (ReVA) Program. The goal of the ReVA program is to develop tools for 1) estimating current and future condition from existing data, 2) integrating data to look at cumulative risks associated with multiple stressors on multiple resources, and 3) improving visualization, communication, data access.

PRESENTATION Geoinformation and Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) 11/14/2005
MEHAFFEY, M. H., BETSY R. SMITH, AND P. F. WAGNER. Geoinformation and Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva). Presented at PEER GeoInformatics Seminar, Montpellier, FRANCE, November 14 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Southern Lake Michigan Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Areas at Risk 11/03/2005
Endres, K, R S. Lunetta, A Pilant, D J. Williams, AND J. Edirwickrema. Southern Lake Michigan Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Areas at Risk. Presented at Office of Science Policy Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Satellite Images of Lake Michigan Plume Events May 2004 11/03/2005
Endres, K, R S. Lunetta, A Pilant, D J. Williams, AND J. Edirwickrema. Satellite Images of Lake Michigan Plume Events May 2004. Presented at Office of Science Policy Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Southern Lake Michigan Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Arears at Risk 11/03/2005
Endres, K, R S. Lunetta, A Pilant, D J. Williams, AND J. Edirwickrema. Southern Lake Michigan Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Arears at Risk. Presented at Office of Science Policy Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Idea Is to Usemodis in Conjunction With the Current Limited Landsat Capability, Commercial Satellites, Andunmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uav), in a Multi-Stage Approach to Meet EPA Information Needs.REMOTE Sensing Overview: EPA Capabilities, Priority Agency Applications, Sensor/Aircraft Capabilities, Cost Considerations, Spectral and Spatial Resolutions, and Temporal Considerations 11/01/2005
LUNETTA, R. S. The Idea Is to Usemodis in Conjunction With the Current Limited Landsat Capability, Commercial Satellites, Andunmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uav), in a Multi-Stage Approach to Meet EPA Information Needs.REMOTE Sensing Overview: EPA Capabilities, Priority Agency Applications, Sensor/Aircraft Capabilities, Cost Considerations, Spectral and Spatial Resolutions, and Temporal Considerations. Presented at USEPA Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), in a multi-stage approach to meet EPA information needs.

PRESENTATION Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Streams: Status of Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain and Midwest Corn Belt Studies 11/01/2005
PITCHFORD, A. M., A. C. NEALE, M. H. MEHAFFEY, M. MOEYKENS, J. DENVER, AND J. STARK. Predicting the Occurrence of Nutrients and Pesticides During Base Flow in Streams: Status of Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain and Midwest Corn Belt Studies. Presented at Remote Sensing/Landscape Characterization Workshop, EPA Region 5, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: Random surveys of 174 headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) and 110 third-order streams in the Midwest Corn Belt (MCB) were conducted in 2000 and 2004, respectively in two cooperative research studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey. Cluster and regression analyses were used to relate stream biotic integrity based on measurements of macroinvertebrates to landscape metrics as well as to measured water chemistry. In the MCB, data analysis and modeling has just begun.

PRESENTATION Quantifying Stream Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery 11/01/2005
HALL, R. K., R. WATKINS, D. T. HEGGEM, K. B. JONES, P. R. KAUFMANN, S. B. MOORE, AND S. J. GREGORY. Quantifying Stream Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery. Presented at USEPA Remote Sensing Landscape Characterization Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction.

PRESENTATION Presented 11/01/05 Remote Sensing Overview: EPA Capabilities, Priority Agency Applications, Sensor/Aircraft Capabilities 11/01/2005
LUNETTA, R. S. Presented 11/01/05 Remote Sensing Overview: EPA Capabilities, Priority Agency Applications, Sensor/Aircraft Capabilities. Presented at USEPA Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency.

PRESENTATION Presented 11/01/05 Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data 11/01/2005
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, J. EDIRIWICKREMA, J. G. LYON, AND L. D. WORTHY. Presented 11/01/05 Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data. Presented at USEPA Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: Land-Cover (LC) composition and conversions are important factors that affect ecosystem condition and function. The purpose of this research and development effort is to investigate the feasibility of using MODIS derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to delineate areas of LC change on an annual basis and identify the outcome of LC conversions (i.e., new steady state).

PRESENTATION Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data 11/01/2005
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, J. EDIRIWICKREMA, JOHNG LYON, AND L. D. WORTHY. Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data. Presented at USEPA Remote Sensing Workshop, Chicago, IL, November 01 - 03, 2005.
Abstract: The purpose of this research and development effort is to investigate the feasibility of using MODIS derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to delineate areas of LC change on an annual basis and identify the outcome of LC conversions (i.e., new steady state). This research is being conducted across the 52,000 km2 Albemarle-Pamlico Basin System (APES) located in North Carolina and Virginia. The study area includes diverse ecoregion types ranging from coastal plain (east) to the Blue Ridge Mountains (west). Landscape "patch" sizes are fine in scale with approximately <5% of the study area containing homogeneous LC corresponding to individual MODIS-NDVI (250 m) pixels. Additionally, biological diversity and vegetation regrowth rates are at the high end of the spectrum for locations within the conterminous United States.

PRESENTATION US EPA Site Program Testing of Monitoring and Measurement Technologies for Trace Elements By Xrf and Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment 10/26/2005
BILLETS, S. US EPA Site Program Testing of Monitoring and Measurement Technologies for Trace Elements By Xrf and Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Presented at Technical Support Project, San Antonio, TX, October 26, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Introduction to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) 10/26/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Introduction to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps). Presented at Non-Regulated Pollutants Workshop: Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) and Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products (PPCPs), New York, NY, October 26, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Sources & Origins of Ppcps: A Complex Issue 10/26/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Sources & Origins of Ppcps: A Complex Issue. Presented at Non-Regulated Pollutants Workshop: Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) and Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products (PPCPs), New York, NY, October 26, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Introduction to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) 10/26/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Introduction to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps). Presented at Non-Regulated Pollutants Workshop: Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) and Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products (PPCPs), U.S. EPA Region 2 Pollutants of Emerging Concern Panel Series, New York, NY, October 26, 2005.
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence.

PRESENTATION US EPA's Landscape Ecology Research: Assessing Trends for Wetlands and Surface Waters Using Remore Sensing, GIS, and Field-Based Techniques 10/06/2005
LOPEZ, R. D. US EPA's Landscape Ecology Research: Assessing Trends for Wetlands and Surface Waters Using Remore Sensing, GIS, and Field-Based Techniques. Presented at US EPA's Landscape Ecologoy Research, Las Vegas, NV, October 06, 2005.
Abstract: The US EPA, Environmental Sciences Division-Las Vegas is using a variety of geopspatical and statistical modeling approaches to locate and assess the complex functions of wetland ecosystems. These assessments involve measuring landscape characteristrics and change, at multiple scales, primarily focusing on surface water quality, hydrologic connectivity, and biological diversity.

PRESENTATION Impervious Cover Evaluation: Linking Urban Development With Hydrological Change 10/05/2005
JENNINGS, D. B. AND S. JARNAGIN. Impervious Cover Evaluation: Linking Urban Development With Hydrological Change. Presented at US EPA National Stormwater Coordinators Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, October 05, 2005.
Abstract: Research indicates that anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways.

PRESENTATION Use of Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt) to Assess Vulnerability to Mercury Across the United States 09/19/2005
WAGNER, P. F., E. R. SMITH, AND M. H. MEHAFFEY. Use of Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt) to Assess Vulnerability to Mercury Across the United States. Presented at EPA 2005 National Forum on Contaminants in Fish, Baltimore, MD, September 19, 2005.
Abstract: The problem of assessing risk from mercury across the nation is extremely complex involving integration of 1) our understanding of the methylation process in ecosystems, 2) the identification and spatial distribution of sensitive populations, and 3) the spatial pattern of mercury deposition. Unfortunately, both our understanding of the processes involved, and the availability of data to make this assessment are currently imperfect, yet there are effective ways to make use of data and information that currently exist.

PRESENTATION Use of Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt) to Assess Vulnerability to Mercury Across the United States 09/19/2005
WAGNER, P. F., E. R. SMITH, AND M. H. MEHAFFEY. Use of Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt) to Assess Vulnerability to Mercury Across the United States. Presented at EPA 2005 National Forum on Contaminants in Fish, Baltimore, MD, September 19, 2005.
Abstract: The problem of assessing risk from mercury across the nation is extremely complex involving integration of 1) our understanding of the methylation process in ecosystems, 2) the identification and spatial distribution of sensitive populations, and 3) the spatial pattern of mercury deposition. Unfortunately, both our understanding of the processes involved, and the availability of data to make this assessment are currently imperfect, yet there are effective ways to make use of data and information that currently exist.

PRESENTATION Learning Approaches for Data Management Ioos Geoss 09/19/2005
LYON, JOHNG AND GEORGE BRILIS. Learning Approaches for Data Management Ioos Geoss. Presented at OCEANS 2005 Symposium MTS/IEEE, Washington, DC, September 09 - 19, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If futher information is requestd, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under the contacts slide.

PRESENTATION New GIS Watershed Analysis Tools for Soil Characterization and Erosion and Sedimentation Modeling 09/13/2005
PITCHFORD, A. M., D. T. HEGGEM, AND R. VANREMORTEL. New GIS Watershed Analysis Tools for Soil Characterization and Erosion and Sedimentation Modeling. Presented at EPA GIS Working Group, Winter Park, CO, September 13 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed which utilizes a suite of automated scripts and a pair of processing-intensive executable programs operating on a personal computer platform.

PRESENTATION EPA Statistics Working Group 09/13/2005
PITCHFORD, A. M., B. NUSSBAUM, AND T. BRODY. EPA Statistics Working Group. Presented at EPA GIS Working Group, Winter Park, CO, September 13 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: The Statistics Work Group (SWG) is planning next years activities to coordinate statisics users.

PRESENTATION Learning Approaches for Data Management, I00s and Geoss 09/09/2005
LYON, J. G. Learning Approaches for Data Management, I00s and Geoss. Presented at Oceans 2005 Symposium MTS/IEEE, Washington, DC, September 09 - 19, 2005.
Abstract: For approximately two years, US national Agencies, other Nations and international groups have worked on delivering plans to shape a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The goals and objectives have been to pool observations, information, models and decision support tools to address nine areas that would benefit society. In some ways, this approach is different from other efforts such as WMO, IGOS-P, IOOS, GMES, and others. In some ways it is the same. The joy of this work is being able to borrow with attribution excellent ideas from a variety of other efforts. In particular, the Data Management and Communications (DMAC) efforts of IOOS have been helpful and full of good practices that have shaped the thinking of the US Interagency Group on Earth Observations and the authorship of the US Strategic Plan for Integrated Earth Observations and Reference Documents. Notably, one of the identified early outcomes of the US work on GEOSS is that of Data Management. The Federal Enterprise Architecture and DMAC have been valuable in shaping these documents and others, and some of capabilities that have been employed are presented in the talk.

PRESENTATION An Integrated Landscape and Hydrological Assessment for the Yantra River Basin, Bulgaria 09/08/2005
SEMMENS, D. J., S. NEDKOV, AND W. G. KEPNER. An Integrated Landscape and Hydrological Assessment for the Yantra River Basin, Bulgaria. Presented at NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on the Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment, Turnovo, BULGARIA, September 04 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: Geospatial data and relationships derived there from are the cornerstone of the landscape sciences. This information is also of fundamental importance in deriving parameter inputs to watershed hydrologic models.

PRESENTATION Presented at: Turnovo, Bulgaria: Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment: A Nato Framework for International Cooperation 09/04/2005
KEPNER, W. G. AND F. MUELLER. Presented at: Turnovo, Bulgaria: Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment: A Nato Framework for International Cooperation. Presented at NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on the Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment, Turnovo, BULGARIA, September 04 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific cooperation which can lead to the transfer of technologies and information among the study group participants for their use in environmental protection and preservation programs.

PRESENTATION Advanced Tools for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents and Source Waters 08/25/2005
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND D. A. ALVAREZ. Advanced Tools for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents and Source Waters. Presented at Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Las Vegas, NV, August 23 - 25, 2005.
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)].

PRESENTATION Advanced Tools for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents and Source Waters 08/23/2005
JONES-LEPP, T. L. AND D. A. ALVAREZ. Advanced Tools for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents and Source Waters. Presented at Pharmaceutical in the Environment Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, August 23 - 25, 2005.
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

PRESENTATION The Estimated Likelihood of Nutrients and Pesticides in Nontidal Headwater Streams of the Maryland Coastal Plain During Base Flow 08/10/2005
DENVER, J. M., S. W. ATOR, A. C. NEALE, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. The Estimated Likelihood of Nutrients and Pesticides in Nontidal Headwater Streams of the Maryland Coastal Plain During Base Flow. Presented at The Second Maryland Streams Symposium, Westminster, MD, August 10 - 13, 2005.
Abstract: Water quality in nontidal headwater (first-order) streams of the Coastal Plain during base flow in the late winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural or human influences in contributing watersheds. A random survey of 174 headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (North Carolina through New Jersey) was conducted in 2000 as part of cooperative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey. Base flow was selected for sampling to represent an integration of primarily shallow ground water from upstream watersheds, and possible chronic exposures of chemicals to aquatic communities. Nitrate concentrations (as nitrogen) in streams of the Maryland Coastal Plain during base flow were measured as high as 9.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L), with a median of approximately 1 mg/L. The median for the entire Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was 0.42 mg/L. Metolachlor, atrazine, and selected metabolites of each are also commonly detectable in stream base flow in Maryland, but concentrations rarely exceed 1 microgram per liter. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to relate measured water quality to natural and human influences in contributing watersheds using landscape metrics computed from soils, land use, and topographic data. These models estimate the likelihood of selected nutrients and pesticides in base flow in each of more than 9,000 nontidal headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Streams most likely to contain nitrogen at concentrations exceeding 0.71 mg/L (a recommended regional criterion) during base flow in the Maryland Coastal Plain are typically located in agricultural areas in well-drained parts of the Delmarva Peninsula, or in urban areas along the Fall Line. The likely occurrence of the herbicide metolachlor and its metabolites is related specifically to agricultural areas, particularly on the Delmarva Peninsula. Diazinon, an insecticide, was rarely detected in Coastal Plain streams during base flow, and occurred almost exclusively in urban areas along the Fall Line. These models will enable managers to compare small watersheds and make preliminary decisions about where to allocate resources for additional monitoring or remediation.

PRESENTATION Spatial-Temporal Risk Assessment of Mortality Due to Speciated Fine Particle Matter 07/25/2005
SONG, H., M. FUENTES, S. GHOSH, D. M. HOLLAND, AND J. DAVIS. Spatial-Temporal Risk Assessment of Mortality Due to Speciated Fine Particle Matter. Presented at Society of Toxicology Workshop on Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Washington, DC, July 25 - 27, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Evolution and Simplification of Ion Composition Elucidation (Ice) 06/21/2005
GRANGE, A. H. AND M. C. ZUMWALT. The Evolution and Simplification of Ion Composition Elucidation (Ice). Presented at Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, June 21, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If futher information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact fied.

PRESENTATION Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Contaminants 06/14/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products as Environmental Contaminants. Presented at NEWMOA Workshop for Environmental and Public Health Officials in Massachusetts, Northeast Waste Management Officials Association, Boston, MA, June 14, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Geoss, New Technology and the Biosphere: Remote Sensing of Environmental Indicators 06/14/2005
PILANT, A. N. Geoss, New Technology and the Biosphere: Remote Sensing of Environmental Indicators. Presented at Earth Science Information Partnership Federation Summer Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 14 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: The international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) initiative combines science, technology and collaboration to improve our understanding and monitoring of the integrated earth system, and to see how humans can be better global environmental stewards. GEOSS incorporates satellite remote sensing to "take the pulse of the planet", which requires measurement of "environmental indicators". Examples of remotely sensed environmental indicators include patterns of deforestation, locations of harmful algal blooms, air quality observations and extent of impervious (paved) surfaces. More difficult to measure yet potentially powerful environmental indicators might include soil characteristics and biochemical information for air, water, land and vegetation.

PRESENTATION Geoss, New Technology and the Biosphere: Remote Sensing of Environmental Indicators 06/14/2005
PILANT, A. N. Geoss, New Technology and the Biosphere: Remote Sensing of Environmental Indicators. Presented at Earth Science Information Partnership Federation Summer Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 14 - 16, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field

PRESENTATION Presented at Joplin, Mo Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks: An Ongoing Assessment of the Upper White River Watershed 06/07/2005
LOPEZ, R. D. Presented at Joplin, Mo Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks: An Ongoing Assessment of the Upper White River Watershed. Presented at Second Annual QUAD State Poultry Dialogue, Joplin, MO, June 07 - 08, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Using An Accurate Mass, Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer and An Ion Correlation Program to Identify Compounds 06/05/2005
GRANGE, A. H., W. WINNIK, P. L. FERGUSON, AND G. SOVOCOOL. Using An Accurate Mass, Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer and An Ion Correlation Program to Identify Compounds. Presented at 53rd Annual American Society for Mass Spectrometry Meeting, San Antonio, TX, June 05 - 09, 2005.
Abstract: Most compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and must be identified by other means. Often, compound identities can be deduced from the compositions of the ions in their mass spectra and review of the chemical literature. Confirmation is provided by mass spectra and retention time comparisons between analytes and purchased standards.
Two independent physical properties distinguish among ion compositions possible for a given nominal mass: the exact masses of ions and the relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) of ions greater in mass by 1 and 2 Da that arise from the presence of atoms of heavier isotopes of elements, e.g., 13C, 2H, 15N, 17O, 18O, 33S, 34S, 37Cl, and 81Br.

Instrumental capabilities that constrain the utility of a mass spectrometer for measuring exact masses and RIAs of ions from compounds that elute into the ion source from a chromatographic column are scan speed, mass accuracy, linear dynamic range, and resolving power.(1) For the past decade, our laboratory has used double focusing mass spectrometers in the selected ion recording mode to determine ion compositions.(2-4) Our analytical methodology, Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE), requires up to three experiments using custom software written in macro languages available for VG 70SE or Finnigan MAT900 mass spectrometers, but not for newer instruments.

Fortunately, other types of mass spectrometers can now provide mass accuracies and linear dynamic ranges sufficient to determine ion compositions using scan modes provided by the manufacturers. Herein, the utility of an accurate mass triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for identifying compounds is demonstrated.

PRESENTATION Identifying Compounds Using Source Cid on An Orthogonal Acceleration Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer 06/05/2005
ZUMWALT, M. C. AND A. H. GRANGE. Identifying Compounds Using Source Cid on An Orthogonal Acceleration Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Presented at American Society for Mass Spectrometry 53rd Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, June 05 - 09, 2005.
Abstract: Exact mass libraries of ESI and APCI mass spectra are not commercially available In-house libraries are dependent on CID parameters and are instrument specific. The ability to identify compounds without reliance on mass spectral libraries is therefore more crucial for liquid sample compositions of a precursor ion, product ions, and neutral losses provides structrual details of an analyte and yields candidate compounds after a limited review of the chemical literature.

PRESENTATION Technical Support Center for Monitoring and Site Characterization 05/24/2005
PEARSON, G. Technical Support Center for Monitoring and Site Characterization. Presented at 2005 Annual Meeting, National Association of Remedial Project Managers, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Ecology Approaches for Detecting, Mapping, and Assessing the Vulnerability of Depressional Wetlands 05/23/2005
LOPEZ, R. D. Landscape Ecology Approaches for Detecting, Mapping, and Assessing the Vulnerability of Depressional Wetlands. Presented at Joint North American Benthological Society and American Geophysical Union Meeting, New Orleans, LA, May 23, 2005 - May 27, 2007.
Abstract: U.S. EPA is using a landscape ecology approach to assess the ecological/hydrologic functions and related human values of depressional wetlands along coastal Texas, considered to be vulnerable to human disturbance. Many of those wetlands may be at high risk because of recent court rulings and associated jurisdictional interpretations. As a result of these rulings and interpretations, the interpreted area of freshwater depressional wetlands within the study region has been dramatically reduced. It is the general nature of the landscape that many of these wetlands are hydrologically connected via shallow ground swals that provide concentrated directional flow during rainfall events, thereby connecting these depressronal wetlands to tributaries. A better underst~nding of the extent of depressional wetlands, regionally and nationally, is critical to inform policy discussions between federal agencies with joint jurisdiction on these scientific, legal, policy, and regulatory issues. Our approach is to integrate remote- sensing, geospatial information, existing field data, and a fJi"iori knowledge of depressional wetland ecology to estimate their extent, connectivity, and ecological/hydrologic functrons. Those functions include support for aquatic life use; decreasing the loss of human life and property damage from floods; providing fish and wildlife habitat; and supporting recreational use of the environment.

PRESENTATION Determination of Pesticide Residues in Biological Extracts By Retention Time Locking Capillary Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry 05/22/2005
ROSAL, C. G. AND G. MOMPLAISIR. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Biological Extracts By Retention Time Locking Capillary Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Presented at 28th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography and Electrophoresis, Las Vegas, NV, May 22 - 25, 2005.
Abstract: The widespread use of pesticides in agricultural and urban areas (golf course and residential lawn applications) is largely responsible for the presence of these compounds in many water bodies. Transported by storm-waters, irrigation runoffs, wind, and treated and untreated sewage, many of these compounds reach the receiving waters unchanged while others are transformed into chemical entities that can be more toxic or more available to biota. One way to monitor the transport of these contaminants is by screening the biota exposed to the waters.
In this study, samples of frog and fish were analyzed for pesticide residues found in lawn fertilizers and other commonly used agricultural pesticides. Whole sample homogenates were extracted, and the resulting extracts Were taken through a silica fractionation to remove non- target contaminants.

The final extracts were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cGC-MS) with retention time locking (RTL). The RTL-cGCMS method was developed in house and was used previously for the trace determination of agricultural pesticides in "pristine" waters. The analytical results obtained using the RTL-cGCMS approach were confirmed using the Agilent RTL screener software in combination with the Agilent RTL pesticide library. Preliminary results of this study will be presented.


PRESENTATION Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data 05/18/2005
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, AND J. EDIRIWICKREMA. Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndvi Data. Presented at MultiTemp 2005 3rd International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Imagery, Biloxi, MS, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Macroinvertebrate Response to Land Use and Stream Chemistry in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains 05/18/2005
MEHAFFEY, M. H., M. S. NASH, AND A. M. PITCHFORD. Macroinvertebrate Response to Land Use and Stream Chemistry in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Many States and Regions have begun incorporating landscape and biotic integrity into their Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process. Due to time, money, and man power constraints only around 23 percent of the streams are evaluated during a typical TMDL cycle. Collecting the necessary data and site surveys required to identify sites for a regional or national assessment can be cost prohibitive and merging reference sites from multiple studies can result in data incompatibilities. The objective of this study was to expand the evaluation process using an alternative method for selection of "less impacted" sites for comparison to the other dominant land use in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains Region.
A base network of 174 small (typically first-order) streams was selected across a gradient of hydrogeologic and land-use settings, from a population of 10, 144 first-order watersheds in the region. Of the 174 sites we used a subset of 82 sites having benthic riffle samples for our analysis. We used principle components and cluster analysis to group the first order stream watershed by land use in order to capture the greatest variability across the region. The analyses resulted in clustering the watersheds into three distinct groups. The first group was dominated by natural cover (forest and wetland), the second by urban, and the third by cropping.

We used non-parametric analysis to test differences between cluster benthos and water chemistry data. We found that typical water chemistry measures associated with urban runoff such as specific conductance and pH were significantly higher in the urban group. In the highly cropped group we found variables commonly associated with farming such as nutrients and pesticides significantly greater then in the other two groups. In addition to the higher pollutant loads, the urban and cropped watersheds also had a lower number of intolerant and a higher number of tolerant macroinvertebrate species. Results from this study suggest that landuse based clustering may provide an viable alternative rust step for site selection or for targeting watersheds for monitoring for regional or national scale assessments.

PRESENTATION Characterization and Prediction of Nutrients and Pesticides in Base Flow Conditions of First Order Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain-a Collaborative Effort 05/16/2005
PITCHFORD, A. M., A. C. NEALE, J. DENVER, AND S. ATOR. Characterization and Prediction of Nutrients and Pesticides in Base Flow Conditions of First Order Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain-a Collaborative Effort. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: The Landscape Indicators for Pesticides Study in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams (LIPS-MACS) is a collaborative research effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. This study, which capitalized on the strengths of the two agencies, was designed to identify the background levels of pesticides and nutrients contributed to streams from ground water (base flow), associated stream biota, and the relative importance of land use, geology and soil types, and landforms in explaining these conditions.
Two major research objectives were defined: I) estimate the distribution of pesticides and nutrients in the population of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain during winter and spring base flow; and 2) develop empirical models using land use, geology, and other geographic variables to predict water quality and aquatic ecology in each Coastal Plain headwater stream during winter/spring base flow conditions. A base network of 174 small (typically first-order) streams was selected across a gradient of hydro geologic and land-use settings, from a population of 10,144 first-order streams in the region. Water samples were collected from all174 streams and analyzed for selected pesticides, pesticide metabolites, nutrients, and major ions. Benthic-community and habitat assessments were also conducted at each stream. A data base of landscape metrics, computed from soils, land use, and topographic data for each stream's watershed, was compiled and analyzed.

Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION The Remote Sensing Data Gateway 05/16/2005
SLONECKER, E., L. M. PETTERSON, AND J. DEW. The Remote Sensing Data Gateway. Presented at US EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the community of EPA Scientists and trusted collaborators. The RSDG will be a high-speed, high bandwidth Enterprise server designed for the purpose of enabling EPA Scientists to rapidly search and access global holdings of RS data. Through a series of unique collaborations with commercial remote sensing providers, and State, Federal and International government agencies, the RSDG will utilize comprehensive metadata search tools to rapidly define, research, locate, acquire and deliver aerial photos, satellite imagery, spectra, atmospheric data, multi- and hyper-spectral, thermal infrared, radar, LIDAR, microwave and other forms of data that are acquired via the science of remote sensing. The RSDG will be directly linked to the metadata records of the major remote sensing data servers in the federal government and in the global community of the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and well as many commercial imagery vendors. The RSDG will directly access and provide remote sensing data from the holdings of EPA's Remote Sensing Archive in Las Vegas, Nevada.
The RSDG is envisioned to provide enhanced acquisition services to a variety of imagery holdings and long-term archival storage or all EPA Remote Sensing information in accordance with the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation

Program.

PRESENTATION Grazing Potential Index (Gpi) and Surface Water Quality in the State of Oregon: I. Likelihood of Animal Pathogenic Presence Using Enterococci 05/16/2005
NASH, M. S., T. G. WADE, D. T. HEGGEM, AND R. K. HALL. Grazing Potential Index (Gpi) and Surface Water Quality in the State of Oregon: I. Likelihood of Animal Pathogenic Presence Using Enterococci. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16, 2005.
Abstract: Cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattle impact surface water quality by introducing nutrients and bacteria and indirectly damaging stream banks or removing vegetation cover leading to increased sediment loads and increased temperatures. The objective of this study is to test the viability of grazing potential model developed with environmental data from the U .S. EP A Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to predict spatial distribution and concentration of animal borne bacteria (enterococci). From the Oregon EMAP project, sample sites with at least two years of measurements (197) were used for the analyses of enterococci. Of these sites, 25% (49 sites) exceeded the standard geometric mean concentration (35 cfu/100 ml). These sites were further investigated to identify trends over time (increasing/decreasing). Increasing or decreasing of the enterococci concentration at a site represents the impact of livestock presence or absence in the area. A total of 35 sites exhibited a positive or negative trend, only 13 sites had a significant positive trend and one site had .a significant negative trend. Further analyses are underway in investigating spatial distribution and relationship to landscape metrics (e.g. percent riparian cover, natural cover, etc.) and nitrogen and phosphorous loads to assess potential impacts to surface water quality from livestock grazing.

PRESENTATION Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks: An Ongoing Assessment of the Upper White River Watershed 05/16/2005
LOPEZ, R. D. Water Quality Vulnerability in the Ozarks: An Ongoing Assessment of the Upper White River Watershed. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Remote Sensing Data Gateway 05/16/2005
SLONECKER, E. The Remote Sensing Data Gateway. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Collaborative Science for Environmental Solutions: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area 05/16/2005
JARNAGIN, S. AND D. B. JENNINGS. Collaborative Science for Environmental Solutions: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of rapid development that we expect will be built out within the next five to ten years. The Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been monitoring stream biology and chemistry in the area streams and the CSPA involves special best management practices (BMPs) that are designed to limit the impact of development on water resources.
This research is an example of a Federal-Local technology-transfer partnership where innovative technologies are researched at the Federal level and the results made available at a local level for neighborhood solutions. This research is a collaborative effort where local stakeholders are involved setting research goals and Federal agencies are involved offering expertise and capabilities not available at the local level.

The objective of the USEPA research is to correlate the impacts of ongoing development and the mitigating effect of local best management practices (BMPs) on the hydrological, biological, and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The BACI design employs both positive and negative controls (stream gauges and monitoring in areas without development and areas developed without the CSPA BMPs) as well as pre- and post development data from areas gauged prior to development within the CSPA. The USEPA is focused on determining the effectiveness of BMP mitigation on streamflow disturbance, channel erosion and stream sedimentation due to impervious surfaces, sub-surface storm sewers and altered landform due to urbanization.

Our primary research activities are to map the development as it occurs; both the anthropogenic surface structures such as roads, buildings, parking lots, and changes in surface topography associated with urbanization and the subsurface storm sewer network; and to monitor the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the associated water resources as that development happens. Changes in streamflow and biological and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources (or the lack thereof) will be correlated with development patterns, anthropogenic alterations of the environment, and the BMPs designed to mitigate the impacts of development. The USEPA has funded the placement of five research-grade streamflow gauges and have obtained two LIDAR overflights of the study area (2002 and 2004) that greatly increases the spatial resolution of the topographical analyses possible in the CSPA. These and future LIDAR collections will be used to determine if this technology can be used to map changes in stream morphology associated with development as well as to assist in the hydrological modeling and surface mapping of that development.


PRESENTATION Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene (Pce) in Controlled Spill Experiments 05/16/2005
MAZZELLA, A. Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for the Detection of Subsurface Tetrachloroethylene (Pce) in Controlled Spill Experiments. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), typically used as a dry cleaning solvent, is a predominant contaminant in the subsurface at Superfund Sites. PCE is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) that migrates downward into the earth, leaving behind areas of residual saturation and free product pools on areas of low permeability. These can act as long-term sources of drinking water contamination. Effective remediation requires the location of the non-aqueous-phase PCE in the subsurface. The purpose of the current research is to evaluate the use of geophysical methods to detect this PCE. A series of controlled spill experiments have been conducted in which measurements with a number of geophysical methods were made before, during, and after the injection of PCE into the subsurface. These results clearly identified any geophysical anomaly associated with the PCE.
These experiments were conducted at the Canadian Forces Base Borden with the University of Waterloo and at the Oregon Graduate Institute with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). A number of different geophysical methods were tested in each of these experiments with good success. However, the presence of steel walls and tanks to contain the migration of the PCE prevented the evaluation of a number of geophysical methods. In order to evaluate these other geophysical methods, the current experiment was conducted with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a non-metallic.

PRESENTATION Biological Monitoring of Macroinvertegrate Communities to Assess Acid Drainge (Amd) 05/16/2005
ROTMAN, R. M., R. LADIE, P. ODE, R. K. HALL, D. HIGGINS, AND P. HUSBY. Biological Monitoring of Macroinvertegrate Communities to Assess Acid Drainge (Amd). Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Air Quality Observations Blueskyrains 05/16/2005
WORTHY, L. D. Air Quality Observations Blueskyrains. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Analytical Tool Interface for Landscape Assessments (Atiila): An Arcview Extension for the Analysis of Landscape Patterns, Composition, and Structure 05/16/2005
EBERT, D. W. AND T. G. WADE. Analytical Tool Interface for Landscape Assessments (Atiila): An Arcview Extension for the Analysis of Landscape Patterns, Composition, and Structure. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Environmental management practices are trending away from simple, local- scale assessments toward complex, multiple-stressor regional assessments. Landscape ecology provides the theory behind these assessments while geographic information systems (GIS) supply the tools to implement them. A common application of GIS is the generation of landscape metrics, which are quantitative measurements of the environmental condition or vulnerability of an area. Calculation of these metrics can be a difficult, lengthy process, requiring substantial GIS experience. The Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (A TtILA) extension was developed by the EPA Landscape Ecology Branch to provide an intuitive, point-and-click environment that allows users to easily calculate many common landscape metrics regardless of their level of GIS knowledge. In addition, ATtlLA was designed for rapid project completion. Map and chart displays and tabular output are provided to perform fast assessments of area condition and to provide a means for quick dissemination of results.

PRESENTATION Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times 05/16/2005
SCHUMACHER, B. A. Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Holding times are the length of time a sample can be stored after collection and prior to analysis without significantly affecting the analytical results. Holding times vary with the analyte, sample matrix, and analytical methodology used to quantify the analytes concentration. Maximum holding times (MHTs) have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and have been presented in the Code of Federal Regulations and SW-846 methods manual. Holding times can be extended if preservation techniques are employed to reduce biodegradation, volatilization, oxidation, sorption, precipitation, and other physical and chemical processes. For this study, samples were collected, held, and analyzed after specific time periods (fractions or multiples of the MHTs) to evaluate the existing current holding times. Heavy metals, Cr(VI), pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs were examined in both sediment and soil matrices.
Contaminated soils and sediment samples were collected from across the U.S. via our Regional partners and other supporting Regional personnel. Samples were homogenized and preserved at either 40 or -200 C. Analyses were performed following standard SW-846 methods. Samples were analyzed at times 0, 0.5 MHT, 1 MHT, 2, MHT, and up to 12 MHT depending upon the contaminant being investigated. Linear regression models were used to determine holding time effects on sample concentrations.

Heavy metal concentrations remained steady through time. Cr(VI) concentrations remained steady through 8 MHT regardless of storage temperature. Storage temperature influenced the holding time of PAHs. At -200 C, no changes in PAH concentrations were identified. At 40 C, concentrations of the 3-ring PAHs decreased after about 30 days. Pesticide and PCB concentrations remained steady through 6 MHT.

This project is a Region Methods Initiative project involving EPA Regions 1 and 10 and NERL/ESD/CMB scientists.

The results of this study will provide the Agency (i.e., Regions and Program Offices) with independent scientific data on contaminant concentrational changes through time to allow for the reevaluation of the current holding times presented in the current regulations.


PRESENTATION Development of a Systematic Approach to Accurately Measure Trace Levels of Vocs and Svocs in Soil and Sediment With High Moisture Content 05/16/2005
ZIMMERMAN, J. H. Development of a Systematic Approach to Accurately Measure Trace Levels of Vocs and Svocs in Soil and Sediment With High Moisture Content. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Risk assessment is a crucial component of the site remediation decision-making process. Some current EPA methods do not have detection limits low enough for risk assessment of many VOCs (e.g., EPA Region 3 Risk Based Concentration levels, EPA Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals, state-specified concentration levels). The magnitude of this problem was described in a paper recently presented at a University of Massachusetts Remediation Conference with the conclusion that the resolution of this issue is critical for valid human health and ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the difficulty of obtaining complete extraction of water-soluble VOCs and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) makes the generation of reliable and reproducible data a serious concern in site characterization and risk assessment programs.
This poster presents findings of the development of an analytical method which uses thermal desorption combined with dual gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to extract and accurately measure low levels of VOCs and SVOCs in soil and sediment samples with medium to high moisture content. Thermal extraction was selected for examination because the technique is simpler and more efficient than the present EPA purge-and-trap methods, and all water-soluble compounds are amenable to the procedure. Efforts were made to modify commonly used instrumentation (e.g., Archon" autosampler) and quality control compounds (e.g., internal standards, surrogates) in the present EPA methods so the proposed method can be easily adopted by routine analytical laboratories. This project is a Regional Applied Research Effort involving EPA Region 1 scientists, EPA/ORD/NERL/ESD/CMB scientists and a cooperative research and development agreement with EST Analytical.

The development of an EPA method capable of accurately measuring trace VOCs, water-soluble VOCs, and SVOCs is important for accurate risk assessment at Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and Brownfields site redevelopment programs as well as ongoing state site remediation projects.

PRESENTATION Can Geoelectrical Methods Be Used to Monitor Napl Remediation Efforts? 05/16/2005
WERKEMA, D. D. Can Geoelectrical Methods Be Used to Monitor Napl Remediation Efforts? Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: EPA's Strategic Plan includes the research and development of improved methods for evaluating the long-term performance of monitored natural attenuation. This ground water research need is part of GPRA Goal 3, sub-objective 3.3.2 for Superfund and Oil Program Research Priorities and includes research and development for all non-aqueous phase liquid remediation. Geophysical techniques show promise as part of this research effort through the evaluation Of non-aqueous phase liquid remediation. Specifically, geoelectrical methods can detect changes in the conductivity of the subsurface as related to these remediation activities. This poster presents fmdings demonstrating that the electrical properties of remediated zones are altered due to remediation activities and these changes are measurable by direct current geoelectrical methods.

PRESENTATION Spatial Prediction Using Combined Sources of Data 05/16/2005
MCMILLAN, N., D. M. HOLLAND, C. HOLLOMAN, AND G. YOUNG. Spatial Prediction Using Combined Sources of Data. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: For improved environmental decision-making, it is important to develop new models for spatial prediction that accurately characterize important spatial and temporal patterns of air pollution. As the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency begins to use spatial prediction in the regulatory context, it will be increasingly important to combine output from atmospheric models with air monitoring data in a coherent way for improved spatial prediction, validation of model output, and for developing better linkages between air quality and public health outcomes. Typically air monitoring networks are sparsely, and irregularly spaced over large spatial domains, with monitors concentrated in urban areas. Output from numerical deterministic simulation models are produced over regular grids of size 36 km x 36 km or less, but generally have more bias in comparison to air monitoring data. By taking advantage of both types of spatial information, it is possible to provide improved maps of air pollution. We present a space-time hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to predict daily fine particulate levels using Community Multi-scale Air Quality output and monitoring data from the EP A particulate monitoring network. An assessment of improved predictive performance using this method relative to a standard spatial prediction approach is made by predicting to sites of an independent network and calculating several goodness-of- fit statistics. This analysis is based on 2001 data in the northeast and midwest regions of the u.s.

PRESENTATION Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool for Landscape Assessment and Watershed Management 05/16/2005
KEPNER, W. G., D. C. GOODRICH, D. J. SEMMENS, AND M. HERNANDEZ. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa): A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool for Landscape Assessment and Watershed Management. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition at multiple scales. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote sensing, computer processing, and spatial analysis technologies have improved our ability to examine environmental change over large geographic areas, including watersheds. It is now possible to link landscape change analysis with distributed hydrologic models to evaluate the consequences of land cover change to hydrologic response. Additionally, it is also possible to forecast alternative future conditions and the consequences of choices associated with management action. An innovative GIS-user interface, the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool, has been jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the USDA Agricultural Research Service to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SW AT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS) hydrologic models. The tool is being further developed for online decision support to provide ready access to environmental decision-makers, resource managers, researchers, and user groups. The purpose of the research has not been to determine cause and effect of land cover change, rather it has been to demonstrate the usefulness of integrating remote sensing and distributed

PRESENTATION The Caribbean Research Initiative: Monitoring the Health and Sustainability of Tropical Island Ecosystems 05/16/2005
SLONECKER, E. The Caribbean Research Initiative: Monitoring the Health and Sustainability of Tropical Island Ecosystems. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndiv Data 05/16/2005
LUNETTA, R. S., J. F. KNIGHT, AND J. EDIRIWICKREMA. Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal Modis Ndiv Data. Presented at MultiTemp 2005, 3rd International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Imagery, Biloxi, MS, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: Land-cover (LC) composition and conversions are important factors that affect ecosystem condition and function. These data are frequently used as a primary data source to generate landscape-based metrics to assess landscape condition at multiple assessment scales. The use of satellite-based remote sensor data has been widely applied to provide a cost-effective means to develop LC coverages over large geographic regions. Past and ongoing efforts for generating LC data for the United States have been implemented using an interagency consortium to share the substantial costs associated satellite data acquisition, processing and analysis. The first moderate resolution National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set was developed for the conterminous United States using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between1991-1992 (Vogelmann et al., 1998). Currently, the 2001 NLCD is under development for all 50 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Homer et al., 2004). The 2001 effort, building on the lessons learned from the 1991 NLCD, promises to provide a relatively high quality baseline LC product.
Although the 2001 NLCD is expected to provide the most accurate and current LC database ever developed, the required development time will result in five-to-nine year offset between data collection and product availability .Ideally, an NLCD product updated on an annual basis would provide the user community with an optimal product to support ongoing environmental assessment and policy decisions. To best achieve this goal in a cost-effective manner, one possible approach would be to identify areas of LC change occurring subsequent to 2001 and update the 2001 NLCD only for those areas that have undergone change. The updated NLCD would not only provide the user with a current LC coverage, but could also be used to identify both the location and nature of changes that had occurred between dates of interest. Other advantages associated with the editing update approach would include (a) substantial cost savings, (b ) no additional introduction of classification errors for non-change areas, and ( c ) the minimization of registration errors that typically limit the overlay of multiple date coverages (post-classification) to support change detection analysis.


PRESENTATION Best Practices in Site Data Management, Analysis, and 2-D and 3-D Geospatial Visualization Tools from Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Site Investigation Activities 05/16/2005
OFFUTT, C. K. Best Practices in Site Data Management, Analysis, and 2-D and 3-D Geospatial Visualization Tools from Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Site Investigation Activities. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION An Inter-Agency Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Conservation Status in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project 05/16/2005
KEPNER, W. G., D. F. BRADFORD, AND T. D. SAJWAJ. An Inter-Agency Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Conservation Status in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Presented at EPA 2005 Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Abstract: The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sensing (Landsat 7) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to assemble and view large amounts of biological and land management data to identify areas (gaps) where conservation efforts may not be sufficient to maintain diversity of living natural resources. Historically, GAP has been conducted by individual states, however this has resulted in inconsistencies in mapped distributions of vegetation types and animal habitat across state lines because of differences in mapping and modeling protocols.

PRESENTATION Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively 05/10/2005
HINNERS, T. A. Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively. Presented at Laboratory Technical Information Group (LTIG) Conference, North Chelmsford, MA, May 10 - 11, 2005.
Abstract: While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury. Although not well suited for trace-level analyses of liquids because of the limited capacity (0.5 mL) of the sampling boat, such pyrolysis-based mercury analyzers (EPA Method 7473) have the following advantages:
o Throughput: a measurement every 10-15 minutes (including the weighing and logging time)

o Learning Curve: operation simple enough for those with no prior analytical skill

o Low Cost: capital cost about $35K

o Green: generation of waste virtually eliminated

o Sample Size: 1.00 mg to 500 mg, or 0.5 mL, (but use less if absorbance starts before 5 s

o Detection Limit: 0.01 nanogram Hg

o Applications:

- non-lethal monitoring of fish (e.g., tissue biopsy

- longitudinal analysis of hair (to locate peak-exposure periods

- exposure assessments for other tissues (e.g., feathers, fur, toenails, botanicals)

- near real-time monitoring of contaminated-soil and sediment during remediations

- coal-fired power plant emissions (from difference between coal Hg and solid waste Hg

- speciation for mercury in tissues (via suitable extracts of the methyl mercury)

PRESENTATION Presented May 10, 2005, Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively 05/10/2005
HINNERS, T. A. Presented May 10, 2005, Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively. Presented at Laboratory Technical Information Group (LTIG) Conference, North Chelmsford, MA, May 10 - 11, 2005.
Abstract: While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury. Although not well suited for trace-level analyses of liquids because of the limited capacity (0.5 mL) of the sampling boat, such pyrolysis-based mercury analyzers (EPA Method 7473) have the following advantages:
A. Throughput: a measurement every 10-15 minutes (including the weighing and logging time

B. Learning Curve: operation simple enough for those with no prior analytical skill

C. Low Cost: capital cost about $35K

D. Green: generation of waste virtually eliminated

E. Sample Size: 1.00 mg to 500 mg, or 0.5 mL, (but use less if absorbance starts before 5s)

F. Detection Limit: 0.01 nanogram Hg

G. Applications:

- non-lethal monitoring of fish (e.g., tissue biopsy)

- longitudinal analysis of hair (to locate peak-exposure periods)

- exposure assessments for other tissues (e.g., feathers, fur, toenails, botanicals)

- near real-time monitoring of contaminated-soil and sediment during remediations

- coal-fired power plant emissions (from difference between coal Hg and solid waste Hg)

- speciation for mercury in tissues (via suitable extracts of the methyl mercury)

PRESENTATION Leb/Epic Remote Sensing Research and Development Activities 05/04/2005
SLONECKER, E. Leb/Epic Remote Sensing Research and Development Activities. Presented at Civil Applications Committee Meeting, Reston, VA, May 04, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Ppcps as "EMERGING Pollutants" 04/20/2005
DAUGHTON, C. G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Ppcps as "EMERGING Pollutants". Presented at OPPT "Emerging Chemicals Workgroup, Washington, DC, April 20, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Measuring Base-Flow Chemistry as An Indicator of Regional Ground-Water Quality in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain 04/17/2005
ATOR, S. W., J. M. DENVER, A. M. PITCHFORD, AND A. C. NEALE. Measuring Base-Flow Chemistry as An Indicator of Regional Ground-Water Quality in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Presented at National Ground Water Association, 2005 Ground Water Summit, San Antonio, TX, April 17 - 20, 2005.
Abstract: Water quality in headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain during base flow in the winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural and human influences. A random survey of water quality in 174 headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (North Carolina through New Jersey) was conducted as part of cooperative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. Stream base flow was selected for sampling to represent an integration of shallow, primarily unconfined ground water from contributing watersheds. The unconfined surficial aquifer in the Coastal Plain provides water for domestic and public supply, and a significant portion of local stream flow. Nutrients and pesticide compounds have been detected i~ ground water in the aquifer in many areas over the past several decades.
Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions from late February through early June 2000. Base flow in headwater streams is typically dilute (median specific conductance, 90 micro siemens per centimeter at 25 dewees Celsius) and slightly acidic (median pH, 6); soluble minerals likely to significantly alter the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation along ground-water flowpaths are relatively uncommon in shallow sediments in most parts of the surficial aquifer. Concentrations ofnitrogen and selected herbicides in base flow similarly reflect their occurrence in unconfined ground water. Nitrate concentrations (as nitrogen) were as high as 12.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), with a median of 0.42 mg/L. Metolachlor, atrazine, and selected metabolites of each are also detectable in most streams, although concentrations rarely exceed 1 microgram per liter. Empirical regression models were developed to demonstrate the effects of land use, soils, hydrogeology, and other influences on stream base-flow chemistry, and to predict the geographic variability of predicted water chemistry throughout the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.


PRESENTATION Assessing the Risk Associated With Mercury: Using Reva's Webtool to Compare Data, Assumptions, and Models 04/11/2005
SMITH, E. R. AND M. O'CONNELL. Assessing the Risk Associated With Mercury: Using Reva's Webtool to Compare Data, Assumptions, and Models. Presented at EPA National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, San Diego, CA, April 11 - 14, 2005.
Abstract: The problem of assessing risk from mercury across the nation is extremely complex involving integration of I) our understanding of the methylation process in ecosystems, 2) the identification and spatial distribution of sensitive populations, and 3) the spatial pattern of mercury deposition. Unfortunately, both our understanding of the processes involved, and the availability of data to make this assessment are currently imperfect, yet there are effective ways to make use of data and information that currently exist.
ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program was designed to develop and demonstrate methods to use existing data and models to inform environmental decision-making regarding broad-scale comparative and cumulative risks. Focusing on the integration of available spatial data and model results, ReV A has developed a web-based Environmental Decision Toolkit (EDT) that is the perfect vehicle for evaluating alternative ways of assessing the risks associated with mercury deposition from energy generating units and subsequent methylation into the more toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that accumulates in fish tissue. Given that there is no obvious "right" way to assess the risk from MeHg, a toolkit with the flexibility to consider and compare alternative data, model inputs, and assumptions, and alternative ways to combine these inputs into indices of relative risk will allow a broader understanding of where the greatest uncertainties lie and where there is agreement among data and methods.


PRESENTATION Inventory and Ecological Assessment of Depressional Wetlands in the Texas Coastal Region: Interim Results 03/15/2005
LOPEZ, R. D., L. R. TINNEY, T. D. SAJWAJ, AND L. A. BICE. Inventory and Ecological Assessment of Depressional Wetlands in the Texas Coastal Region: Interim Results. Presented at U.S. EPA Region 6 Office, Dallas, TX, March 15, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION An Evaluation of Two Ground-Based Crown Closure Estimation Techniques Compared to Crown Closure Estimates Derived from High Resolution Imagery 03/11/2005
IIAMES, J. S. An Evaluation of Two Ground-Based Crown Closure Estimation Techniques Compared to Crown Closure Estimates Derived from High Resolution Imagery. Presented at American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Baltimore, MD, March 11, 2005.
Abstract: Two ground-based canopy closure estimation techniques, the Spherical Densitometer (SD) and the Vertical Tube (VT), were compared for the effect of deciduous understory on dominant/co-dominant crown closure estimates in even-aged loblolly (Pinus taeda) pine stands located in the Neuse River Basin in eastern North Carolina. Correlation of crown closure estimates for both techniques were compared to an unsupervised image crown closure classification (ICC) analysis generated from 1: 15840-scale panchromatic scanned (0.5 meter resolution) aerial photographs.
Crown closure measurements were taken prior to leaf cessation (leaf-on) and after leaf cessation (leaf-off) between 1998 and 1999. Results indicate no significant differences occur when measuring dominant/co-dominant crown closure with the VT between leaf-on and leaf-off time periods. However, significant differences were observed when comparing measurements made for that same period with the SD., The percent of the variation explained by the linear models was larger with the VT for both seasons (leaf-on and leaf-off) than was for the SD when comparing regression results from both crown closure estimation techniques to the ICC analysis. The tighter fit to the linear regression model for the VT method was expected due to the smaller viewing angle (less than 1 degree) when compared to the 60 degree viewing angle of the SD. This larger viewing angle of the SD incorporated tree boles and the sides of tree crowns into the crown closure estimate thus causing a positive bias in the estimate (i.e., overestimation). In summary, dominant and co dominant crown closure estimates of loblolly pine were consistent between leaf- on and leaf-off periods for the VT, but not for the SD.


PRESENTATION A Pixel Composition Based Reference Data Set for Thematic Accuracy Assessment 03/11/2005
KNIGHT, J. F. A Pixel Composition Based Reference Data Set for Thematic Accuracy Assessment. Presented at American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Baltimore, MD, March 11, 2005.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing Developments, Research and Activities at the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center 03/02/2005
SLONECKER, E. Remote Sensing Developments, Research and Activities at the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center. Presented at Remote Sensing Workgroup, Dallas, TX, March 02, 2005.
Abstract: The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 30+ year history of providing remote sensing support to EPA Regional and Program Offices. In addition to the its standard Technical Support mission, EPIC has developed a research program related to emerging technologies and unique applications of remote sensing data. This presentation will summarize EPIC research and applications in remote sensing including, hyperspectral, Lidar, visualization, impervious surfaces, pattern recognition as well as the on-going development of the Remote Sensing Data Gateway. Also presented will be a discussion of some of the emerging issues that have been identified by the EPA's new Geographic Information Officer (GIO) related to remote sensing and the development of the recent remote sensing white paper, such as the development of an agency-wide requirements analysis, bandwidth needs, and software and imagery standardization. Included will be a discussion of the current interagency activities related to the certification and calibration of digital aerial cameras.

PRESENTATION Confirming the Results: An Accuracy Assessment of Remote Products, An Example Comparing Multiple Mid-Atlantic Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Maps 03/02/2005
JENNINGS, D. B. AND S. JARNAGIN. Confirming the Results: An Accuracy Assessment of Remote Products, An Example Comparing Multiple Mid-Atlantic Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Maps. Presented at EPA Regional Science Applications Seminar, Dallas, TX, March 02, 2005.
Abstract: Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change. As a single variable, it serves to intcgrate a number of concurrent interactions that directly influence a watershed's hydrology, stream chemical quality and thus the in-steam habitat. Although, numerous research efforts have explicitly mapped impervious surface at the local scale, using high-resolution remote sensing source. Few studies have attempted to explicitly map the variable at the regional scale using medium remote sensing sources such as Landsat imagery. Recent image processing advances have allowed impervious surface area to be mapped at the Landsat sub-pixel level and several Landsat sub-pixel mapping efforts in the mid-Atlantic region have been undertaken. The problem for the environmental community is at what level of accuracy these sub-pixel maps portray impervious surfaces and at what scale these maps can be adequately utilized?
A "truth" mapping protocol as set forth in the United States Geological Survey (USGS) prospectus "Shared assessment of USGS and NGO impervious surface data-sets for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed" will be implemented to create a set of 600 truth" impervious surface chjps derived from high spatial resolution imagery. A USEP A peer-reviewed accuracy assessment (AA) protocol has been established which will be the basis for testing the sub-pixel impervious surface maps of the mid-Atlantic region produced by the USGS, University of Maryland, College Park, and Towson University respectively. Our research partners are the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) in Reston, Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay Program in Annapolis. Maryland as well as the University of Maryland, College Park and Towson University I in Baltimore, Maryland.

The requestor and primary user of the accuracy assessment results will be the Chesapeake bay Program where it is necessary to know the statistical uncertainty, at multiple spatial scales involved with the data. However, all users of landscape data -loca1 to Federal and NGOs within the Chesapeake Bay watershed will apply the results of the AA. Additionally, The NLCDOO mapping program will also use the results to determine the relevance of their national level sub-pixel mapping program.


PRESENTATION Planning Change: Case Studies Illustrating the Benefits of GIS and Land-Use Data in Environmental Planning 02/23/2005
SEMMENS, D. J. AND D. C. GOODRICH. Planning Change: Case Studies Illustrating the Benefits of GIS and Land-Use Data in Environmental Planning. Presented at International Conference on Hydrological Perspectives for Sustainable Development, Roorkee, INDIA, February 23 - 25, 2005.
Abstract: A well-established protocol for planning environmentally sustainable development has yet to be agreed upon. Experiences from two highly-studied basins in the United States illustrate some early attempts, their successes, and the obstacles that continue to impede widespread adoption of environmental planning. The first, located in a heavily-populated humid region, has emphasized improvements to water quality and aquatic habitat to sustain the quality of life enjoyed by residents in the face of large projected population growth. Analyses are concentrating on detailed characterization of surface waters, and evaluation of the costs and benefits of various development strategies in terms of their impacts on water quality. The second, located in a semi-arid region, is focused on achieving sustainable yield from finite groundwater resources, and in doing so preserving perennial flow in one of the regions last free-flowing desert rivers. Analyses have concentrated on detailed characterization of the regional groundwater system, and evaluating the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for reducing current water-table declines. In both cases, GIS and remotely-sensed land use data is playing, or has played, a central role in facilitating scientific analyses and environmental decision-making.

PRESENTATION Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively 02/08/2005
HINNERS, T. A. Mercury Measurements for Solids Made Rapidly, Simply, and Inexpensively. Presented at Internet Seminar Presentation at the EPA Region 9 ORD Product Expo, San Francisco, CA, February 08, 2005.
Abstract: While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury. Although not well suited for trace-level analyses of liquids because of the limited capacity (0.5 mL) of the sampling boat, such pyrolysis-based mercury analyzers (EPA Method 7473) have the following advantages:
1) Throughput: a measurement every 10-15 minutes (including the weighing and logging time)

2) Learning Curve: operation simple enough for those with no prior analytical skill

3) Low Cost: capital cost about $35K

4) Green: generation of waste virtually eliminated

5) Sample Size: 1.00 mg to 500 mg, or 0.5 mL, (but use less if absorbance starts before 5 s)

6) Detection Limit: 0.01 nanogram Hg

7) Applications:

non-lethal monitoring of fish (e.g., tissue biopsy)

longitudinal analysis of hair (to locate peak-exposure periods)

exposure assessments for other tissues (e.g., feathers, fur, toenails, botanicals)

near real-time monitoring of contaminated-soil and sediment during remediations

coal-fired power plant emissions (from difference between coal Hg and solid waste Hg)

speciation for mercury in tissues (via suitable extracts of the methyl mercury)

PRESENTATION Measuring Hydrological Change During Exurban Development: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area 02/08/2005
JARNAGIN, S. AND D. B. JENNINGS. Measuring Hydrological Change During Exurban Development: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area. Presented at USGS Eastern Region Workshop, Herndon, VA, February 08 - 10, 2005.
Abstract: This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of rapid development that we expect will be built out within the next five to ten years. The Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been monitoring stream biology and chemistry in the area streams and the CSPA involves special best management practices (BMPs) that are designed to limit the impact of development on water resources.
This research is an example of a Federal-Local technology-transfer partnership where innovative technologies are researched at the Federal level and the results made available at a local level for neighborhood solutions. This research is a collaborative effort where local stakeholders are involved setting research goals and Federal agencies are involved offering expertise and capabilities not available at the local level.

The objective of the USEPA research is to correlate the impacts of ongoing development and the mitigating effect of local best management practices (BMPs) on the hydrological, biological, and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The BACI design employs both positive and negative controls (stream gauges and monitoring in areas without development and areas developed without the CSP A BMPs) as well as pre- and post development data from areas gauged prior to development within the CSPA. The USEPA is focused on determining the effectiveness of BMP mitigation on streamflow disturbance, channel erosion and stream sedimentation due to impervious surfaces, sub-surface storm sewers and altered landform due to urbanization.

Our primary research activities are to map the development as it occurs; both the anthropogenic surface structures such as roads, buildings, parking lots, and changes in surface topography associated with urbanization and the subsurface storm sewer network; and to monitor the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the associated water resources as that development happens. Changes in streamflow and biological and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources (or the lack thereof) will be correlated with development patterns, anthropogenic alterations of the environment, and the BMPs designed to mitigate the impacts of development. The USEPA has funded the placement of five research-grade streamflow gauges and have obtained two LIDAR overflights of the study area (2002 and 2004) that greatly increases the spatial resolution of the topographical analyses possible in the CSPA. These and future LIDAR collections will be used to determine if this technology can be used to map changes in stream morphology associated with development as well as to assist in the hydrological modeling and surface mapping of that development.


PRESENTATION Measuring Hydrological Change During Exurban Development: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area 02/08/2005
JARNAGIN, S. AND D. B. JENNINGS. Measuring Hydrological Change During Exurban Development: Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area. Presented at USGS Eastern Region Workshop, Herndon, VA, February 08 - 10, 2005.
Abstract: This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of rapid development that we expect will be built out within the next five to ten years. The Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been monitoring stream biology and chemistry in the area streams and the CSPA involves special best management practices (BMPs) that are designed to limit the impact of development on water resources.
This research is an example of a Federal-Local technology-transfer partnership where innovative technologies are researched at the Federal level and the results made available at a local level for neighborhood solutions. This research is a collaborative effort where local stakeholders are involved setting research goals and Federal agencies are involved offering expertise and capabilities not available at the local level.

The objective of the USEPA research is to correlate the impacts of ongoing development and the mitigating effect of local best management practices (BMPs on the hydrological, biological, and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The BACI design employs both positive and negative controls (stream gauges and monitoring in areas without development and areas developed without the CSPA BMPs) as well as pre- and post development data from areas gauged prior to development within the CSPA. The USEPA is focused on determining the effectiveness of BMP mitigation on streamflow disturbance, channel erosion and stream sedimentation due to impervious surfaces, sub-surface storm sewers and altered landform due to urbanization.

Our primary research activities are to map the development as it occurs; both the anthropogenic surface structures such as roads, buildings, parking lots, and changes in surface topography associated with urbanization and the subsurface storm sewer network; and to monitor the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the associated water resources as that development happens. Changes in streamflow and biological and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources (or the lack thereof) will be correlated with development patterns, anthropogenic alterations of the environment, and the BMPs designed to mitigate the impacts of development. The USEPA has funded the placement of five research-grade streamflow gauges and have obtained two LIDAR overflights of the study area (2002 and 2004) that greatly increases the spatial resolution of the topographical analyses possible in the CSPA. These and future LIDAR collections will be used to determine if this technology can be used to map changes in stream morphology associated with development as well as to assist in the hydrological modeling and surface mapping of that development.

PRESENTATION Implications of the Discovery of Rana Yavapaiensis in the Western Grand Canyon to the Conservation Strategy for Rana Onca 01/13/2005
JAEGER, J. R., D. F. BRADFORD, C. DROST, AND L. GELCZIS. Implications of the Discovery of Rana Yavapaiensis in the Western Grand Canyon to the Conservation Strategy for Rana Onca. Presented at World Conservation Union, Declining Amphilbian Populations Task Force, CA/NV Working Group, Berkeley, CA, January 13 - 14, 2005.
Abstract: The minimum historical range of the relict leopard frog, Rana onca, comprises the drainages of the Virgin and Colorado rivers from the vicinity ofHurricane, Utah, to Black Canyon below Lake Mead, in Nevada and Arizona. Extant populations are known near only the Black Canyon and Overton Arm of Lake Mead. One adjacent area that may contain extant populations remains largely unsurveyed. This is the Colorado River and tributary drainages upstream from the confluence with the Virgin River (part of Lake Mead) in the western portion of the Grand Canyon. A few sites in this area were recently surveyed and a population of frogs physically similar to R. onca was found in Surprise Canyon (a tributary drainage). A mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of several specimens showed that these individuals were more closely related to the lowland leopard frog, Rana yavapaiensis, than to R. onca. Surprise Canyon is situated within the Potential Management Zone (PMZ) for R. onca, as identified in the draft Conservation Assessment and Strategy (CAS). Discovery of the Surprise Canyon frogs within the PMZ has raised new concerns about the potential for hybridization. This threat impedes the primary recovery mechanism for R. onca identified in the draft CAS, i.e., to establish a number of new populations within the PMZ. Translocation sites are critically needed, but the majority of potential sites observed to date appear to be severely degraded. The western Grand Canyon was viewed as a promising area for establishing populations. Without further information, however, the threat of hybridization with the Surprise Canyon frogs renders questionable the suitability of this portion of the PMZ. The uncertainty is acute because the extent and identity of ranid frogs within the western Grand Canyon remains mostly unknown.

PUBLISHED REPORT Biosim2 User's Manual, Version 2.0.03 a Program That Applies the Coefficient of Biotic Similarity, B, to Complex Data Matrices 11/30/2005
PEARSON, G., C. PINKHAM, B. REID, AND V. CHEVALIER. Biosim2 User's Manual, Version 2.0.03 a Program That Applies the Coefficient of Biotic Similarity, B, to Complex Data Matrices. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/150 (NTIS PB2006-102385), 2005.
Abstract: The Pinkham-Pearson index of similarity has been evaluated by EPA as one of the more powerful tools for comparing community structure in its rapid bioassessment protocol. However, its use has been limited because the program that ran it, BioSim1, was only available in DOS format. A user-friendly version of BioSim2 is now available in a Java format that can run on Windows, Mac OS, Linus, or any other computer operating system that supports Java v1.4 or higher.

PUBLISHED REPORT Report on the Panel Session: Emerging Electronics Issues How Can We Minimize the Health and Environmental Impacts of Electronics Recycling? 11/09/2005
KNIGHT, L., C. LAMIE, J. VAN EE, AND B. A. SCHUMACHER. Report on the Panel Session: Emerging Electronics Issues How Can We Minimize the Health and Environmental Impacts of Electronics Recycling? U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/101 (NTIS pb2006-100901), 2005.
Abstract: The production and use of electronic products is growing and the rapid pace at which the technology advances means that many electronic products become obsolete in a relatively short period of time. These factors are contributing to a growing challenge for waste management because electronic waste contains a vast array of materials, some of which are hazardous to human health or the environment. While EPA supports resource conservation and recycling, the Agency also must confront the possibility that increased electronics recycling could pose its own risks to human health and the environment. To avoid unanticipated problems in the future, EPA should proactively identify and mitigate potential risks associated with electronics recycling. To this end, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) convened a panel of experts to discuss the state of electronics recycling and identify key challenges and research needs. The panel met on May 19, 2005 in New Orleans at the 2005 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, and included individuals from several sectors of the electronics recycling industry, academia, plastics industry, and the risk assessment community. This report summarizes an expert panel's discussions and recommendations. It is intended to serve as a reference for EPA and others in prioritizing research and other actions.

PUBLISHED REPORT Agwa Design Documentation: Migrating to Arcgis and the Internet 11/06/2005
CATE, A. J., D. J. SEMMENS, I. S. BURNS, D. C. GOODRICH, AND W. G. KEPNER. Agwa Design Documentation: Migrating to Arcgis and the Internet. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/056 (NTIS PB2006-100571), 2005.
Abstract: Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources.
These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in nature and require a distributed hydrological modeling approach. The extensive data requirements and the task of building input parameter files have presented obstacles to the timely and effective use of complex distributed rainfall-runoff and erosion models by BAER teams and resource managers. Geospatial tools and readily-available digital sources of pre-fire land cover, topography, and soils combined with rainfall-runoff and erosion models can expedite assessments if properly combined, provided a post-fire burn-severity map is available. The AGWA (Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment)hydrologic modeling tool was developed to utilize nationally available spatial data sets and both empirical (SWAT) and more process-based (KINEROS2) distributed hydrologic models (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa). Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then run, and the results are imported back into AGWA for graphical display. AGWA can difference results from pre- and post-fire model simulations and display the change on the modeled watershed. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where mitigation activities can be focused. An overview of AGWA and an application of it to the 2003 Aspen fire north of Tucson, Arizona are discussed herein.

PUBLISHED REPORT Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (Attila) User Manual 10/05/2005
Wade, T G. AND D W. Ebert. Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (Attila) User Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/083, 2005.
Abstract: ATtlLA is an ArcView extension that allows users to easily calculate many common landscape metrics. GIS expertise is not required, but some experience with ArcView is recommended. Four metric groups are currently included in ATtILA: landscape characteristics, riparian characteristics, human stressors and physical characteristics. There are also four display options to view metric results. ATtlLA is written in Avenue, Arc View's programming language, and is designed to accommodate spatial data from a variety of sources.
This guide provides basic information on installing and using ATtILA. It also provides information on sources of data compatible with ATtILA. However, it is not meant to provide background in landscape ecology. It is the user's responsibility to make appropriate use of ATtlLA output when conducting analyses or assessments. Users should also have some experience with spatial analysis and spatial data to ensure proper use of ATtILA. New users should read through this manual at least once to familiarize themselves with potential pitfalls associated with spatial data, ArcView limitations, or ATtlLA processes. Important points are usually identified by italics in this document. A collection of appendices are included that contain a metric glossary, default land cover coding schemes, sample metadata, and more detailed information on some methods used in ATtILA. Please report bugs and forward comments to: LEBProiects@epa.gov and include "ATtILA" in the subject line.

PUBLISHED REPORT Collection of Undisturbed Surface Sediments 08/30/2005
CAPRI, J., B. A. SCHUMACHER, S. WANNING, E. SMITH, J. ZIMMERMAN, AND J. D. VANOVER. Collection of Undisturbed Surface Sediments. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/076 (NTIS PB2006-100580), 2005.
Abstract: The National Resource Council identified the need for a capability to collect undisturbed surface sediments. Surface sediments are an important source for most exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls via direct uptake from water in contact with sediments. An innovative sediment sampler was designed and fabricated that is capable of collecting undisturbed samples of surface sediment. The sampler consists of a core tube housed within a stand that provides isolated, mechanical support in a sediment bed. The collected sample is maintained undisturbed inside of the core tube until it is removed for subsampling. To subsample, a slicer block is set over the top of the core tube, the sediment is pushed up into the slicer block until the desired sample thickness is obtained, and the slicer block cuts the sediment column into increments as thin as 1 centimeter.
The undisturbed surface sediment (USS) sampler was Compared with representative core, grab, and dredge sampling devices in the laboratory and against the Ponar (a common grab) sampler in the field. Evaluation of the sample collection process was made through video assessment and physical measurement of several parameters, such as particle-size distribution. Visually, the disturbance of the surface sediments was reduced during collection events with the USS sampler when compared to the other devices tested. Samples collected with the USS sampler exhibited significantly less variability from location to location in the field indicating that a consistent depth of sampling was obtained with the USS sampler.

PUBLISHED REPORT Evaluating Commercially Available Dermal Wipes, Cotton Suites, and Alternative Urinary Collection Materials for Pesticide Sampling from Infants 01/10/2005
Hu, Y., J. B. Beach, B A. Schumacher, AND G L. Robertson. Evaluating Commercially Available Dermal Wipes, Cotton Suites, and Alternative Urinary Collection Materials for Pesticide Sampling from Infants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/087, 2004.
Abstract: As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues.
One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces.

Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator of potential dermal exposure. As a first step, it is important to determine effective cleaning procedures to remove background materials on the baby suits so that minimal interferences will be encountered when the suits are analyzed.

A final concern involves determining updated procedures to collect urine samples from infants and other pre-toilet trained children. Many of the currently established methods are designed for clinical settings and are difficult for parents to use at home. For example, the adhesive collection bag method involves applying glue to a young child's skin for bag attachment. This procedure is not only technically difficult, but is also problematic for children who are allergic to adhesives. Because the diaper or diaper- insert method is less invasive and convenient for field sampling, EPA is interested in developing a diaper liner or insert that will absorb the urine and will allow for subsequent extraction and analysis of urinary metabolites of pollutants.

SITE DOCUMENT Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Hybrizyme Corporation Ahrc Pcr Kit 04/05/2005
DINDAL, A. AND S. BILLETS. Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Hybrizyme Corporation Ahrc Pcr Kit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/005 (NTIS PB2005108390), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of Hybrizyme Corporation's AhRC PCR" Kit. This is a technology that reports the concentration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding compounds in a sample, and the units are reported as Ah Receptor Binding Units (AhRBU). The test included an assessment of how well the technology's results compared to results generated by established laboratory methods using high-resolution mass spectrometry.
The Hybrizyme ranking of AhR compounds from low to high was consistent with the reference laboratory ranking for the environmental samples within a site 70-90% of the time. The technologys calculated estimated method detection limit was 71 AhRBU. The data generated and evaluated during this demonstration showed that the Hybrizyme technology could be used as an effective tool to rank sample concentrations from low to high AhR activity within a particular environmental site, particularly considering that the cost ($35,023 vs. $398,029) and the time (< 2 weeks vs. 8 months) to analyze the 209 demonstration samples was significantly less than that of the reference laboratory.

SITE DOCUMENT Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Cape Technologies Llc. Dfi Dioxin/Furan Immunoassy Kit and PCB TEQ Immunoassay Kit 03/31/2005
DINDAL, A. AND S. BILLETS. Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Cape Technologies Llc. Dfi Dioxin/Furan Immunoassy Kit and PCB TEQ Immunoassay Kit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/004 (NTIS PB2005108389), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of CAPE Technologies DF-1 Dioxin/Furan and PCB TEQ Immunoassay Kits. The kits are immunoassay techniques that report the total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry TEQ results generated using EPA Methods 1613B and 1668A.
The CAPE Technologies kits generally reported data higher than the certified PE and reference laboratory values. The technologys estimated MDL was 12 to 33 pg/g TEQ. Results from this demonstration suggest that the CAPE Technologies kits could be an effective screening tool for determining sample results above and below 20 pg/g TEQ and even more effective as a screen for sample above and below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering that both the cost ($59,234 vs. $398,029) and the time (3 weeks vs. 8 months) to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than those of the reference laboratory.

SITE DOCUMENT Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment Xenobiotic Detection System, Inc. Calux By Xds 03/31/2005
DINDAL, A. AND S. BILLETS. Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment Xenobiotic Detection System, Inc. Calux By Xds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/001 (NTIS PB2005108386), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., CALUX®by XDS. This is an aryl hydrocarbon-receptor bioassay that reports total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) TEQ results generated using EPA Methods 1613B and 1668A.
The CALUX® by XDS generally reported data higher than HRMS TEQD/F and total TEQ values, but were generally lower than the HRMS values for TEQPCB. The technology's estimated method detection limit was 0.53 to 0.63 pg/g TEQD/F. Results from this demonstration suggested that the XDS technology could be an effective tool to screen for samples above or below 1 pg/g for TEQD/F and total TEQ, and that it could be effective for all three types of TEQ values for results above or below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering that the cost ($89,564 vs. $398,029) and the time (six weeks vs. eight months) to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than that of the reference laboratory.

SITE DOCUMENT Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Diuoxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Abraxis Llc Coplanar PCB ELISA Kit 03/31/2005
DINDAL, A. AND S. BILLETS. Technologies for Monitoring and Measurement of Diuoxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Abraxis Llc Coplanar PCB ELISA Kit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/003 (NTIS PB2005108388), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of the Abraxis LLC Coplanar PCB Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. The kit is an immunoassay technique that reports the total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry TEQ results generated using EPA Method 1668A.
Abraxis generally reported data that were higher than the reference laboratory TEQPCB values, with the exception of ultra-high level PCB samples [> 10,000 picogram/gram (pg/g) TEQ] where Abraxis reported values lower than the reference method. The technologys estimated MDL was 6 to 31 pg/g TEQPCB. Results from this demonstration suggest that the Abraxis kit could be an effective screening tool for screening sample concentrations above and below 50 pg/g TEQPCB, particularly considering that the cost ($22,668 vs. $184,449) and the time to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than those of the reference laboratory.

SITE DOCUMENT Technologies Form Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. Dioxin ELISA Kit 03/31/2005
DINDAL, A. AND S. BILLETS. Technologies Form Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. Dioxin ELISA Kit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-05/002 (NTIS PB2005108387), 2005.
Abstract: A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the evaluation of Wako Pure Chemical Industries's Dioxin ELISA Kit. The kit is an immunoassay technique that reports toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin/furans. The sample units are in pg/g 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (EQ). The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) TEQ results generated using EPA Method 1613B.
The Wako results were biased both positively and negatively relative to HRMS results. The technologys estimated method detection limit was 83-201 pg/g 2,3,7,8-TCDD EQ, but this should be considered a rough estimate. Results from this demonstration suggest that the Wako kit could be an effective screening tool for determining sample results above and below 20 pg/g TEQ, and even more effective as a screen for samples above and below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering the cost to analyze the 209 demonstration samples was significantly less than that of the reference laboratory ($150,294 vs. $213,580), and all samples were analyzed on-site in 9 days (in comparison to the reference laboratory which took 8 months).

 

ORD Home | Search EPA | Search NERL | Search EIMS | Contacts | Help

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us

Last Updated on Wednesday, March 04, 2009
URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov