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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2004

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2004, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 188 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: Using Monitoring Data and Model Results to Target Actions 12/05/2004
Smith, E R., R. V. O'Neill, J D. Wickham, AND K B. Jones. EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: Using Monitoring Data and Model Results to Target Actions. Chapter 32, G. Bruce Wiersma (ed.), Environmental Monitoring: A Reference Text. CRC Press - Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 480-498, (2004).
Abstract: Until recently, ecological studies and management practices were conducted and implemented at local scales. During the past two decades, however, it has become clear that evaluations of environmental problems and management practices cannot be considered only at local scales. Increasingly, acidic deposition, global climate change, atmospheric contaminant transport, transformation and fate, forest fragmentation, biodiversity loss, and land use changes have been recognized as problems that have to be addressed at broader scales. Local scale assessments continue to provide valuable information, but expanded knowledge about broader scale problems and their contribution to local scale problems, as well as the cumulative effects of local scale issues, is needed. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches and tools are not applicable at broader scales. Approaches for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information have to be modified or developed if efficacious management practices are to be implemented to ameliorate local, regional, and global scale problems. Drawing inferences requires more than just aggregating existing local site data.

BOOK CHAPTER In Situ Estimates of Forest Lai for Modis Data Validation 07/27/2004
Iiames, J., A Pilant, AND T E. Lewis. In Situ Estimates of Forest Lai for Modis Data Validation. , Chapter 4, Ross Lunetta & John Lyon (ed.), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. Taylor & Francis Books, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 41-58, (2004).
Abstract: Satellite remote sensor data are commonly used to assess ecosystem conditions through synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, biomass, and seasonal dynamics. Two commonly used vegetation indices that can be derived from various remote sensor systems include the Normalized Difference/Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Detailed knowledge of vegetation index performance is required to characterize both the natural variability across forest stands and the intra-annual variability (phenology) associated with individual stands. To assess performance accuracy, in situ validation proocedures can be applied to evaluate the accuracy of remote sensor-derived indices. A collaborative effort was established with researchers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), academia, and non-governmental organizations to evaluate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LAI products across six validation sites in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin (APB), in North Carolina and Virginia.
The significance of LAI and NDVI as source data for process-based ecological models has been well documented. LAI has been identified as the variable of greatest importance for quantifying energy and mass exchange by plant canopies and has been shown to explain 80 to 90% of the variation in the above- ground forest net primary production (NPP). LAI is an important biophysical state parameter linked to biological productivity and carbon sequestration potential and is defined here as one half the total green leaf area per unit of ground surface area. NPP is the rate at which carbon is accumulated by autotrophs and is expressed as the difference between gross photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration.

NOVI has been used to provide LAI estimates for the prediction of stand and foliar biomass and as a surrogate to estimate stand biomass for denitrification potential in forest filter zones for agricultural non- point source nitrogenous pollution along riparian waterways. Interest in tracking LAI and NDVI changes includes the role forests play in the sequestration of carbon from carbon emissions and the formation of tropospheric ozone from biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds naturally released into the atmosphere. The NDVI has commonly been used as an indicator of biomass and vegetation vigor. NDVI has been applied in monitoring seasonal and interannual vegetation growth cycles, land-cover (LC) mapping, and change detection. Indirectly, it has been used as a precursor to calculate LAI, biomass, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and the areal extent of green vegetation cover.

BOOK CHAPTER A Technique for Assessing the Accuracy of Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Estimates Derived from Landsat Tm Imagery 07/27/2004
Jarnagin, S T., D B. Jennings, D W. Ebert, R S. Lunetta, AND J G. Lyon. A Technique for Assessing the Accuracy of Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Estimates Derived from Landsat Tm Imagery. , Chapter 19, Ross Lunetta & John Lyon (ed.), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. Taylor & Francis Books, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, (2004).
Abstract: We developed a technique for assessing the accuracy of sub-pixel derived estimates of impervious surface extracted from LANDSAT TM imagery. We utilized spatially coincident sub-pixel derived impervious surface estimates, high-resolution planimetric GIS data, vector--to-
raster conversion -methods and raster GIS overlay methods to derives a level of agreement
watershed, a small (14 km2) sub-watershed in the mid-Atlantic physiographic region. From the planimetric data we produced a per-pixel truth estimate of impervious surface percent as a means for from LANDSAT TM imagery- The spatial technique allows for multiple accuracy assessment approaches. Results showed that even though per-pixel based estimates of the accuracy of the sub-pixel data were poor (Error Matrix Overall Accuracy = 28.41, Kappa coefficient of agreement = 0. 185), the accuracy of the impervious surface percentage estimated using whole- area and rank correlation approaches were much more accurate (Relative Percent Correct =70.85, Spearman correlation = 0.608). Our findings suggest that per-pixel based approaches to the accuracy assessment of sub-pixel classified data need to be approached with some caution. Per-pixel based approaches may underestimate the actual whole-area accuracy of the material-of- interest map, as derived from sub-pixel methods, when applied over large geographic areas raster overlay technique easily extracted the data necessary to derive these assessments. The suited for the assessment of data at the sub-pixel level, it can be utilized - or altered - to derive the accuracy of any classified dataset where higher resolution digital truth data is available.

BOOK CHAPTER Ppcps in the Environment: Future Research Beginning With the End Always in Mind 07/27/2004
Daughton, C G. Ppcps in the Environment: Future Research Beginning With the End Always in Mind. , 2nd., Chapter 33, Dr. Klaus Kuemmerer (ed.), Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks. Springer Publishers, New York, NY, 33:463-495, (2004).
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an extraordinarily diverse group of chemicals used in veterinary medicine, agricultural practice, and human health and cosmetic care. The various sources and origins of PPCPs as pollutants in the environment are depicted in an illustration (available: http://www.gov/nerlesd1/chemistrv/pharma/images/drawing.pdf; note: all the URLs cited in the text are from the web site Daughton/EPA 2003a).PPCPs are ubiquitous pollutants, owing their origins in the environment to their worldwide, universal, frequent, and highly dispersed but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals (and domestic animals) and from other uses such as pest control(e.g.,see: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/phara/images/double-drugs.pdf). Therapeutic drugs in current use comprise over 3,000 distinct bioactive chemical entities formulated (using a wide array of so-called inert "excipients") into tens of thousands of registered end-use products. Personal care products contribute untold numbers of additional ingredients and formulations. Research, which began in earnest in the 1980s and has escalated dramatically in the early 2000s, was largely driven by analytical chemists and tended to focus on establishing the occurrence (and sources) of PPCPs in the environment -primarily in the aquatic domain (as a result of sewage discharge to receiving waters) and much less so in the terrestrial environment (as a result of land application of biosolids; U.S. EP A 2003). Only more recently has emphasis begun to shift to defining fate and transport, to assessing the effectiveness of and means of improving source control ( e.g., sewage treatment), and to pollution prevention.

BOOK CHAPTER Using Classification Consistency in Inter-Scene Overlap Areas to Model Spatial Variations in Land-Cover Accuracy Over Large Geographic Regions 07/21/2004
Gundon, B. AND C Edmonds. Using Classification Consistency in Inter-Scene Overlap Areas to Model Spatial Variations in Land-Cover Accuracy Over Large Geographic Regions. , Chapter 10, Ross Lunetta & John Lyon (ed.), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. Taylor & Francis Books, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, (2004).
Abstract: During the last decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create systematic national and global data sets of processed satellite imagery. An important application of these data is the derivation of large area (i.e. multi-scene) land cover products. Such products, however, can be expected to exhibit internal variations in information quality for two principal reasons. First, they have been assembled from a multi-temporal mix of satellite scenes acquired under differing seasonal and atmospheric conditions. Second, intra-product landscape diversity will lead to spatially varying levels of class commission errors. Detailed modelling of these variations with conventional ground truth is prohibitively expensive and hence an alternative, albeit indirect, accuracy assessment method must be sought, preferably one that provides a measure of classification confidence at the pixel level.
In this paper we propose a method for confidence estimation based on the analysis of classification consistency in regions of overlapping image coverage between Landsat scenes from ad acent orbital i paths and rows. We have developed an overall land cover mapping methodology that exploits consistency evaluation both to improve classification performance during product generation and to conduct post-generation accuracy assessment. This methodology has been implemented within a prototype mapping system, QUAD-LACC (Guindon, 2002), and is being employed to derive synoptic land cover products of the Great Lakes watershed from archival Landsat Multi-spectral scanner (MSS) imagery.

Our methodology involves an independent clustering and classification of each Landsat scene. The interpretation quality of each scene is assessed by comparing its classification of pixels in overlap regions with those of its four nearest neighbouring scenes. Consistency statistics are then used both to identify mislabelled clusters and to assign a measure of classification confidence to each cluster. Finally, the scene-based classifications are 'composited' to generate a final seamless land cover product and an accompanying confidence layer. At the pixel level, this layer quantifies a cumulative confidence that encapsulates the number of independent label estimates available, their level of agreement and the inherent confidence of their parent clusters. It should be noted that others have suggested using overlap regions for accuracy characterization, not in classification but rather landscape metric estimation (e.g. Brown et al., 2000).

BOOK CHAPTER Thematic Accuracy Assessment of Regional Scale Land Cover Data 07/19/2004
Khorram, S., J Knight, AND H. Cakir. Thematic Accuracy Assessment of Regional Scale Land Cover Data. , Chapter 7, Geospatial Data Accuracy Assessment. , 107-119, (2004).
Abstract: The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium, a cooperative effort of several U .S. federal agencies, including. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), have jointly conducted the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) program. This program used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 30 m resolution imagery as the baseline data and successfully produced a consistent and conterminous land-cover (LC) map of the lower 48 states at approximately an Anderson Level II thematic detail. The primary goal of the program was to provide a generalized and regionally consistent LC product for use in a broad range of applications (Lunetta et al., 1998). Each of the 10 U.S. federal geographic regions was mapped independently. EPA funded the Center for Earth Observation (CEO) at North Carolina State University (NCSU) to assess the accuracy of the NLCD for federal geographic Region IV .

BOOK CHAPTER Biotic Factors in Amphibian Population Declines 02/17/2004
Carey, C., D F. Bradford, J. L. Brunner, J. P. Collins, E. W. Davidson, J. E. Longcore, A. P. Pessier, AND D. M. Schock. Biotic Factors in Amphibian Population Declines. , 1st., Chapter 6, Greg Linder (ed.), Amphibian Decline: An Integrated Analysis of Multiple Stressor Effects. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, 153-208, (2004).
Abstract: Amphibians evolved in, and continue to exist in, habitats that are replete with many other organisms. Some of these organisms serve as prey for amphibians and others interact with amphibians as predators, competitors, pathogens, or symbionts. Still other organisms in their environment have no observable relationship with amphibians. Over time, as amphibians have come into contact with new organisms as a result of range expansions, mutations, etc, novel relationships have become established that could be detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to amphibians. This process has occurred naturally over time, independent of human involvement. Success of amphibians during their 350-million year existence must have depended in part on their ability to deal with the occurrence of new species in their habitat. However, humans have contributed to this process by transporting novel pathogens or other organisms, such as predators or competitors, into new amphibian habitats and/or changing the environment in a manner that fosters the emergence of new pathogens, and/or by manipulating the environment in ways that increase the susceptibility to pathogens.

DATA Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt) 10/05/2004
Smith, E R. Reva's Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit (Edt). EPA/600/C-05/016, 2004.
Abstract: ReVA’s pilot region has been the Mid-Atlantic Region, which includes EPA Region III along with watersheds feeding the Chesapeake Bay. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has worked in partnership with the EPA regional office, other agencies, universities, and stakeholders in the region in the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment or MAIA program. ReVA contributes to the broader MAIA effort and in this pilot has developed approaches that will be applied in other regions of the U.S. in future years. You can learn more about MAIA at the EPA MAIA website.

EPA PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection on Loblolly Pine Forest Stands With Complete Understory Removal 10/10/2004
Iiames, J., D Pilant, T E. Lewis, AND R. O. Congalton. Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection on Loblolly Pine Forest Stands With Complete Understory Removal. American Society for Photogrametry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) 2004 Annual Conference, Denver, CO, May 23-28, 2004. EPA/600/A-04/109 (NTIS PB2005-100583).
Abstract: The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40% of the total LAI values. The primary factors influencing the near infrared (NIR) and visible (VI) spectral responses within forest stands are canaopy closure, understory contribution, and soil types. The confounding issue in evaluationg spectral vegetation indices is the near flat response of the NIR band occurring over a wide range of LAI values. Thus, forest stands with varying vertical profiles, i.e. differing understory contributions, could have similar LAI values due to horizontal homogeneity.
The two 1.0 has study plots contained planted loblolly pine stands (ages 19 and 23) with similar crown closure estimates (70% and 71%, respectively). Understory vegetation was removed from both stands via mechanical harvest and heribcide application in late July and early August 2002, Ikonos and Landsat ETM+data were collected both prior and subsequent to understory removal and were evaluated for NIR and VI wavelength response. Total Canopies (TR&C) instrument combined with hemispherical photography. Initial results of ground-based measurements indicate signficant differences in LAI before and after harvesting treatment. Preliminary satellite derived LAI results from Ikonos and Landsat ETM+data are presented.

EXTRAMURAL DOCUMENT Proucl Version 3.0 04/15/2004
Singh, A., R. Maichie, AND A. K. Singh. Proucl Version 3.0. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2004.
Abstract: The computation ofa (l-a) 100% upper confidence limit (UCL) of the population mean depends upon the data distribution. Typically, environmental data are positively skewed, and a default lognormal distribution (EPA, 1992) is often used to model such data distributions. The H-statistic based Land's (Land 1971, 1975) H-UCL of the mean is used in these applications.
Hardin and Gilbert (1993), Singh, Singh, and Engelhardt (1997,1999), Schultz and Griffin,1999, Singh et al. (2002a), and Singh, Singh, and Iaci (2002b) pointed out several problems associated with the use of the lognormal distribution and the H-UCL of the population AM. In practice, for lognormal data sets with high standard deviation (sd), a, of the naturallog-transformed data (e.g., 0" exceeding 2.0), the H-UCL can become unacceptably large, exceeding the 95% and 99% data quantiles, and even the maximum observed concentration, by orders of magnitude (Singh, Singh, and Engelhardt, 1997). This is especially true for skewed data sets of smaller sizes (e.g., n < 50).

The H-UCL is also very sensitive to a few low or high values. For example, the addition of a sample with below detection limit measurement can cause the H-UCL to increase by a large amount (Singh, Singh, and Iaci, 2002b). Realizing that use of the H-statistic can result in unreasonably large UCL, it is recommended (EPA, 1992) to use the maximum observed value as an estimate of the UCL (EPC term) in cases where the H-UCL exceeds the maximum observed value. Recently, Singh, Singh and Iaci (2002b), and Singh and Singh (2003) studied the computation of the UCLs based upon a gamma distribution and several non-parametric bootstrap methods. Those methods have also been incorporated in ProUCL Version 3.0. ProUCL Version 3.0 contains fifteen UCL computation methods; five are parametric and ten are non-parametric. The non-parametric methods do not depend upon any of the data distributions.

JOURNAL Nitro Musk Bound to Carp Hemoglobin: Determination By Gc With Two MS Detection Modes: Eims Versus Electron Capture Negeative Ion MS 12/22/2004
Mottaleb, M. A., W C. Brumley, AND G W. Sovocool. Nitro Musk Bound to Carp Hemoglobin: Determination By Gc With Two MS Detection Modes: Eims Versus Electron Capture Negeative Ion MS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 84(14 & 15):1069-1078, (2004).
Abstract: Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot.

JOURNAL Evidence for Microbial Enhanced Electrical Conductivity in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sediments 12/10/2004
Atekwana, E., E. A. Atekwana, S. Rossbach, D Werkema, J. W. Duris, L. Smart, J. Allen, D. P. Cassidy, AND W. Sauck. Evidence for Microbial Enhanced Electrical Conductivity in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sediments. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 31:1-4, (2004).
Abstract: Electrical conductivity of sediments during microbial mineralization of diesel was investigated in a mesoscale column experiment consisting of biotic contaminated and uncontaminated columns. Microbial population numbers increased with a clear pattern of depth zonation within the contaminated column not observed in the uncontaminated column. Microbial community dynamics using rDNA intergenic spacer analysis showed fewer fragments with higher intensity in the contaminated column, suggesting a highly adapted microbial community. The contaminated column showed temporal increase in electrical conductivity, calcium, and dissolved inorganic carbon suggestiqg that the high conductivity is due to enhanced mineral weathering from microbial activity. The greatest change in electrical conductivity occurred in the unsaturated zone within the free diesel layer .Variations in electrical conductivity magnitude and microbial populations and their depth distribution in the contaminated column are similar to field observations. The results of this study suggest that geophysical methodologies may potentially be used to investigate microbial activity. INDEX TERMS: 0925 Magnetic and electrical methods, 0915 Downhole methods, 1831 Groundwater quality.

JOURNAL The Relationship of Total Dissolved Solids Measurements to Bulk Electrical Conductivity in An Aquifer Contaminated With Hydrocarbon 12/10/2004
Atekwana, E. A., R. Rowe, E. Atekwana, D Werkema, AND F. Legall. The Relationship of Total Dissolved Solids Measurements to Bulk Electrical Conductivity in An Aquifer Contaminated With Hydrocarbon. JOURNAL OF APPLIED GEOPHYSICS. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 56:281-294, (2004).
Abstract: A recent conceptual model links high bulk electrical conductivities at hydrocarbon impacted sites to higher total dissolved solids (TDS) resulting from enhanced mineral weathering due to acids produced during biodegradation. In this study, we investigated the vertical distribution of bulk conductivity, and the TDS, and specific conductance in groundwater in order to evaluate the above model. Our results showed steep vertical gradients in bulk conductivity and TDS indicating vertical and spatial heterogeneity at the site. Our results also showed higher TDS in contaminated locations consistent with the above model. In general, increasing groundwater specific conductance (fluid conductivity) resulted in higher bulk conductivity. We observed that at fluid conductivities <40 mS/m), bulk conductivity was inversely related to fluid conductivity. For fluid conductivities greater that 40 mS/m, bulk conductivity increased with increasing fluid conductivity. However, at fluid conductivities greater than 80 mS/m there was significant scatter especially for the contaminated samples. The lack of dependence of bulk conductivity on fluid conductivity at low fluid conductivity and significant scatter at higher fluid conductivity suggest that bulk conductivity could not be entirely accounted for by increase in TDS at the contaminated locations. Although this could simply be related to variation in lithology, we suggest that biodegradational processes in contaminated locations not only alter the fluid conductivity but may also induce changes in the aquifer matrix ( e.g. pitting, etching, and precipitation on mineral surfaces). Such alterations of the aquifer matrix may change the electrical properties of contaminated sediments, and combined with higher fluid conductivities (TDS) can be used to explain spatial and vertical variability in bulk conductivity at contaminated locations. More work is needed to fully understand the impact of biogeochemical changes on the aquifer matrix and the potential influence of such changes on the bulk electrical properties.

JOURNAL Book Review: Wetland Design, Principles and Practices for Landscape Architects and Land-Use Planners 11/30/2004
Lopez, R D. Book Review: Wetland Design, Principles and Practices for Landscape Architects and Land-Use Planners. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 19:909-910, (2004).
Abstract: The book is organized in such a way that it provides a stepwise guide that begins with a basic historical and aesthetic overview of wetland design. The book then summarizes the key concepts involved in cumultive impacts from a landscape ecology persepetive, and then delves further into applications of the elements for effective wetland mitigation or creation.

JOURNAL Regional and Global Patterns of Population, Land Use and Land Cover Change: An Overview of Stressors and Impacts 11/09/2004
Jarnagin, S T. Regional and Global Patterns of Population, Land Use and Land Cover Change: An Overview of Stressors and Impacts. GISCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 41(3):207-227, (2004).
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and regional to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential activities. LULC change alters nutrient cycling, hydrology, ecology, ecosystem and community functioning, species diversity, and enhances the spread of invasive species and communicable disease. Drivers of LULC change and methods of quantification are discussed.The discussion does not attempt to examine in detail the specific consequence of each potential change in land use and land cover at a global scale. Rather, it concentrates on the human drivers of land use and land cover change, regional patterns of change, and their resulting stressors and ecological impacts.

JOURNAL A Modeling Approach for Estimating Watershed Impervious Surface Area from National Land Cover Data 92 11/09/2004
Jennings, D B., S T. Jarnagin, AND D W. Ebert. A Modeling Approach for Estimating Watershed Impervious Surface Area from National Land Cover Data 92. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 70(11):1295-1307, (2004).
Abstract: We used National Land Cover Data 92 (NLCD92), vector impervious surface data, and raster GIS overlay methods to derive impervious surface coefficients per NLCD92 class in portions of the Nfid-Atlantic physiographic region. The methods involve a vector to raster conversion of the impervious surface data and subsequent overlay comparison with the raster NLCD92 data to derive a per-pixel amount of impervious surface for each NLCD92 cell. Sample areas for the study were twenty-seven small sub-watersheds ranging in size from three km2 to 100 km2. A three-category rural-to-urban gradient study design was utilized due to the changing sub-pixel relationship of impervious surfaces within developed/non-developed areas. We used ten "rural" (< 9 percent impervious surface) sub-watersheds, seven "intermediate" (9-18 percent impervious surface) sub-watersheds and ten "dense suburban" (18-35 percent impervious surface) sub-watersheds to produce three separate coefficient models per NLCD92 class. Results show distinct per-class coefficient groupings based on the rural-to-urban gradient with impervious surface coefficients being directly related to the increasing level of impervious surface percent in the watershed. To determine gradient type for any given watershed, we developed an a priori indicator based on the percentage of NLCD92 developed pixels (21, 22, and 23) within a watershed. The subsequent regression formula, y--0.3966(x) + 2.4977, provided an approximation of watershed impervious surface percent which then allowed one of the three coefficient models to be applied. Results from the application of coefficients to all 27 watersheds shows a relative accuracy for the impervious surface prediction of 85% and a mean absolute impervious surface percent error of 1.4% & 0.5% at both the Anderson Level I coefficients and the Anderson Level 2 coefficients.

JOURNAL Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampling and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents 11/01/2004
JonesLepp, T, D. A. Alvarez, J. D. Petty, AND J. N. Huckins. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampling and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents. ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION & TOXICOLOGY 47(4):427-439, (2004).
Abstract: The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS); and (2) the assessment of these methodologies in a real-world environment -wastewater effluent - for detecting six drugs (four prescription and two illicit). In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15ng/L to 66ng/L, equivalent to the total annual release of 0.4 -4 kg into the receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs methamphetamine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), at 2ng/L and 0.5ng/L, respectively. While the ecotoxicological significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic affects on human health is also unknown, but of increasing concern due to the multi use character of water, particularly in densely populated arid areas.

JOURNAL Mapping Annual Mean Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations Using Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Thickness Over the Contiguous United States 10/04/2004
Liu, Y., R. Park, Q. Li, V Kilaru, J. Sarnat, AND D. J. Jacobs. Mapping Annual Mean Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations Using Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Thickness Over the Contiguous United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 109:D22206,doi:10.1029/2, (2004).
Abstract: We present a simple approach to estimating ground-level fine particle (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5 um in diameter) concentration using global atmospheric chemistry models and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the Multi- angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The method uses seasonally averaged data in 2001 for the United States and compares the results with EPA PM2.5 ground-level observations, Overall, the estimated PM2.5 concentrations are within 20% of EPA observations. In addition, estimated PM2.5 concentrations capture the spatial and seasonal patterns slightly better than the surface level PM2.5 concentration predicted using the GEOS-CHEM model alone. The estimated PM2.5 concentrations also showed the potential to be less influenced by AOT prediction biases in GEOS-CHEM or the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model since MISR AOT is able to bring in more urban scale variation of particulate matter pollution. With the rapid development of model capabilities, we expect the weak correlation between model AOT and MISR AOT measurements to be improved significantly in the future and estimated PM2.5 concentrations by this simple approach will be more comparable with observations.

JOURNAL Determination of a Bound Musk Xylene Metabolite in Carp Hemoglobin as a Biomarker of Exposure By Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Using Selected Ion Monitoring 09/30/2004
Mottaleb, M. A., W C. Brumley, S M. Pyle, AND G W. Sovocool. Determination of a Bound Musk Xylene Metabolite in Carp Hemoglobin as a Biomarker of Exposure By Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Using Selected Ion Monitoring. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY 28:581-586, (2004).
Abstract: Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolite, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released AMX metabolite was extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. The concentration of AMX metabolite was found to range from 6.0 to 30.6 ng/g in the carp Hb, collected from the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, Nevada areas. The presence of an AMX metabolite in the carp Hb was confirmed when similar mass spectral features and the same retention time of the AMX metabolite were obtained for both standard AMX and carp Hb extract solutions. In the non-hydrolyzed and reagent blank extracts, the AMX metabolite was not detected.

JOURNAL Non-Regulated Water Contaminants: Emerging Research 09/15/2004
Daughton, C G. Non-Regulated Water Contaminants: Emerging Research. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW 24(7-8):711-732, (2004).
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. This paper examines some of the less discussed aspects of the background and assumptions that underlie society's "relationship" with chemical pollutants in water, particularly with respect to the need for a more holistic understanding of exposure and risk.

JOURNAL Screening Processed Milk for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Vacuum Distillation/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 09/14/2004
Hiatt, M H. AND S Pia. Screening Processed Milk for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Vacuum Distillation/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION & TOXICOLOGY 46:189-196, (2004).
Abstract: An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for organic compounds and the surrogate based matriz normalization described in method 8261 provided accurate results. This method had the sensitivity necessary to detect volatile organic analytes at or below maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) set by EPA for drinking water. In a survey of milk samples available in Las Vegas, Nevada 32 of 88 targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Many of the detected VOCs have not previously been reported and a rational for their presence in milk is presented.

JOURNAL Managing Electronic Data Transfer in Environmental Cleanups 09/01/2004
Brilis, G M., J G. Lyon, R S. Lunetta, AND J. Worthington. Managing Electronic Data Transfer in Environmental Cleanups. THE PRACTICAL LITIGATOR/LAWYER 15(5):37-44, (2004).
Abstract: The use of computers and electronic information poses a complex problem for potential litigation in space law. The problem currently manifests itself in at least two ways. First, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enforcement of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act/Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) statutes is moving quickly towards site clean-up activities that require on-site decisions based on quick turnaround, analytical data. Site managers increasingly rely on electronic data transfer or facsimile (FAX) information while making crucial decisions concerning both the scope and expense of clean-up activity. These data packages are increasingly containing GPS data and remotely sensed images. Second, many laboratories in both the public and private sectors are either developing their own data management tracking systems or purchasing data management software packages. The trend to utilize computer-data management is likely to continue. Insufficient documentation of electronic data transfers may render any action or decision"non-defensible. " While draft data in an electronic system may enable the end-user (i.e., On-Scene Coordinator) to make a necessary decision quickly, that information may later be lost as documented support for the decision because it is deleted as a "final" version of the data are prepared. Hard copies of some data transfers may never be produced because data may be remotely downloaded into a portable computing device and deleted after use. Some scientists are using their data management tracking systems as replacements for hand-written records of laboratory activities.

JOURNAL Numerical Study of Electromagnetic Waves Generated By a Prototype Dielectric Logging Tool 07/20/2004
Ellefsen, K. J., J. D. Abraham, D. L. Wright, AND A T. Mazzella. Numerical Study of Electromagnetic Waves Generated By a Prototype Dielectric Logging Tool. GEOPHYSICS 69(1):64-77, (2004).
Abstract: To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency- wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than that in the formation (e.g., an air-filled borehole in the unsaturated zone), only a guided wave propagated along the borehole. As the frequency decreased, both the phase and the group velocities of the guided wave asymptotically approached the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation. The guided wave radiated electromagnetic energy into the formation, causing its amplitude to decrease. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was less than that in the formation (e.g., a water-filled borehole in the saturated zone), both a refracted wave and a guided wave propagated along the borehole. The velocity of the refracted wave equaled the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation, and the refracted wave preceded the guided wave. As the frequency decreased, both the phase and the group velocities of the guided wave asymptotically approached the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation. The guided wave did not radiate electromagneticenergy into the formation. To analyze traces recorded by the prototype tool during laboratory test, they were compared to traces calculated with the finite differences method. The first parts of both the recorded and the calculated traces were similar, indicating that guided and refracted waves indeed propagated along the prototype tool.

JOURNAL An Evaluation of the Individual Components and Accuracies Associated With the Determination of Impervious Area 07/19/2004
Slonecker, E T. An Evaluation of the Individual Components and Accuracies Associated With the Determination of Impervious Area. GISCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 41(2):165-184, (2004).
Abstract: The percentage of impervious surface area in a watershed has been widely recognized as a key indicator of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem condition. Although the use of the impervious indicator is widespread, there is currently no consistent or mutually accepted method of computing impervious area and the approach of various commonly used techniques varies widely. Further, we do not have reliable information on the components of impervious surfaces, which would be critical in any future planning attempts to remediate problems associated with impervious surface coverage. In cooperation with the USGS Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program (GAM) and The National Map, and the EPA Landscape Ecology Program, this collaborative research project utilized very high-resolution imagery and GIS techniques to map and quantify the individual components of total impervious area in six urban/suburban watersheds in different parts of the United States. This data were also used to serve as ground reference, or 'truth " for the evaluation for four techniques used to compute impervious area. The results show some important aspects about the component makeup of impervious cover and the variability of methods commonly used to compile this critical emerging indicator of ecosystem condition.

JOURNAL Population Status and Distribution of a Decimated Amphibian, the Relict Leopard Frog (Rana Onca) 07/10/2004
Bradford, D F., J R. Jaeger, AND R. D. Jennings. Population Status and Distribution of a Decimated Amphibian, the Relict Leopard Frog (Rana Onca). SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 49(2):218-228, (2004).
Abstract: The relict leopard frog (Rana onca) was once thought to be extinct, but has recently been shown to comprise a valid taxon with extant populations. We delineate the minimum historical range of the species, and report results of surveys at 12 historical and 54 other localities to determine the current distribution and status of extant populations. The species was found in the 1990s at seven sites in three areas. By 1. 200 1, however, this number had declined to five sites in two areas: near the Overton Arm of Lake Mead, NV, and in Black Canyon along the Colorado River below Lake Mead, NV. These two areas encompass maximum linear extents of only 3.6 and 5.1 km, respectively. The five extant populations inhabit spring systems with largely unaltered hydrology and no introduced American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) or game fishes. In a mark-recapture study conducted over two years in the Overton Ann area, the estimated I number averaged 36 frogs (95% conf. limits, 27-45) over 555 m of stream habitat, and estimated annual survivorship averaged 0.27. A mark-recapture estimate for the size of the largest population, which occurs at a site in Black Canyon approximately 450 m in length, was 637 adult frogs (95% conf. limits, 381-1210). An estimate for the total number of Rana onca frogs at all sites, based on mark-recapture data, visual encounter surveys, and extent of habitat, was approximately II00 adults. The two recent population extinctions occurred concomitantly with encroachment of emergent vegetation into pools. We speculate that this occurred as a result of natural processes in one case, and anthropogenic processes in the other.

JOURNAL Livestock Grazing Effects on Ant Communities in the Eastern Mojave Desert, USA 07/10/2004
Nash, M S., D F. Bradford, S E. Franson, A C. Neale, W. G. Whitford, AND D T. Heggem. Livestock Grazing Effects on Ant Communities in the Eastern Mojave Desert, USA. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 4(3):199-213, (2004).
Abstract: The effects of livestock grazing on composition and structure of ant communities were examined in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA for the purpose of evaluating ant communities as potential indicators of rangeland condition. Metrics for ant communities, vegetation, and other ground-cover elements were evaluated as a function of distance from livestock water tanks, which represents a gradient in level of livestock activity in desert settings. Data were collected at six isolated water tanks used by cattle during early summer, with seven plots (90 m x 90 m; 100 pitfall traps) per tank.
Thirty-eight species of ants were recorded, with an average of 14 ant species per plot. Ant species richness did not differ as a function of distance from the water tank. Also, overall species composition, as measured by a similarity index for species presence/absence for paired-comparisons of plots, did not show differences attributable to the gradient in grazing impact. In contrast, the relative abundance of several taxa and functional groups was significantly related to distance from the water tank. The predominant pattern was for the greatest abundance to occur at the water tank, with little difference in ant abundance among plots away from the water tank. This pattern was shown by the abundant ants species, Conomyrma bicolor and Pheidole tucsonica, and the groups Conomyrma spp., Pheidole spp., homopteran tenders, and plant foragers. However, two species, Aphaenogaster megommata and Monomorium wheelerorum showed the greatest relative abundance at a distance away from the water tank. A number of ant metrics were significantly related to ground-cover metrics (R2 > 0.5). Organic debris was the variable most frequently related significantly to ant abundance metrics, always in a positive direction, followed by cover for perennial grasses, annual forbs, and shrubs, and bare patch size. Ant community metrics in the study region appear to have little potential to serve as indicators of rangeland condition because differences were evident primarily in severely degraded localized conditions rather than in intermediate widespread conditions.


JOURNAL Thematic Accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data for the Western United States 06/30/2004
Wickham, J D., S. V. Stehman, J H. Smith, AND L. Yang. Thematic Accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data for the Western United States. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 91:452-468, (2004).
Abstract: The MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium sponsored production of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) for the conterminous United States, using Landsat imagery collected on a target year of 1992 (1992 NLCD). Here we report the thematic accuracy of the 1992 NLCD for the six western mapping regions. Reference data were collected in each region for a probability sample of pixels stratified by map land-cover class. Results are reported for each of the six mapping regions with agreement defined as a match between the primary or alternate reference land-cover label and a mode class of the mapped 3?3 block of pixels centered on the sample pixel. Overall accuracy at Anderson Level II was low and variable across the regions, ranging from 38% for the Midwest to 70% for the Southwest. Overall accuracy at Anderson Level I was higher and more consistent across the regions, ranging from 82% to 85% for five of the six regions, but only 74% for the South-central region.

JOURNAL Zooplankton Life Cycles: Direct Documentation of Pelagic Births and Deaths Relative to Diapausing Egg Production 06/29/2004
Jarnagin, S T., W. C. Kerfoot, AND B. K. Swan. Zooplankton Life Cycles: Direct Documentation of Pelagic Births and Deaths Relative to Diapausing Egg Production. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY 49(4, part 2):1317-1332, (2004).
Abstract: Full-season demographics (pelagic births and deaths, diapause egg production) provide valuable insights into species persistence and dispersal success. The spiny cladoceran (Bythotrephes) possesses morphological adaptations (spines and thick-walled diapause eggs) that lessen impacts of fish predation, although the seasonal life history remains vulnerable. Because caudal spines are retained throughout life, spine accumulation in sediment traps documents seasonal mortality. Here we compare deposition patterns for spines and diapause eggs in a recently colonized inland lake (Lake Michigamme) with patterns found in a larger source lake (Lake Michigan). Direct mortality estimates for the inland lake are compared with traditional indirect estimates from egg ratio techniques. Although the long caudal spine protects against numerically abundant small fish, individuals are susceptible to ingestion by late-season YOY and larger fish. Laboratory experiments confirm that fish are responsible for spine breakage in nature accounting for an estimated 62-73% of Bythotrephes' seasonal mortality. The impact of late- season fish consumption is lessened because diapause eggs survive gut passage. Nonetheless, relatively few diapause eggs are produced in the inland lake. Sequential sediment traps document a more balanced pelagic birth/death to diapause egg relationship in Lake Michigan, probably because diapause egg-bearing adults find better refuge in central, deep waters. The presence of spines and thick-walled eggs inadvertently creates numerous dispersal options. Spines catch on fishing lines, gill nets and seines. Because diapause eggs survive gut passage, use of live wells and bait fish also promotes dispersal, although high fish predation at inland sites probably limits successful inland colonization

JOURNAL Development of a Passive, in Situ, Integrative Sampler for Hydrophillic Organic Contaminants in Aquatic Environments 06/22/2004
Alvarez, D. A., J. D. Petty, J. N. Huckins, T JonesLepp, D. T. Getting, AND S. E. Manahan. Development of a Passive, in Situ, Integrative Sampler for Hydrophillic Organic Contaminants in Aquatic Environments. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, 23(7):1640-1648, (2004).
Abstract: Until recently, hydrophobic, bioconcentratable compounds have been the primary focus of most environmental organic contaminant investigations, There is an increasing realization that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants as well. This group of compounds includes a wide variety of chemicals, including potentially endocrine disrupting and estrogenic contaminants which have been shown to contribute to numerous abnormalities such as impaired reproduction in aquatic organisms exposed in environmental waters. To address this issue, we developed a passive, in situ, sampling device (the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler or POCIS) which integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations and provides a screening assessment of the toxicological significance of the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler (effective membrane sampling surface area = 18.2 cm 2) linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals was observed for up to 56 days. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS chemical sampling rates.

JOURNAL Groundwater Recharge and Chemical Contaminants: Challenges in Communicating the Connections and Collisions of Two Disparate Worlds 06/18/2004
Daughton, C G. Groundwater Recharge and Chemical Contaminants: Challenges in Communicating the Connections and Collisions of Two Disparate Worlds. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND REMEDIATION 24(2):127-138, (2004).
Abstract: The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cycle'. These questions suggest that perhaps it would behoove us to revisit some very elementary aspects of our science and how we convey it to the public.

JOURNAL Integrated Environmental Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region With Analytical Network Process 06/01/2004
Tran, L. T., C. G. Knight, R. V. O'Neill, AND E R. Smith. Integrated Environmental Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region With Analytical Network Process. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 94(1-3):263-277, (2004).
Abstract: A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ranking ecosystems in terms or environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land-cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and topography of the Mid-Atlantic region, we were able to point out areas which were in relatively poor condition and/or vulnerable to future deterioration regarding various environmental aspects. The method offered an easy and comprehensive way to combine the strengths of conventional multivariate statistics (PCA) and decision-making science tool (ANP) for integrated environmental assessment. Furthermore, the suggested method can serve a building block for the evaluation of environmental policies

JOURNAL An Overview of Data Integration Methods for Regional Assessment 06/01/2004
Locantore, N. W., L. T. Tran, R. V. O'Neill, P. W. McKinnis, E R. Smith, AND M. O'Connell. An Overview of Data Integration Methods for Regional Assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 94(1-3):249-261, (2004).
Abstract: One of the goals of the EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) project is to take diverse environmental data and develop objective criteria to evaluate environmental risk assessments at the regions: scale. The data include (but are not limited to) variables for forests, air quality, water quality, biodiversity, human health socioeconomic, and measures of pollution. Although assessments are usually performed for these groups individually, ReVA has undertaken the task of trying to use all the available information together to allow for broader assessment.
This paper will briefly describe each of the integration methods currently being evaluated for assessment, and discuss how these methods are being used as objective criteria for risk assessment. These methods, once the evaluation is completed, will become available on the ReVA website (www.epa.gov/reva) as a web-based tool.

JOURNAL Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Municipal Wastewater for Estimating Biota Exposure in Receiving Waters 05/23/2004
Osemwengie, L I. AND S. L. Gerstenberger. Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Municipal Wastewater for Estimating Biota Exposure in Receiving Waters. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 6(6):533-539, (2004).
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high use and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. We analyzed water samples from the confluence of three municipal sewage treatment effluent streams, surface water, and whole carp ( Cyprinus carpio) for synthetic musks for a period of 12 months. The lipid content of each fish was determined and compared with the concentration of musks in the whole fish tissue. Innovative methods were used for water sampling and musk extraction. The data presented here provide insight as to the relationship between concentrations of synthetic musks in the municipal effluent and associated biota. This study confirmed the presence of polycylic and nitro musk compounds in sewage effluuent, Lake Mead water, and carp. The concentrations were found to be considerably lower than previous studies conducted in oilier countries. This study also established the statistical variation in the concentrations of Galaxolide (a polycyclic musk) and musk xylene (a nitro musk) in carp.

JOURNAL Formation of Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin for Potential Use as Biomarkers of Exposure 05/12/2004
Mottaleb, M. A., X Zhao, L. R. Curtis, AND G W. Sovocool. Formation of Nitro Musk Adducts of Rainbow Trout Hemoglobin for Potential Use as Biomarkers of Exposure. AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 67(4):315-324, (2004).
Abstract: The high use of nitro musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) as fragrances, and their persistence and bioaccumulation potential make them ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The 4-amino-MX (AMX) and 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolites have been detected in trout fish hemoglobin (Hb) samples by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twelve Hb samples prepared from rainbow trout that were exposed to MX and MK, over a period of 24 and 72 h, were analyzed. Amino metabolites were liberated by basic hydrolysis and extracted from the fish Hb into n-hexane. The extract was concentrated, analyzed, and spiked with a standard solution (80 pg/uL) of AMX or AMK and reanalyzed. Concentrations of AMX from 10 to 24.7 ng/g were detected in Hb from fish taken 24 and 72 h after MX exposure. At 24 and 72 h after MK exposure, the concentration of AMK was found to be 25.1 to 51, and 9.5 to 25.1 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of AMK in Hb from two of the three trout were substantially lower after 72 h compared with 24 h exposure. The AMX and AMK metabolites were not detected in four control samples. Average recoveries exceeding 89 and 86% could be achieved for AMX and AMK, respectively, with a coefficient of variation (CV) around 5%.

JOURNAL Understanding Ecological System: An Example of Temporal and Spatial Variability of Conomyma Insana in a Stressed System 04/29/2004
Nash, M S. AND W. G. Whitford. Understanding Ecological System: An Example of Temporal and Spatial Variability of Conomyma Insana in a Stressed System. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL AND VETERINARY ADVANCES 3(9):631-637, (2004).
Abstract: The responses of pyramid ants Dorymyrmex (Conomyrma) insana (Buckley) to structural change (removal of an invasive shrub species) and to an environmental stress (short-term intense 12 grazing by cattle) are presented from an experiment study in Chihuahuan Desert grassland. Spatial and temporal responses of D. insana were examined by analysis of variances, kriging maps and regression analyses. There were no significant responses of D. insana to grazing. The numerical and spatial responses of ants recorded from pit- fall trap data were the same as those 16 recorded from mapping ant nests. The spatial distribution of D. insana nests was a function of the canopy cover of the invasive, woody shrub, honey mesquite (Fabaceae: Prosopis glandulosa Torrey) (r = 0.82) and explained 68% of the variability in nests distribution. The dominant liquid feeding ant species (D. insana) responded numerically and spatially to structural change and environmental stress. Spatially referenced data are as important or more important for monitoring ecosystem change than are numerical data.

JOURNAL Regional Vulnerability Assessment a Special Issue of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 04/13/2004
Bradley, M P., J F. Paul, E R. Smith, AND E A. Striz. Regional Vulnerability Assessment a Special Issue of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. G. B. Wiersma (ed.), ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 94(1-3):1-7, (2004).
Abstract: Beginning in 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Office of Research and Development has focused much of its ecological research in the Mid;.Atlantic as part of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA). The goal of MAlA is to improve the assessability of scientific information in environmental decision-making. Following the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) whose goal is to guide monitoring that effectively reflects current ecosystem condition and trends, MAlA's second, current, phase of research under the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) program is designed to target risk management activities using available data and models. The papers presented here are from a conference held in May 2003 that presented results of research in this second phase of MAlA
The conference was organized into the following topics:

1. Assessing Current Impacts and Vulnerabilities

2. Forecasting Environmental Condition and Vulnerabilities

3. Developing Management Strategies to Optimize the Future, and 4. Assessing and Responding to ennvironmental Vulnerability.

JOURNAL Regional Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations 04/01/2004
Holland, D M., P. Caragea, AND R. L. Smith. Regional Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 38(11):1673-1684, (2004).
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. In the first stage, a linear regression model is used to estimate site-specific trends in data adjusted for the effects of season and meteorology. In the second stage, kriging methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors. This method is extended to include a Bayesian analysis to account for uncertainty in estimating the spatial covariance parameters. For both pollutants, significant improvement in air quality was detected that appears similar to the large drop in SO, power plant emissions. Spatial patterns of trends in S02 and S04 2- concentrations vary by location over the eastern U.S. For S02, trends at monitoring sites in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic were in the -30% to -42% ranges with smaller changes in the South. Across most of the U.S., trends in S04 2- were smaller than for S02. Both spatial prediction techniques produced similar results in terms of regional trends and standard errors.

JOURNAL In Situ Apparent Conductivity Measurements and Microbial Population Distribution at a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site 03/21/2004
Atekwana, E., D Werkema, J. W. Duris, S. Rossbach, E. A. Atekwana, W. Sauck, D. P. Cassidy, J. C. Means, AND F. Legall. In Situ Apparent Conductivity Measurements and Microbial Population Distribution at a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site. GEOPHYSICS 69(1):56-63, (2004).
Abstract: We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number method was used to characterize the spatial distribution of aerobic heterotrophic and oil degrading microbial populations, The purpose of this study was to assess if high conductivity observed at "aged" LNAPL-impacted sites may be related to microbial degradation of LNAPL. The results show higher bulk conductivity coincident with LNAPL-impacted zones, in contrast to geoelectrical models that predict lower conductivity in such zones. The highest bulk conductivity was observed to be associated with zones impacted by residual and free LNAPL. Data from bacteria enumeration from sediments close to the resistivity probes show that oil- degrading microbes make up a larger percentage (5-55 %) of the heterotrophic microbial community at depths coincident with the higher conductivity compared to ~5 % at the uncontaminated location. The coincidence of a higher percentage of oil degrading microbial populations in zones of higher bulk conductivity suggests that the higher conductivity in these zones may be due to increased fluid conductivity related to microbial degradation of LNAPL, consistent with geochemical studies that suggest that intrinsic biodegradation is occurring at the site. The findings from this study point to the fact that biogeochemical processes accompanying biodegradation o f contaminants c an potentially alter geoelectrical properties o f t he subsurface impacted media.

JOURNAL A Prior Evaluation of Two-Stage Cluster Sampling for Accuracy Assessment of Large-Area Land-Cover Maps 03/20/2004
Wickham, J D., S. V. Stehman, J H. Smith, T Wade, AND L. Yang. A Prior Evaluation of Two-Stage Cluster Sampling for Accuracy Assessment of Large-Area Land-Cover Maps. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING 25(6):1235-1252, (2004).
Abstract: Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priori evaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

JOURNAL Holistic Approach for Assessing the Presence and Potential Impacts of Waterborne Environmental Contaminants 03/15/2004
Petty, J. D., J. N. Huckins, D. A. Alvarez, W. C. Brumbaugh, W. L. Cranor, R. W. Gale, A. Rastall, T JonesLepp, T. J. Leiker, C. E. Rostad, AND E. T. Furlong. Holistic Approach for Assessing the Presence and Potential Impacts of Waterborne Environmental Contaminants. CHEMOSPHERE 54(6):695-705, (2004).
Abstract: As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler (PIMS) is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence o,f a wide variety of contaminants in , the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for fmal polishing of secondary- treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs), and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

JOURNAL Monitoring Dibutyltin and Triphenyltin in Fresh Waters and Fish in the United States Using Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry 02/17/2004
JonesLepp, T, K E. Varner, AND D T. Heggem. Monitoring Dibutyltin and Triphenyltin in Fresh Waters and Fish in the United States Using Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION & TOXICOLOGY 46(1):90-95, (2004).
Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that toxic organotins are making their way into humans and other mammals (terrestrial and marine). One possible route of environmental exposure in the U.S. to organotins (specifically dibutyltin and triphenyltin) is via fresh surface waters, and fish taken from those waters. A unique methodology (developed in-house at EPA-Las Vegas) was used for quantitative and specific detection (speciation) of the organotins. This green-chemistry method combines two extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction for waters; hexane/tropolone extraction for fish) with liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-ES/ITMS) as the detection method. A small survey looking for organotins in fresh surface waters across the United States, and fish from those waters, was conducted. Various concentrations of dibutyltin and triphenyltin were detected in both the waters and fish from collection sites.

JOURNAL A Preliminary Assessment of the Montreal Process Indicators of Forest Fragmentation for the United States 02/16/2004
Riitters, K. H., J D. Wickham, AND J. W. Coulston. A Preliminary Assessment of the Montreal Process Indicators of Forest Fragmentation for the United States. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 91(1-3):257-276, (2004).
Abstract: As part of the 2003 U.S. Report on Sustainable Forests, four metrics of forest fragmentation patch size, edge amount, inter-patch contrast - were measured within 142,602 non overlapping 56.25 km2 analysis units on land-cover maps derived from satellite imagery for the 48 conterminous States. The perimeter of a typical forest patch is about 100 meters from the perimeter of its nearest neighbor, except when there is not much forest, in which case that distance is 200-300 meters. A typical analysis unit has from 10-40 percent as much forest edge as it could possibly have, given the amount of forest present. Most analysis units contain a large number of patches that are less than on hectare in size, and about 10 percent contain one or more 2,000 to 5,000 hectare patches. Forest often defines the background landscape, and patch contrast is generally either very high or very low in eastern regions and intermediate in western regions. Many research needs were identified by this experimental analysis of available data and metrics.

JOURNAL Effects of Intense, Short Duration Grazing on Microtopography in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland 02/16/2004
Nash, M S., E. Jackson, AND W. G. Whitford. Effects of Intense, Short Duration Grazing on Microtopography in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland. JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS 56(3):383-393, (2004).
Abstract: Microtopography describes variations in soil surface elevation (nim or cm) for a scale of a few meters of horizontal distance, Small-scale (few centimeters) changes in vegetation communities synchronized with the elevation differences were observed in drained marsh (Zedler & Zedler, 1969). Vivian-Smith (1997) reported that species richness and evenness were significantly higher in areas characterized by small-scale heterogeneous microtopography The amount of water available to vegetation is related to elevation, therefore, germination and seedling establishments are effected by the soil surface microtopography (Smith and Capelle, 1992). Desert grasslands are characterized by microtopography that appears to be the result of long-term accumulation of soil around grass tussocks. Desertification or degradation of Chihuahuan Desert grasslands has been hypothesized to result from changes in spatial distribution of soil resources (Schlesinger et al., 1990). Desert grasslands are characterized by fine scale patchiness of soil nutrients and water (Schlesinger & Pilmanis, 1998). Soil nutrient rich patches in desert grassland are small mounds that are occupied by bunch grasses, The unvegetated depressions between grass tussocks act as microcatchments for water and are responsible for retaining water and nutrients in-situ. Factors that affect this fine scale patchiness are hypothesized to be the precursor of larger scale changes leading to desertification. Livestock grazing has been shown to change the spatial distribution of grasses in the short-grass steppe (Alder & Lauenroth, 2000). They attributed changes in the spatial heterogeneity of the dominant grass, Bouteloua gracilis, primarily to grazing effects. A study of changes in microtopography on grazing gradients in Chihuahuan Desert grassland documented reduction in the abundance, height and depth of mounds and depressions respectively as a
result of chronic, long-term grazing by domestic livestock (Nash et al., 2002). The combination of biomass removal by grazers and the compaction and breakdown of mounds by hoof action are the mechanisms by which the fine scale microtopography is lost. Intense, short-duration grazing is one of the grazing management systems that have been proposed for maintaining productivity of and rangelands (Savory, 1978, Volesky et al., 1994). Short-duration grazing is hypothesized to increase production of grasses and intense, short-duration hoof action is generally thought to increase water infiltration and incorporation of litter into the soil (Savory, 1978), We hypothesized that short duration grazing would have little effect on the microtopography that is characteristic of desert grassland. We also hypothesized that short-duration grazing during the non-growing season (winter) would have less impact on desert grassland microtopography than intense, short-duration grazing during the growing season
(summer)

JOURNAL Impacts of Imagery Temporal Frequences on Land-Cover Change Detection Monitoring 02/03/2004
Lunetta, R S., D. M. Johnson, J G. Lyon, AND J. Crotwell. Impacts of Imagery Temporal Frequences on Land-Cover Change Detection Monitoring. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 89(4):444-454, (2004).
Abstract: An important consideration for monitoring land~cover (LC) change is the nominal temporal frequency of remote sensor data acquisitions required to adequately characterize change events, Ecosystem specific regeneration rates are an important consideration for determining the required frequency of data collections to minimize change omission errors. Clear-cut forested areas in north central North Carolina undergo rapid colonization from pioneer (replacement) vegetation that is often difficult to differentiate spectrally from that previously present. This study compared change detection results for temporal frequencies corresponding to three, seven, and ten-year time intervals for !1ear-anniversary date Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquisitions corresponding to a single path/row. Change detection was performed using an identical change vector analysis (:cy .l\.) technique tor all imagery dates. Although the accuracy of the three-year analysis was acceptable (86.3%, Kappa=O.55), a significant level of change omission errors resulted (51.7~-0). Accuracies associated with both the seven~year (43.6%, Kappa=O.l 0) a.'ld ten-year (37.2%, Kappa.:a.O5) temporal frequency analyses performed poorly, with excessive change omission errors of 84.8% and 86.3%, respectfully. The average rate of LC change observed over the study area tor the 13- year index period (1987- 2000) was approximately 1.0~/o per a.IU1Ul1l, .Overall results indicated that a minimum of three-four year temporal data acquisition frequency is required to monitor LC change events in north central North Carolina. Reductions in change omission errors could probably best be achieved by further increasing temporal data acquisition frequencies to a one-two year time interval.

JOURNAL Sample Size for Seasonal Mean Concentration, Deposition Velocity and Deposition: A Resampling Study 02/03/2004
Sickles II, J E. Sample Size for Seasonal Mean Concentration, Deposition Velocity and Deposition: A Resampling Study. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 38(3):477-489, (2004).
Abstract: Methodologies are described to assign confidence statements to seasonal means of concentration (C), deposition velocity (V J, and deposition categorized by species/parameters, sites, and seasons in the presence of missing data. Estimators of seasonal means with missing weekly data are determined using the means of the non-missing values as estimates of the missing data. An empirical relationship is established between the probability that a resampled mean lies within a defined percentage of the mean for individual full 13-week seasonal samples and the specific CV categorized by species/parameter, site, season, and the number of valid samples. The concept of a specific critical CV is introduced as the least of the specific CVs for which a confidence statement fails for a prescribed uncertainty and confidence level. Specific critical CV s are estimated by resampling valid weekly data for full 13-week seasons and from simulations of weekly data. Using data from 47 eastern US CASTNET sites, two approaches focusing on specific critical CVs are employed to examine the confidence statements for C, V d' and deposition. The first evaluated confidence statements for individual seasonal means. The second approach evaluated the impacts of establishing minimum sample sizes on confidence statements for C and V d. In both cases, confidence statements for V d have lower uncertainty and higher confidence than for C. Confidence statements for deposition reflect the influence of C more strongly than V d. When the two approaches are contrasted, confidence statements with the same level of confidence had lower uncertainty using the first approach where individual seasonal means were evaluated. An example of a confidence statement using the first approach is that when data are missing but ~ 7 of the 13 weeks of seasonal data are present, for each CASTNET species, except the more variable NO3-, seasonal means of C and deposition are within :!:35% of the true value at least 90% of the time.

NEWSLETTER Characterization and Monitoring Branch Newsletter 11/30/2004
Schumacher, B A. Characterization and Monitoring Branch Newsletter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/N-04/196, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

NEWSLETTER Insite Volume 1, Number 1 05/03/2004
Billets, S N. Insite Volume 1, Number 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/N-04/033, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Estimating the Exposure Point Concentration Term Using Proucl, Version 3.0 12/15/2004
Singh, A. Estimating the Exposure Point Concentration Term Using Proucl, Version 3.0. Presented at Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Palm Springs, CA, December 15, 2004.
Abstract: In superfund and RCRA Projects of the U.S. EPA, cleanup, exposure, and risk assessment decisions are often made based upon the mean concentrations of the contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A 95% upper confidence limit (UCL) of the population mean is used to estimate the exposure point concentrations (EPC) term, to determine the attainment of cleanup standards, to estimate background level contaminant concentrations, or to compare the soil concentrations with the site-specific soil screening levels. It is, therefore, important to compute an accurate and stable 95% UCL of the population mean from the available data. The formula for computing a UCL depends upon the data distribution. Typically, environmental data are positively skewed, and a lognormal distribution is often used to model such skewed data distributions. A positively skewed data set can quite often be modeled by lognormal or gamma distributions. However, due to computational ease, the lognormal distribution is used as a default model for positively skewed data sets. It is well known that the use of a lognormal model for an environmental data set unjustifiably inflates the minimum variance unbiased estimate of the mean and its UCL to levels that may not be applicable in practice. In this paper, we propose the use of gamma distribution to model positively skewed data sets. The objective of the present work is to study procedures which can be used to compute a stable and accurate UCL of the mean based upon a gamma distribution. Several nonparametric (e.g. the standard bootstrap, the bootstrap-t, Hall's bootstrap, and the Chebyshev inequality) methods of computing a UCL of an unknown population mean, , have also been considered. Monte Carol simulation experiments have been performed to compare the performances of those methods. A comparison of the various methods has been evaluated in terms of the coverage (confidence coefficient) probabilities achieved by the various UCLs. Based upon this study, recommendations have been made about the computation of a UCL of the mean for skewed data distributions originating from various environmental applications. Several parametric (e.g., based upon normal, lognormal, or gamma distributions) and nonparametric UCL computation methods with recommendations have been incorporated in to the EPA software, ProUCL Version 3.0. ProUCL will be used to demonstrate the computation of the various parametric and nonparametric UCL computation methods. Several data sets from real Superfund Sites will be considered.

PRESENTATION Simulating Sub-Decadal Channel Morphologic Change in Ephemeral Stream Networks 12/13/2004
Semmens, D J., W. R. Osterkamp, P. Guertin, AND D. C. Goodrich. Simulating Sub-Decadal Channel Morphologic Change in Ephemeral Stream Networks. Presented at American Geophysical Union Conference, San Francisco, CA, December 13-17, 2004.
Abstract: A distributed watershed model was modified to simulate cumulative channel morphologic change from multiple runoff events in ephemeral stream networks. The model incorporates the general design of the event-based Kinematic Runoff and" Erosion Model (KINEROS), which describes the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff, and erosion from small watersheds predominantly characterized by overland flow; A geomorphic sub-model was added to compute geometric adjustment of the channel reaches in response to computed changes in sediment storage by minimizing the total stream power. The event-based watershed model framework permits exceptional temporal resolution of channel response to ephemeral water and sediment fluxes, including impacts resulting from distributed land-use/cover management. A GIS-based interface was developed to facilitate parameterization of the model, track cumulative geomorphic change and errors resulting from multiple distributed rainfall events. In addition the interface allows visualization of the spatial patterns of computed geomorphic adjustment, and permits comparisons of results from different simulations.

Results from multiple-event simulations indicate that morphologic adjustment within channel networks is predominantly controlled by the frequency and magnitude of rainfall events. In ephemeral stream networks transmission losses progressively decrease the transport capa.city of flows as they move downstream. Drier periods, characterized by small runoff events, thus produce aggradation and increasing width-to-depth ratios within the smallest headwater
channels. As rainfall and the number of large events increases, headwater channels begin to incise and sediment is progressively redistributed further downstream. Disturbance within a portion of the watershed can interfere with this response pattern, with significant alterations to channel morphology extending well downstream of the disturbance. Comparisons of simulated patterns of morphologic adjustment with and without localized urbanization demonstrate the anticipatedgeomorphic response of incision within the urbanized area and increasing width-to-depth ratios downstream.

PRESENTATION Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscdape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1999? 12/09/2004
NASH, M. S., T. G. WADE, D. T. HEGGEM, AND J. D. WICKHAM. Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscdape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1999? Presented at EnviroExpo: Moving Towards Balance Open House, Las Vegas, NV, December 09, 2004.
Abstract: Climatic variation and human activities are major factors resulting in land degradation in arid and semi-arid lands. In the Mediterranean region and over history, climatic drying was coincidental with developing agricultural technology and the rapid increase of the population and their dependence on the grain field, timber, and animal products. As a result of human population demand, it is evident that depletion of natural resources, such as water (surface or ground) and soil (e.g. soil erosion), and reduction of farm productivity lead many farmers to move to alternative lands or to urban areas. This has a major impact on socio economics by decreasing per-capita food production and enhancing poverty that affect the political stability of the The region.
Desertification can be evaluated using environmental degradation, however, it is important to separate degradation that occurred naturally (fire, flood, drought, etc.) or as a result of anthropogenic human activities (urbanization, livestock grazing, etc). Here we report the use of advanced technology to map changes in vegetation cover that enable managers to geographically locate major changes in loss or gain of vegetation cover. Vegetation greenness was assessed over a ten-year period (1990- 1999) using 1 km Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) bi-weekly composites. A regression model of NDVI with time was developed to identify long-term trends in greenness for each pixel in a study area State of Oregon, USA. Greenness is highly correlated with precipitation, so general precipitation trends were also calculated for each station in the study area. Localized analysis was also performed around precipitation stations, comparing NDVI and rainfall trends in a 3 km x 3 km neighborhood centered on each station. A decreasing trend in vegetation greenness was an indicator of some type of stress, either natural (drought, fire) or anthropogenic (excessive grazing, urban growth) in origin. The method presented here allows mapping greenness trends over large areas quickly and inexpensively, providing land managers a useful tool in locating areas in most in need of remediation or protection efforts.

Results were mapped using ArcView for visualization and assessments. Three patches of decreasing greenness were identified and analyzed, along with two patches of increasing greenness. Analysis was performed using ancillary data and people with extensive knowledge of the area. Degradation causes were identified as urban growth and fire, increased greenness was attributed to recovery in timber harvest areas.

PRESENTATION Judging Public Risk Not All Arsenics Are Created Equal 12/09/2004
MOMPLAISIR, G., C. G. ROSAL, AND ED HEITHMAR. Judging Public Risk Not All Arsenics Are Created Equal. Presented at US EPA ESD Open House, Las Vegas, NV, December 09, 2004.
Abstract: Many trace elements occur in the environment in several chemical forms, called species. Each species has unique physical-chemical properties that affect how it moves in the environment, as well as how available and toxic it is to humans and other animals. Hyphenated techniques, the coupling of highly efficient separation methods with selective and sensitive elemental detectors, are employed by chemists in ESD's Environmental Chemistry Branch to selectively measure individual trace-element
species. This analytical chemistry approach is called speciation. Speciation of toxic trace-elements gives environmental decision makers a more complete picture of the potential for exposure than total (non-speciated) trace-element data provides. This poster describes speciation as it is performed at ESD, and demonstrates its application in a project to determine the environmental transformation and fate of arsenic animal-feed additives.


PRESENTATION Geospatial Quality Assurance and Tools 12/03/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Geospatial Quality Assurance and Tools. Presented at EPA Office of Environmental Information 4th Annual National Meeting, Miami, FL, December 3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Multi-Scaled Vulnerability Analyses: Improving Decision-Making at Regional to Local Levels Through Partnership 11/30/2004
Smith, E R., M. O'Connell, M H. Mehaffey, V. Orozco, M. C. Chang, AND C. Curtis. Multi-Scaled Vulnerability Analyses: Improving Decision-Making at Regional to Local Levels Through Partnership. Presented at Fourth Office of Environmental Information National Meeting, "Leveraging Information Management for Environmental Results", Miami, FL, November 30-December 2, 2004.
Abstract: Decision-makers at all scales are faced with setting priorities for both use of limited resources and for risk management. While there are all kinds of monitoring data and models to project conditions at different spatial and temporal scales, synthesized information to establish context and perspective and allow for strategic planning and action is lacking. ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program has been working over the past 6 years to develop methods to make use of existing data and models such that conditions and vulnerabilities can be projected across geographic regions to identify areas at highest risk from multiple stresses or where opportunities exist to improve broad-scale environmental conditions. ReVA's research results are made available in a customizable, web-based integration and visualization toolkit ReVA's Environmental Decision Toolkit or EDT) that can address a suite of assessment questions. To improve accessibility of this type of information, ReVA has partnered with decision-makers at the regional, state, and local levels with real-life decisions that need to be made.

PRESENTATION Geospatial It/Im QA Checklist 11/29/2004
BRILIS, GEORGE AND J. G. LYON. Geospatial It/Im QA Checklist. Presented at EPA Office of Environmental Information 4th Annual National Meeting, Miami, FL, November 29 - December 03, 2004.
Abstract: Quality assurance (QA) of information technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) systems help to ensure that the end product is of known quality and integrity. As the complexity of IT & IM processes increase, so does the need for regular QA evaluation.
The areas reviewed in this poster include both technical and evidentiary criteria. Although there has been an increase in the use of IT & IM systems, many existing audit programs do not address these issues.

In order to assist professionals interested in conducting audits of IT & IM

systems, the author has developed an audit approach based on existing requirements described in various EP A publications. The items in this poster are basic and each topic can be expanded and tailored depending on the IT/IM system being evaluated. The items listed in this poster serve two purposes. The first is as an auditing aid, the second is to create documented evidence that the IT & IM systems have been evaluated.


PRESENTATION Geospatial Information Lifecycle and Sources of Error 11/29/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Geospatial Information Lifecycle and Sources of Error. Presented at EPA Office of Environmental Information 4th Annual National Meeting, Miami, FL, November 29-December 3, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Broad Scale Approaches for Developing Indicators of Air and Water Quality in the Great Lakes Basin 11/29/2004
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, J. Szykman, J G. Lyon, AND G J. Foley. Broad Scale Approaches for Developing Indicators of Air and Water Quality in the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at Group on Earth Observations 5 Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, November 29-30, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Geospatial Quality Council 11/29/2004
BRILIS, G. AND J. G. LYON. Geospatial Quality Council. Presented at EPA Office of Environmental Information, 4th Annual National Meeting, Miami, FL, November 29 - December 03, 2004.
Abstract: Geospatial Science is increasingly becoming an important tool in making Agency decisions. QualIty Control and Quality Assurance are required to be integrated during the planning, implementation and assessment of geospatial databases, processes and products. In order to ensure Agency-wide consistency in the implementation of QA/QC in geospatial science, practical QA guidance documents and evaluation tools must be developed. To accomplish this, the EP A Geospatial Quality Council has been pursuing a plan that includes:
Educating the QA community about geospatial science

.Tailoring QA guidance documents to suit applications of geospatial science

.Educating the GIS community about QA

.Addressing future needs of Geospatial-QA as technology changes

.Working with various government, business and public entities to ensure the application of basic QA principles in geospatial science-

This poster gives an updated status of the progress and products of the Geospatial Quality Council and opens the door for participation. Completed products include: .

.EP A/G-5G, Guidance for Geospatial Data Quality Assurance Project Plans

.GIS for QA Professionals, a web-accessible course

.GPS- Technical Implementation Guidance, and the

.US EP A Geospatial Quality Council website


PRESENTATION Using Landscape Metrics as Indicators of Water Quality and Ecological Vulnerability in the Great Lakes Basin 11/29/2004
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, J G. Lyon, AND G J. Foley. Using Landscape Metrics as Indicators of Water Quality and Ecological Vulnerability in the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at Group on Earth Obvservations 5 Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, November 29-30, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Application of Photographic Interpretation and Related Technologies in Modern Environmental Protection 11/23/2004
Slonecker, E T. The Application of Photographic Interpretation and Related Technologies in Modern Environmental Protection. Presented at George Mason University Conference, Fairfax, VA, November 23, 2004.
Abstract: Imagery Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape-level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 25+ year history of utilizing aerial photo interpretation to provide research and technical support to the EPA Regions and Program offices in support of major environmental mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA Imagery Interpretation techniques are still widely used today and in conjunction with modem geo-spatial analysis methods, provide an important source of information on landscape condition and activities. This presentation will demonstrate the contemporary applications of environmental aerial photographic interpretation including hazardous waste, emergency and disaster response, landscape ecology, accuracy assessment, and litigation support.

PRESENTATION An Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Distributions in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project 11/16/2004
Bradford, D F. AND W G. Kepner. An Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Distributions in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Presented at Mojave Desert Science Symposium, Redlands, CA, November 16-18, 2004.
Abstract: The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) is developing seamless digital coverages for land cover, vertebrate animal habitat, and land management status for the 5-state region of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. The project is a second generation effort of the state-based Gap Analysis Program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. SWReGAP is one of the largest and most complex digital mapping efforts in the world. Land cover is modeled using classification trees based on data from remote sensing (Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper, 3 seasons, 1.999-2001), biophysical models using elevation-derived layer, and field sampling at 92,170 sites. The 125 mapped land cover types are defined as Ecological Systems, a scheme applicable across North America developed and updated by NatureServe. Distributions of habitat for 833 vertebrate species are modeled using available digital data sets (e.g., land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, land form, and soil characteristics), based on associations with vegetation and other habitat variables derived from literature. Limitations in use of the data, and challenges in the "scale-up" of vertebrate models, will be noted with examples. The provisional land cover data set is currently available (http://earth.gis. usu.edu/swgap), and the data sets for vertebrate habitat distribution and land stewardship are near completion.

PRESENTATION Metapopulation Processes of Infinite Dispersal: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape 11/16/2004
Bradford, D F., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, D. W. Sada, AND J R. Jaeger. Metapopulation Processes of Infinite Dispersal: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape. Presented at Mojave Desert Science Symposium, Redlands, CA, November 16-18, 2004.
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests two predictions based on metapopulation theory: the incidence of habitat patch occupancy is directly related to patch size and inversely related to patch isolation and a third, potentially competing hypothesis that patch occupancy is influenced by local environmental conditions. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were identified and surveyed for local environmental characteristics and presence/absence of B. punctatus. Patch isolation metrics were based on nearest-neighbor distances, calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. B. punctatus was found at 73% of the sites, including all of the 15 historic (pre-1970) sites. Based on stepwise, multiple logistic regression, the incidence of patch occupancy increased significantly with patch size, and was also significantly related to elevation, latitude, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. In contrast, incidence of patch occupancy was not significantly related to patch isolation. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the, classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. Implicated dispersal distances of many kilometers are large for an amphibian.

PRESENTATION Adding Global Soils Data to the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (Agwa) 11/16/2004
LEVICK, L. R., D. J. SEMMENS, D. P. GUERTIN, I. S. BURNS, S. N. SCOTT, C. L. UNKRICH, AND D. C. GOODRICH. Adding Global Soils Data to the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (Agwa). Presented at 2nd International Symposium on Transboundary Waters Management, Tucson, AZ, November 16 - 19, 2004.
Abstract: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool that is available as an extension for ArcView 3.x from the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center (www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa). AGWA is designed to facilitate the assessment of land-use and climate-change impacts on water yield and quality at multiple scales. It parameterizes two watershed runoff and erosion models, the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion
Model (KINERGS2) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), using readily available topographic, soils, and land-cover data. After parameterization, the selected model is run through the interface, and results are imported back into the GIS for display and analysis. AGW A was originally designed to obtain hydrologic parameters from the State Soil Geographic (STATSGG) and Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGG) databases, which are only available for the United States. The latest version of AGW A (1.4x) has incorporated the ability to derive inputs from the internationally available Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAG) digital soil map of the world. The ability to use FAG soils in AGWA facilitates the analysis of trans-boundary watersheds by avoiding difficulties associated with different classification schemes on either side of the border. When used with existing global, classified land-cover maps it is now easy to rurJ hydrologic simulations for trans-border watersheds. The structure and organization of the F AG soils dataset is fundamentally different from the STATSGG and S.SURGG datasets since it covers the entire globe and must describe a wider range of soils with a more generalized classification scheme. In addition, some of the variables required for model parameterization were not available in the FAG database and had to be acquired from other sources. The methodology used to translate information from the FAG soils dataset and other sources into input parameters for hydrologic models will be presented, along with a comparison of model results and parameters using the FAG, SSURGG and STATSGG soils datasets.


PRESENTATION An Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Conservation Status in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project 11/11/2004
Kepner, W G., D F. Bradford, AND T. D. Sajwaj. An Approach for Determining Regional Land Cover and Species Habitat Conservation Status in the American Southwest: the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Presented at 36th Annual Meeting of the Desert Fishes Council, Tucson, AZ, November 11-14, 2004.
Abstract: The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency progranl that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sensing (Landsat 7) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to assemble and view large amounts of biological and land management data to identify areas (gaps) where conservation efforts may not be sufficient to maintain diversity of living natural resources. Historically, GAP has been conducted by individual states, however this has resulted in inconsistencies in mapped distributions of vegetation types and animal habitat across state lines because of differences in mapping and modeling protocols. This was further compounded from the lack of a national vegetation classification nomenclature. In response to these limitations, GAP embarked on a second-generation effort to conduct the program at a regional scale, using a vegetation classification scheme applicable across the US, and ecoregional units as the basis for segmenting the landscape into manageable units. The programs first formalized multi-state regional effort includes the five states (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) comprising the Southwest Regional GAP Analysis Project (SW ReGAP).
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

PRESENTATION Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Airborne Lwir Hyperspectral Imaging 11/08/2004
Williams, D J., B. Feldman, T. Williams, M. Winters, D Pilant, AND L D. Worthy. Detection and Identification of Toxic Air Pollutants Using Airborne Lwir Hyperspectral Imaging. Presented at International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space Symposium 2004, Honoluu, HI, November 8-12, 2004.
Abstract: Gaseous releases from petrochemical, refinery, and electrical production facilities can contribute to regional air quality problems. Fugitive emissions or leaks can be costly to industry in terms of lost materials and products. Ground-based sampling and monitoring for leaks are time consuming and costly as well, and do not accurately characterize total facility releases over time. Hyperspectral remote sensing in the LWIR spectral region allows for synoptic and repeatable monitoring of important air pollutants at potentially lower cost than ground sampling. This spectral region is optimal for spectrally identifying many organic chemical species. LWIR hyperspectral imagery was collected over several petrochemical facilities in Houston, Texas, USA in April 2004. The sensor used was the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager (AH!), designed and built by the University of Hawaii. This system has 256 spectral bands from 7.5 to 11.7 micrometers and can be flown on most camera ready twin engine aircraft platforms. Ground- based gas sampling was accomplished during the AHI overflight to relate the airborne observations with ground truth. Several computational methods were used to analyze the AHI data including the N-FINDR algorithm and matched filter techniques. The results of the data analysis, together with the ground-based chemical measurements, were assimilated into a GIS database to determine gas emission detection probabilities and chemical compound identification accuracy. This methodology holds great promise for accurately and efficiently monitoring gaseous emissions at the numerous and varied chemical industries that exist in many metropolitan areas.

PRESENTATION Oral Presentation: Indirect Measurement of Biological Activity to Monitor Natural Attenuation 11/05/2004
Werkema, D. Oral Presentation: Indirect Measurement of Biological Activity to Monitor Natural Attenuation. Presented at Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) Workshop, Washington, DC, November 01 - 05, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Contaminated Sediment Sampling Methods 11/05/2004
Schumacher, B A. Contaminated Sediment Sampling Methods. Presented at Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, November 5, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Elemental Speciation for Risk Management Decisions 11/05/2004
Heithmar, E M., G M. Momplaisir, AND C G. Rosal. Elemental Speciation for Risk Management Decisions. Presented at Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, November 5, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Ord Superfund Research Yields Commercialized Success: Identifying Volatile Pollutants By Vacuum Distillation 11/04/2004
Hiatt, M H. Ord Superfund Research Yields Commercialized Success: Identifying Volatile Pollutants By Vacuum Distillation. Presented at NERL/HSRC Meeting on Superfund Research, Las Vegas, NV, November 4, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program (Site): Monitoring and Measurement Technology Project 11/04/2004
Billets, S N. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program (Site): Monitoring and Measurement Technology Project. Presented at Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, Novemeber 4-5, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Unique Environmental Chemistry Solutions to Real-World Environmental Problems 11/04/2004
JonesLepp, T. Unique Environmental Chemistry Solutions to Real-World Environmental Problems. Presented at NERL/HSRC Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, November 4-5, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Statistical Sampling and Data Analysis (Chemometrics and Environmetrics Program) 11/04/2004
Nocerino, J M. AND E J. Englund. Statistical Sampling and Data Analysis (Chemometrics and Environmetrics Program). Presented at Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, November 4-5, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Oral Presentation:EPA's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic) 10/27/2004
Garofalo, D. Oral Presentation:EPA's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (Epic). Presented at EPA Office of Acquisition, Annual Contractor Forum, Washington, DC, October 25 - 27, 2004.
Abstract: This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual Contractor Forum on October 27, 2004. The Contractor Forum is designed to provide updates on pertinent contracting issues as well as presenting future contracting opportunities. EPIC is presenting its program as an opportunity for contractors to provide remote sensing technical and R&D support to the Agency. In addition, the forum provides an opportunity for industry and the EPA to improve communications through the exchange of information. The forum is geared to small, medium and large businesses and organizations interested in contracting with EPA.

PRESENTATION Future Vulnerability 10/26/2004
Wade, T G. Future Vulnerability. Presented at ReVA SAB, Washington, DC, October 26, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION US EPA: A User Agency Perspective on Polar Satellite Observations 10/19/2004
Lyon, J G. AND G J. Foley. US EPA: A User Agency Perspective on Polar Satellite Observations. Presented at NIPOESS PolarMax 2004 Conference, El Segundo, CA, October 19-21, 2004.
Abstract: The Agency uses satellite sensor observations in its work on measuring, monitoring and modeling the environment and human health. It generates observations in collaboration with states, local and regional governments, tribes and others, and is a consumer of observations from a variety of sources. There is a continuing and enhanced interest in the utility of polar satellite observations, models, indicators and decision support systems (DSS) provides a path for the solution of issues that confront decision-makers and the public.
The Agency has engaged in activities to better assess our delivery of information and model predictions. We are evaluating future needs for observations, and gaps in those observations. This work has been conducted in a number of forums, including Earth observation efforts focused nationally and internationally, as well as assessments of environmental indicators and prediction models. Examples include: evaluations of human health with particular emphasis on air quality; assessments of ecosystem protection, ecological forecasting and national indicators; development of natioanl datasets as ingests to monitoring and modeling efforts (land cover); elucidating future sensor characteristics to support Agency missions (e.g., air and water quality); and communicating information, models and DSS to decision-makers and public through web portal technology. These effects yielded a keen sense of what observations are vital to the Nation, the Agency, and clients, and furture directions for polar orbiting satellite sensors to fulfill vital needs and fill observation gaps. It is clear that collaberative activities with kindred groups are necessary to address these complex yet vital issues.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Metrics to Develop Indicators of Ecological Conditions in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 10/06/2004
Lopez, R D. Using Landscape Metrics to Develop Indicators of Ecological Conditions in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference, Toronto, Ontario, October 6-8, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION An Integrated System for Studying the Effects of Smoke Aerosols on Air Quality Over the Southeastern United States 09/21/2004
WANG, J., S. A. CHRISTOPHER, J. S. REID, E. M. PRINS, AND J. SZYKMAN. An Integrated System for Studying the Effects of Smoke Aerosols on Air Quality Over the Southeastern United States. Presented at American Meteorological Society, 13th Conference on Satellite Meteorology Society, Norfolk, VA, September 21, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Invited Presentation on R&d Needs to Meet Urban Needs for Meteorological Information 09/21/2004
Williams, D J. Invited Presentation on R&d Needs to Meet Urban Needs for Meteorological Information. Presented at Challenges in Urban Meteorology: A Forum for Users and Providers, Rockville, MD, September 21-23, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION A Good Idea (Infusing Data Into Environmen Tal Applications)-Invited Presentation 09/21/2004
NEIL, D., J. SZYKMAN, J. FISHMAN, R. B. PIERCE, J. A. AL-SAADI, AND C. KITTAKA. A Good Idea (Infusing Data Into Environmen Tal Applications)-Invited Presentation. Presented at American Meteorological Society, 13th Confereence on Satellite Meteorology, Society, Norfolk, VA, September 21, 2004.
Abstract: IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications)is a partnership between researchers in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to improve air quality assessment, management, and prediction by infusing satellite measurements into analyses for public benefit. IDEA is a part of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program strategy to demonstrate practical uses ofNASA sponsored observations from remote sensing systems and predictions from scientific research.
During September 2003 our team ofNASA, NOAA, and US EP A researchers demonstrated a prototype tool for improving fine particulate matter(PM2.5) air quality forecasts using satellite aerosol observations. Daily forecast products were disseminated via a web interface to a small group of forecasters, representing state and local air management agencies, and the EP A, to improve their knowledge of synoptic scale

aerosol pollution events. Forecast products were generated from a near-real-time fusion of multiple input data streams. The demonstration was timed to help improve the

accuracy of the EPA's AIRNow next-day PM2.5 Air Quality Index forecast, which began on October 1,2003. Our prototype has been expanded and operated throughout the summer of 2004 to enhance AIRNow AQI forecasts and to support multi-agency efforts to forecast fine particles during field studies. We illustrate the capability of this approach for evaluating large scale aerosol pollution outbreaks with a case study made possible because the daily data fusions are retained in an archive for assessments and retrospective studies.


PRESENTATION The Global Earth Observation System of Sytems (Geoss): Proactive Environmental Monitoring 09/20/2004
Lyon, J G. The Global Earth Observation System of Sytems (Geoss): Proactive Environmental Monitoring. Presented at Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Golbal secruity can be improved through strong international coopeation and using existing national monitoring systems that will provide more complete accurate and accessible data and information to users and decision-makers. Environmenatal damage is typically collateral to events of malfeasance. Therefore, we are most often addressing issues of damage cessation and remediation.
The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a "system-of-systems" that will enable unprecedented access to use of data and infromation to track, predict, and address pervasive threats facing the health of the planet and humankind. Utilizing remote and ground-based sensosrs, modeling, and monitoring activites, GEOSS promises to be an important element of national and global strategies to manageing our natural resources in a sustainable way.

Currently, the framework for environmental monitoring is fragmented and exissts as the result and enforcement of regulations. GEOSS will assist in providing the information and models needed to establish the continuity necessary to understand and address today's more sophisticated and complex questions.

The GEOSS was discussed at the Second Earth Observation Summit (EOS), April 2004. Minister and leadrs from 45 nations showed their support for GEOSS by:
Adopting the GEOS Framework Document and Communique
Promoting the development of a draft 10 year implementation plan
Proposing increased capacity to assist developing countries with their contributions
Proposing to exchange data in a full and open manner consisstent with international agreements and policies

What does GEOS ask its' members? Develop the infrastructure resources necessary to meet operational requirement by: Evaluating ten improving technical and communication infrastructure; Identify and fulfill training needs; examine existing GEOS data and information relevant to your country, then create a plan to fill the information gaps; Plan to build on globally accepted sustainable development principles; Attend, participate and contribute to GEOS conferences.


PRESENTATION The EPA Remote Sensing Archive: A Valuable Window Into the Past for Environmental Analysis Today 09/20/2004
Benger, M J. The EPA Remote Sensing Archive: A Valuable Window Into the Past for Environmental Analysis Today. Presented at The Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Often environmental issues need to have a historical perspective, to look back into the past. Remotely sensed imagery is one way to see the land and what happened in a previous time. The EPA is often responsible to look into the past to facilitate a better future for the environment and all of its inhabitants. There is a little known facility located in Las Vegas, Nevada which can open up this window into the past. The EPA's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC), a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch, has been completing historical reports on sites all around the country for over 30 years at the request of the Regions. These analysis reports are usually a compendium of aerial photographs covering a specific site for a specific period of time. All of the project materials, including aerial photography dating back to the early 1900's, reside at the EPA Remote Sensing Archive. Increasingly, geospatial data from research projects are finding their way to the Archive as well. This facility, once a disparate collection of materials, has been inventoried, barcoded and organized into a one-of-a-kind collection of irreplaceable remote sensing data. This facility contains over 5,500 rolls and 75,000 cut-frames of aerial photography, over 4,250 reports, and over 4,000 CD-ROMS of digital data from various sensors including Landsat Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, A VIRIS, Hyperion, and Hymap. The inventory is now managed by specialized library software; the collection and database are increasing daily. This valuable resource is available for EPA employees, would you like to know more about this facility and how to access the valuable information it contains?

PRESENTATION A Landscape Ecology Approach to Identifying Ecological Vulnerability in Geographically Isolated Wetlands 09/20/2004
Lopez, R D. A Landscape Ecology Approach to Identifying Ecological Vulnerability in Geographically Isolated Wetlands. Presented at Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: U.S. EPA 's Office of Research and Development is using a landscape approach to assess the ecological/hydrologic functions of geographically isolated wetlands in the mid-western, southern, and western regions of the United States. Geographically isolated wetlands are considered to be vulnerable to human disturbance and many of those wetlands may be at high risk as a result of recent court rulings and associated jurisdictional interpretations of wetland functions. The total amount of wetlands impacted by this situation is unclear but rough estimates range from hundreds of thousands to multiple millions of acres in the U.S. EPA study areas. Much of the interpretational differences are a result of the uncertainty associated with the abundance, degree of isolation, and potential for disturbance in these wetlands. U.S. EPA is using a combination of recent remote sensing data and landscape ecology to assess the abundance, potential for hydrologic connectivity, and potential for disturbance in these relatively small and ephemeral ecosystems. An improved understanding of the condition of geographically isolated wetlands, particularly in key areas of intense agricultural and urban land use, will help to inform jurisdictional and regulatory decision-making processes throughout the United States. The initial study areas are in the Midwest, Texas coastal, and California coastal regions, which provide the necessary biophysical gradient for the landscape-ecological analyses. The study approach integrates the use of remote-sensing, geographic information systems analyses, existing field data, and a priori knowledge of geographically isolated wetlands to estimate extent, connectivity, and ecological/hydrologic functions. This ongoing approach focuses on locating and quantifying the cumulative area of geographically isolated wetlands, and modeling ecological/hydrologic/societal wetland functions. Those functions include support for aquatic life use; decreasing the loss of human life and property damage from floods; providing fish and wildlife habitat; and supporting sustainable recreational use of the environment.

PRESENTATION Nalc/Mexico Land-Cover Mapping Results: Implications for Assessing Landscape Condition 09/20/2004
Lunetta, R S., J G. Lyon, L D. Worthy, AND R. Alvarez. Nalc/Mexico Land-Cover Mapping Results: Implications for Assessing Landscape Condition. Presented at Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: An inventory of land-cover conditions throughout Mexico was performed using North American Landscape Characterization (NLAC) Landsat Mult-Spectral Scann (MSS) 'triplicate' images, corresponding to the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s epoch periods. The equivalents of 300 image scenes were analyzed using an unspupervissed classification approach by a consortium of 13 universities and institutes across Mexico. Accuracy assessments were the conducted to validate the 1970s and 1990s results using independent land-cover classifications (reference data) developed from the interpretation of 1:100,000 scale aerial photography collected in 1973, and Landstat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between 1990 - 1993. The 1980s epoch classifications were compared to both reference datasets, collectively. The relative accuracy of the classifications results was 60% for both the 1970s and 1990s epoch and 67% for the 1980s epoch. The significantly (p = 0.05) higher accuracy for 1980s epoch (67%) was thought to be an aberration resulting from the combined application of two reference datasets, resulting in a random compensation of reference data error.

PRESENTATION US/Mexico Study: Nalc/Mexico Land Cover Mapping Results-Implications for Assessing Landscape Conditions 09/20/2004
Lyon, J G. US/Mexico Study: Nalc/Mexico Land Cover Mapping Results-Implications for Assessing Landscape Conditions. Presented at Monitoroing Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: An inventory of land-cover conditions throughout Mexico was performed using North American Landscape Characterization (NLAC) Landsat Mult-Spectral Scann (MSS) 'triplicate' images, corresponding to the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s epoch periods. The equivalents of 300 image scenes were analyzed using an unspupervissed classification approach by a consortium of 13 universities and institutes across Mexico. Accuracy assessments were the conducted to validate the 1970s and 1990s results using independent land-cover classifications (reference data) developed from the interpretation of 1:100,000 scale aerial photography collected in 1973, and Landstat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between 1990 - 1993. The 1980s epoch classifications were compared to both reference datasets, collectively. The relative accuracy of the classifications results was 60% for both the 1970s and 1990s epoch and 67% for the 1980s epoch. The significantly (p = 0.05) higher accuracy for 1980s epoch (67%) was thought to be an aberration resulting from the combined application of two reference datasets, resulting in a random compensation of reference data error.An inventory of land-cover conditions throughout Mexico was performed using North American Landscape Characterization (NLAC) Landsat Mult-Spectral Scann (MSS) 'triplicate' images, corresponding to the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s epoch periods. The equivalents of 300 image scenes were analyzed using an unspupervissed classification approach by a consortium of 13 universities and institutes across Mexico. Accuracy assessments were the conducted to validate the 1970s and 1990s results using independent land-cover classifications (reference data) developed from the interpretation of 1:100,000 scale aerial photography collected in 1973, and Landstat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between 1990 - 1993. The 1980s epoch classifications were compared to both reference datasets, collectively. The relative accuracy of the classifications results was 60% for both the 1970s and 1990s epoch and 67% for the 1980s epoch. The significantly (p = 0.05) higher accuracy for 1980s epoch (67%) was thought to be an aberration resulting from the combined application of two reference datasets, resulting in a random compensation of reference data error.

PRESENTATION Guided Tour of a Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit 09/20/2004
O'Connell, M. AND E R. Smith. Guided Tour of a Web-Based Environmental Decision Toolkit. Presented at Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Decision-making regarding the targeting of vulnerable resources and prioritization of actions requires synthesis of data on condition, vulnerability, and feasibility of risk management alternatives. EP A's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) Program has evaluated existing and newly developed integration methods in terms of 1) how well each individual method performs given issues that are encountered with existing data, and 2) how effectively each method addresses different types of assessment questions that are fundamental to multi-criteria decision-making. Results of this research can be used to synthesize existing data at any spatial scale into indices that reflect the sustainability of valued resources as well as indicators reflecting human health vulnerability and quality of life. When combined with projection of changes in stressor distributions, this information can be used to target areas for protection, outreach, and partnerships in order to minimize negative impacts of decisions and optimize among opportunities.

PRESENTATION Nalc/Mexico Land-Cover Mapping Results: Implications for Assessing Landscape Change 09/20/2004
Lunetta, R S., J G. Lyon, L D. Worthy, AND R. Alvarez. Nalc/Mexico Land-Cover Mapping Results: Implications for Assessing Landscape Change. Presented at Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: An inventory of land-cover conditions throughout Mexico was performed using North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) 'triplicate' images, corresponding to the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s epoch periods. The equivalent of 300 image scenes were analyzed using an unsupervised classification approach by a consortium of 13 universities and institutes across Mexico. Accuracy assessments were conducted to validate the 1970s and 1990s results using independent land-cover classifications (reference data) developed from the intrpretation of 1:100,000-scale aerial photography collected in 1973, and landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between 1990-1993. The 1980s epoch classifications were compared to both reference data sets, collectively. The relative accuracy of the classifications results were 60% for both the 1970s and 1990s epoch and 67% for the 1980s epoch. The significantly (p = 0.05) higher accuracy for 1980s epoch (67%) was thought to be an aberration resulting from the combined application of two reference data sets, resulting in a random compensation of reference data error.
Significantly different (p = 0.05) results were documented for a subset of Mexico's major habitat region. Desert and xeric shrublands were most accurate {74%), followed by conifer and xeric dominated habitats (64%), and other mixed habitats (54%). Scenes representing the highest accuracies (IS percentile) almost exclusively represented desert and xeric shrub habitat regions, and the lowest (17 percentile) represented predominantly mixed habitat regions. Significant difference among the 13 member consortium universities and institutes were attributed to habitat region assignments. Results indicated that large area spectral based land-cover categorizations should be stratified and processed on a habitat or ecoregion basis. Results also suggested that any future land-cover conversion analysis for Mexico would probably best be accomplished using a post-classification approach, based on major habitat regions, rather than on a scene-by-scene or pixel-wise basis.

PRESENTATION Presented: 09/20/04 Remote Measurement of Phytoplankton Pigments in the Pamlico Sound, Nc Using Hyperspectral Imagery 09/20/2004
KNIGHT, J. F., R. S. LUNETTA, H. W. PAERL, J. J. STREICHER, B. L. PEIERIS, T. GALLO, J. G. LYON, AND T. H. MACE. Presented: 09/20/04 Remote Measurement of Phytoplankton Pigments in the Pamlico Sound, Nc Using Hyperspectral Imagery. Presented at International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Anchorage, AK, September 20 - 24, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The New Dimensions of Remote Sensing and Global Security 09/20/2004
Slonecker, E T. The New Dimensions of Remote Sensing and Global Security. Presented at Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Remote sensing as a science and as a paradigm was borne from the critical need for battlefield intelligence and grew and thrived as one of the fundamental cornerstones of national security. To a great extent, the development ofmany aspects and accepted principals of remote sensing have been, and continue to be developed behind the veil of security in the intelligence infrastructures ofmany of the nations of the world. However, with the widespread development of associated geospatial technologies, such as the Internet and Geographic Information Systems technology, along with a renaissance of new sensor development and technological advances, the world of remote sensing and all geospatial information, is changing dramatically. Remote sensing and security will no j longer be relegated to the intelligence community, but will be a fundamental part of a . new global perspective on nationality, environment, and sustainability.
Global security in the future will depend largely on cooperation, information sharing, sustainable development, and remediating an environmental legacy of industrialization, chemical, biological and nuclear warfare, and in building the, foundation of cooperation in management of shared natural resources and a global ecosystem.

This presentation will review the history of remote sensing in warfare, the development of 'earth observations' for peacetime, environmental research, and outline some of the emerging research and development activities that are likely to playa key role in the future security of the global community.

PRESENTATION Quality Assurance: the Thread That Weaves Together the Fabric of Diverse Disciplines 09/20/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Quality Assurance: the Thread That Weaves Together the Fabric of Diverse Disciplines. Presented at Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Mature Quality Assurance (QA) programs do not call for high quality! However, they most often demand known quality. We can intuitively sense quality in our daily lives.
Protection of the environment is, in part, dependent on the quality of data used in decision making. Whether the decisions are part of the scientific process or relate to application of the laws governing people and their living conditions, data of known quality are required and needed by two disciplines with distinct differences -science and law.

This presentation prepares the session participants for the following presentations by providing quality elements in geospatial science. In addition: we shall examine some differences between science and the law; provide a brief history of science in law: discuss the effects of law on science; and compare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP A) guidance with U .S. Supreme Court credible science criteria.

PRESENTATION Locating Buried World War I Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS 09/20/2004
Slonecker, E T. Locating Buried World War I Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS. Presented at Monitoring Sciences Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: During World War I, the American University in Washington, D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitons including chemcial weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of the Ware in 1918, many of the weapons and chemical agents were haphazardly buried in and around the American University testing area which is now known as Spring Valley. In 1993, chemical-laden mortar shells were accidentlly unearthed by a construction crew setting off a series of investigations that, to date, has cost over 40 million dollars and is still on-going. The EPA/Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is supporting the on-going Superfund investigation efforts using a variety of spatial technologies including geographic information systems, historical aerial photo analysis and hyperspectral remote sensing technology. Both conventional and research applications of remotely sensed imagery, along with GIS database developments, are playing a critical role in the discovery and removal of chemical weapons and contamination in this area. This presentation will document the use of historical imagery and GIS, in locating and removing these weapons from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for on-going remedial activities.

PRESENTATION International Law: Hindrance or Help? 09/20/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. International Law: Hindrance or Help? Presented at Monitoring Science & Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS) organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and use of large public and private geospatial projects.

In addition to the organizations, treaties, and resolutions, put forth by the United Nations, many countries that do not currently have, or are developing their own space laws, use the laws
of the United States as a framework, or they simply adopt them. These laws are forever changing, especially in the United States since "9/11." In general, "Sensing States" utilize space laws, while the "Sensed States" utilize Earth laws. Arguments abound on where to draw the line between space and earth laws for the players that debate their rights to see and be seen.

The major space laws that we should all be aware ofwill be reviewed. While these laws affect us all in science and policy, they may be perceived as "external" to the citizens of a country .Laws and policy's are most effective when supported by a country's citizens.
Therefore, in addition to the major space laws and policies, the affect of increased and shared remotely sensed information on the citizens will be discussed. These areas include: Public Access; Liability; Privacy; RS/GIS data as evidence; Intellectual Property, and Copyrights. New technology is pushing the law into new territory, and some of that territory is the citizens' mind.

PRESENTATION Remote Measurement of Phytoplankton Pigments in the Pamlico Sound, Nc Using Hyperspectral Imagery 09/20/2004
Knight, J F., R S. Lunetta, H. W. Paerl, J J. Streicher, B. L. Peierls, T. Gallo, J G. Lyon, AND T H. Mace. Remote Measurement of Phytoplankton Pigments in the Pamlico Sound, Nc Using Hyperspectral Imagery. Presented at International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 2004, Anchorage, AK, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: Monitoring of phytoplankton concentrations in estuarine environments is important for managing both recreational and commercial fishery resources. Impacts on estuarine areas from phytoplankton blooms include neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; fish, bird, and vegetation kills; and potentially negative effects on human health. Measurement of the distributions and concentrations of phytoplankton species has heretofore been accomplished through the use of in situ water sampling and traditional analytical techniques. Phytoplanakton taxanomic groups are identified by the relative concentrations of diagnostic marine pigments present in water samples as measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). To date, estimation of marine pigments in Case II estuaries derived from remotely sensed images has been limited to determination of chlorophyll concentrations. The remote measurement of diagnostic pigment concentrations needed to provide estimates of the relative abundances of specific phytoplankton taxanomic groups has not previously been demonstrated in marine environments. This presentation describes a method in which hyperspectral image data processed with derivative analysis and regression modeling was used to determine the concentrations of certain diagnostic marine pigments - including peridinin, which is unique to the harmful dinoflagellate organisms.

PRESENTATION Synthesis of Spatial Data for Decision-Making 09/20/2004
Smith, E R., L. T. Tran, R. V. O'Neill, AND M. O'Connell. Synthesis of Spatial Data for Decision-Making. Presented at Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium, Denver, CO, September 20-24, 2004.
Abstract: EPA'S Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) has developed a web-based statistical tool that synthesizes available spatial data into indices of condition, vulnerability (risk, considering cumulative effects), and feasibility of management options. The Environmental Decision Toolkit (EDT) provides data preparation support, visualization of individual variables or integrated results, and options for drilldown, exploratory analysis, and weighting of variables to evaluate alternative priorities. Designed to be entirely portable, the tool can be used with any scale data from any area. This presentation will focus on demonstrating the EDT using data from ReVA's' pilot study in the. Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. The EDT is still under development, with collaboration from client partners at the regional, state and local levels, but provides a prototype framework for organizing large amounts of spacial data into information relevant to decision-making needs.

PRESENTATION Local Scale Factors Determine Habitat Patch Occupancy By Red-Spotted Toads in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape 09/18/2004
Bradford, D F. Local Scale Factors Determine Habitat Patch Occupancy By Red-Spotted Toads in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape. Presented at The Wildlife Society Annual Meeting, Calgary, CN, September 18-22, 2004.
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests (1) the prediction based on metapopulation theory that habitat patch occupancy is inversely related to patch isolation, and (2) a potentially competing hypothesis that patch occupancy is influenced by local environmental conditions. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were surveyed for presence/absence of toads and for local environmental characteristics at two spatial scales (breeding pool and habitat patch). Patch isolation metrics, representing the region scale, were based on nearest-neighbor distances calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. Based on stepwise multiple logistic regression, incidence of patch occupancy was significantly inversely related to isolation, as predicted, when only patch isolation and other region-scale metrics were included as independent variables. When metrics for the two local scales were also included, however, the incidence of patch occupancy was no longer significantly related to patch isolation but was significantly related to patch size, elevation, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. The influence of local-scale environmental characteristics on patch occupancy demonstrates the importance of including patch quality metrics in tests of predictions for patch occupancy based on metapopulation theory .

PRESENTATION Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Environmental Contaminants 09/08/2004
Daughton, C G. Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Environmental Contaminants. Presented at 11th Annual Pacific Northwest Pretreatment Conference, Vancouver, WA, September 8, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Pollutants: Origins, Fate, and Control in the Environment Major Products Under Task 6980 (Ppcps) 08/31/2004
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Pollutants: Origins, Fate, and Control in the Environment Major Products Under Task 6980 (Ppcps). Presented at NERL Water Quality Program Review, Cincinnati, OH, August 31-September 2, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area 08/30/2004
Jarnagin, S T. AND D B. Jennings. Collaborative Hydrologic Research in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area. Presented at Maryland Water Monitoring Council Workshop on Integrated Hydrologic Monitoring, Baltimore, MD, August 30, 2004.
Abstract: This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the urban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. This is an area of rapid development that we expect will be built out within the next five to ten years. The Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been monitoring stream biology and chemistry in the area streams and the CSPA involves special best management practices (BMPs) that are designed to limit the impact of development on water resources.
This research is an example of a Federal-Local technology-transfer partnership where innovative technologies are researched at the Federal level and the results made available at a local level for neighborhood solutions. This research is a collaborative effort where local stakeholders are involved setting research goals and Federal agencies are involved offering expertise and capabilities not available at the local level.

Our primary research goal is to map the development as it occurs; both the anthropogenic surface structures such as roads, buildings, parking lots, and changes in surface topography associated with urbanization and the subsurface storm sewer network; and to monitor the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the associated water resources as that development happens. Changes in streamflow and biological and chemical parameters of the CSPA water resources (or the lack thereof) will be correlated with development patterns, anthropogenic alterations of the environment, and the BMPs designed to mitigate the impacts of development. We have already obtained a LIDAR overflight of the study area (Figure 2) that greatly increases the spatial resolution of the topographical analyses possible in the CSPA. Future LIDAR collections will be used to determine if this technology can be used to map changes in stream morphology associated with development as well as to assist in the hydrological modeling and surface mapping of that development. Our research is intended to assess the effectiveness of BMPs by employing both positive and negative controls (stream gauges and monitoring in areas without development and areas developed without the CSPA BMPs) as well as pre- and post development data from areas gauged prior to development within the CSPA.

PRESENTATION Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Municipal Wastewater for Estimating Biota Exposure in Receiving Waters 08/26/2004
Osemwengie, L I. AND S. L. Gerstenberger. Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Municipal Wastewater for Estimating Biota Exposure in Receiving Waters. Presented at American Chemical Society 228 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 26, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION EPA Research and Development Remote Sensing Overview 08/25/2004
Pilant, A. EPA Research and Development Remote Sensing Overview. Presented at EPA Region 10 Science Council Meeting, Seattle, WA, August 25, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION A Federated Partnership for Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling 08/23/2004
Williams, D J. AND J.K S. Ching. A Federated Partnership for Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling. Presented at American Meteorological Society Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, Vancouver, BC, Canada, August 23-27, 2004.
Abstract: Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to describe the influence of urban morphological structures on the flow, transport and energetic details in urban areas. The task of determining the structure and composition of urban areas has been termed urban morphological analysis. The data requirements for urban morphological parameters for advanaced mecaecale grid models has lead to the generation of very large datasets for urban canaopy parameters (UCPs) used to drive models such as CMAQ/MM5, e.g. Dupont et al, 2004, and Otte et al., 2004.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions 08/22/2004
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns, and Solutions. Presented at 228th National Conference of the American Chemical Society, Philadelphia, PA, August 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise large, diverse arrays of chemicals that can occur in the environment as unregulated pollutants. They originate largely from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use; the wide spectrum of sources and origins of PPCPs.
Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the U.S. in the late 1990s, has been rapidly expanding in the last few years, as reflected by an escalation in publications. Investigations that were originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs (mainly in waters) were led primarily by analytical chemists. The scope of this research has expanded, now accommodating more dimensions of the risk assessment paradigm. The scope has widened to encompass not just occurrence over a wider spectrum of environmental matrices but also to address the complexities involved with assessing the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from chronic, low-dose exposure of non-target organisms (Daughton 2003a; Daughton and Ternes 1999). Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the many sectors of the healthcare community and by various state and local legislatures

PRESENTATION Water Quality Monitoring of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Using Passive Samplers 08/22/2004
Alvarez, D. A., T JonesLepp, P. E. Stackelberg, J. D. Petty, J. N. Huckins, E. T. Furlong, S. D. Zaugg, AND M. T. Meyer. Water Quality Monitoring of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Using Passive Samplers. Presented at 226th American Chemical Society, Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.
Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates for individual chemicals determined in the laboratory are used in conjunction with theoretical uptake models to provide estimates of the ambient water concentrations of those chemicals.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns and Solutions 08/22/2004
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Overview of Significance, Concerns and Solutions. Presented at 228th National Conference of the American Chemical Society, Philadelphia, PA, August 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that can occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf). Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the u.s. in the late 1990s, has begun escalating in the last few years. Investigation that was originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs primarily in waters has now expanded to encompass occurrence in other matrices and to consider the complexities involved with the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from low-dose. chronic exposure of non-target organisms. Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the healthcare community. This paper will focus on the efforts being coordinated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, much of which is captured on the PPCPs web site: http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/.

PRESENTATION EPA Modis Lai Evaluation Activities in the Albermarle-Pamilico Basin, Nc/Va 08/16/2004
Pilant, A, J. Iiames, T E. Lewis, M. Murphy, AND J. Ediriwickrema. EPA Modis Lai Evaluation Activities in the Albermarle-Pamilico Basin, Nc/Va. Presented at MODIS Vegetation Workshop II, Missoula, MT, August 16,-19, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Aquatic Environment 08/10/2004
Osemwengie, L I. Levels of Synthetic Musks Compounds in Aquatic Environment. Presented at University of Nevada - Reno Conference, Reno, NV, August 10, 2004.
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment.

PRESENTATION Potential for Water Quality Degradation Due to Cattle Grazing in Oregon 08/09/2004
Leinenbach, P., S. Augustine, T G. Wade, T. Selle, A. Calderon, M. Viger, D T. Heggem, V. Haack, K A. Hermann, R. K. Hall, AND A. D. Weiss. Potential for Water Quality Degradation Due to Cattle Grazing in Oregon. Presented at ESRI 2004 User Conference, San Diego, CA, August 9-13, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Utilizing Remotely Sensed Land Cover to Determine Habitat Vulnerability in Wetlands 08/01/2004
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, C Edmonds, K B. Jones, L. Bice, M. E. Hamilton, E. Evanston, C L. Cross, AND D W. Ebert. Utilizing Remotely Sensed Land Cover to Determine Habitat Vulnerability in Wetlands. Presented at American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, August 1-4, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION To Purge or Not to Purge? VOC Concentration Changes During Line Volume Purging 07/19/2004
Zimmerman, J. H. AND B A. Schumacher. To Purge or Not to Purge? VOC Concentration Changes During Line Volume Purging. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Washington, DC, July 19-22, 2004.
Abstract: Soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and provide information for soil sampling plans. Traditionally, three purge volumes of vapor are removed before a sample is collected. One facet of this study was to evaluate the VOC concentrations lost during purging and explore the potential implications of those losses. The vapor data was compared to collocated soil data to determine if any correlation existed between the VOC concentrations.
Two different methods for soil vapor collection were compared: 1) active/micro-volume; and 2) active/macro-volume. The active/micro-volume vapor sample had total line purge volume of 1.25 mL and the active/macro-volume vapor sample had a total line purge volume of 15 mL. Six line purge volumes were collected for each vapor sampling technique, with the fourth purge volume representing the traditional sample used for site screening data. Each sample was collected by gas tight syringe and transferred to a thermal de sorption tube for sorption, transport, and analysis. Following the removal of the soil vapor samples, collocated soil samples were taken.

For both active vapor sampling techniques, the VOC concentrations in the first three purge volumes exceeded the VOC concentrations in the last three purge volumes. This implies that the general rule of removal of three purge volumes prior to taking a sample for analysis could lead to underestimating the level of VOC contamination present. At one of the sampling locations, the data show a general increase in concentration of VOCs as line volume purges were collected. The data did not show a correlation between the concentration of VOCs determined by either vapor sampling technique when compared to that of the collocated soil sample.

PRESENTATION Composite Sampling for Soil VOC Analysis 07/19/2004
Schumacher, B A. AND J. H. Zimmerman. Composite Sampling for Soil VOC Analysis. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Washington, DC, July 19-22, 2004.
Abstract: Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliquot (5 g) in the standard low-level, purge-and-trap sample extraction method (i.e., SW-846 Method 5035), which decreases the representativeness of the sample. In order to optimize sample representativeness, the number of samples collected at the site is generally increased; however, this greatly increases project costs. Compositing soil samples has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative means to obtain data which are representative of the overall conditions at a site. This study investigated this approach and it's impact on representativeness.
To explore the feasibility of composite sampling for soil VOC analysis, core samples were collected and cut into sections at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 cm below the ground surface. After each cut, approximately 5 g of soil was removed from the newly exposed surface (top end of the cut) using a truncated syringe and placed in a preweighed 40-mL septum-sealed vial containing 5 mL of methanol. A second 5 g sample was removed from each core at the 20, 40, 60, and 80 cm intervals and combined in a preweighed 40-mL septum-sealed vial containing 20 mL of methanol. Samples were analyzed following SW-846 methods 5035/8260.

PRESENTATION Accounting for Error Propagation in the Development of a Leaf Area Index (Lai) Reference Map to Assess the Modis Lai Modi5a Lai Product 06/28/2004
Iiames, J., D Pilant, T E. Lewis, AND R. O. Congalton. Accounting for Error Propagation in the Development of a Leaf Area Index (Lai) Reference Map to Assess the Modis Lai Modi5a Lai Product. Presented at TIES and the Spatial Accuracy Symposium, Portland, MN, June 28-July 1, 2004.
Abstract: The ability to effectively use remotely sensed data for environmental spatial analysis is dependent on understanding the underlying procedures and associated variances attributed to the data processing and image analysis technique. Equally important, also, is understanding the error associated with the given reference data used to assess the accuracy of the image product. This paper details measurement variance accumulated in the development of a leaf area index (LAI) reference map used to assess the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD15A LAI 1000-m product in the southeastern United States.
MODIS LAI was compared with reference data derived from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) during the 2002 field season in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin in Virginia and North Carolina. Ground-based optical LAI estimates were correlated with various ETM+ derived vegetation indices (VI's) at a 30-m resolution pixel. These 30-m pixels were scaled up to the 1000-m MODIS LAI pixel resolution and averaged to give one LAI value. A detailed listing of error propagation for this reference data set includes uncertainty associated with: (1) two integrated optical LAI field estimating techniques (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies, TRAC instrument, and hemispherical photography), (2) choice of site-specific VI's, and (3) image-to-image registration.

PRESENTATION The EPA Remote Sening Archive: A Unique Agency Resource 06/01/2004
Benger, M J. The EPA Remote Sening Archive: A Unique Agency Resource. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Often environmental issues need to have a historical perspective, to look back into the past. Remotely sensed imagery is one way to see the land and what happened in a previous time. The EPA is often responsible to look into the past to facilitate a better future for the environment and all of its inhabitants. There is a little known facility located in Las Vegas, Nevada which can open up this window to the past. The EPA's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC), a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch, has been completing historical reports on sites all around the country for over 30 years at the request of the Regions. These analysis reports are usually a compendium of aerial photographs covering a specific site for a specific period of time. All of the project materials, including aerial photography dating back to the early 1900's, reside at the EPA Remote Sensing Archive. Increasingly, geospatial data from research projects are finding their way to the Archive as well. This facility once a disparate collection of materials has been inventoried, barcoded and organized into a one-of-a-kind collection of irreplaceable remote sensing data. This facility has over 5,500 rolls and 75,000 cut-frames of aerial photography, over 4,250 reports, and over 4,000 CD-ROMS of digital data from various sensors including Landsat Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, A VIRIS, Hyperion, and Hymap. The inventory is now managed by specialized library software and the database is increasing daily. This valuable resource is available for EPA employees. Would you like to know more about this facility and how to access the valuable information it contains?

PRESENTATION Looking Into the Future of a Region 06/01/2004
Smith, E R. Looking Into the Future of a Region. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The U .S. EP A's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program addresses the latter phases of an integrated ecological risk assessment (U .S. EP A 1998) by building on available monitoring data, focusing on synthesizing information on spatial patterns, analyzing and displaying current and future condition to allow comparison and prioritization of risk. In this session we will explore several futures models and their associated output for the Mid-Atlantic (Region 3). ReVA projects future conditions resulting from the 5 major drivers of change (land use change, change in pollution and pollutants, spread of non-indigenous species, resource extraction and climate change), and looks at risk management options by comparing alternative future management scenarios. We will demonstrate a regional population-based land use change model, that incorporates plans for future roads/highways, road improvements, new development! industrial centers and areas where mines have been permitted, but don't yet exist. Since land use change can affect ground water the second model demonstrates a method for determining the probability of exceeding nitrate standards within the region. The last two models to be presented will show how regional changes could alter migration patterns of neo-tropical birds and the changes which could occur in the spread of non-indigenous species both with and without climate change. The output from each of these models is synthesized in a regional futures assessment for 2020. These results, along with projected impacts from management options, are incorporated into a web-based environmental decision toolkit (EDT) that can help managers evaluate risks and target management options.

PRESENTATION The EPA Remote Sensing Archive: A Unique Agency Resource 06/01/2004
Benger, M J. The EPA Remote Sensing Archive: A Unique Agency Resource. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Often environmental issues need to have a historical perspective, to look back into the past. Remotely sensed imagery is one way to see the land and what happened in a previous time. The EP A is often responsible to look into the past to facilitate a better future for the environment and all of its inhabitants. There is a little known facility located in Las Vegas, Nevada which can open up this window to the past. The EP A's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC), a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch, has been completing historical reports on sites all around the country for over 30 years at the request of the Regions. These analysis reports are usually a compendium of aerial photographs covering a specific site for a specific period of time. All of the project materials, including aerial photography dating back to the early 1900's, reside at the EP A Remote Sensing Archive. Increasingly, geospatial data from research projects are finding their way to the Archive as well. This facility once a disparate collection of materials has been inventoried, barcoded and organized into a one-of-a-kind collection of irreplaceable remote sensing data. This facility has over 5,500 rolls and 75,000 cut-frames of aerial photography, over 4,250 reports, and over 4,000 CD-ROMS of digital data from various sensors including Landsat Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, A VIRIS, Hyperion, and Hymap. The inventory is now managed by specialized library software and the database is increasing daily. This valuable resource is available for EP A employees would you like to know more about this facility and how to access the valuable information it contains?

PRESENTATION Leaf Area Index Change Detection of Understory Vegetation in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin Using Ikomos and Landsat Etm+ Satellite Data 06/01/2004
Iiames, J. Leaf Area Index Change Detection of Understory Vegetation in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin Using Ikomos and Landsat Etm+ Satellite Data. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The advent of remotely sensed data from satellite platforms has enabled the research community to examine vegetative spatial distributions over regional and global scales. This assessment of ecosystem condition through the synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, biomass, and seasonal dynamics has begun to answer questions related to carbon sequestration and the expansion of greenhouse gases, biogenic emissions and the inputs into air quality, and other, significant environmental issues. The validation of these satellite-derived vegetative parameters includes the examination of accumulated variances stemming from data acquisition, to data processing, and to final accuracy assessment. The importance of understanding variation through the entire process involves the significance of these inputs into process-based models. One input of interest, leaf area index (LAI) defined here as one-half the total green leaf area per unit ground surface area has been used for the quantification of surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration, and annual net primary production used in the calculation of terrestrial energy, carbon, water cycle processes, and biogeochemistry of vegetation.
The signjficance of LAI as source data for process-based ecological models has been well documented. Running and Coughlan (1988) ranked LAI as the most important attribute of vegetation structure (or characterizing forest canopies) very large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. Most ecosystem process models that simulate carbon and hydrogen cycles require LAI as an input variable. By controlling terrestrial mass and energy fluxes, vegetation plays a vital role in global climate change. Interest in tracking LAI change includes the role forests play in the sequestration of carbon from carbon emissions (Johnsen et al., 2001), and the formation of tropospheric ozone from biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) naturally released into the atmosphere (GeOD et at., 1994).

PRESENTATION Demonstration of Potential Grazing Impact to Water Quality in the Western United States 06/01/2004
Heggem, D T., T G. Wade, P. Leinenbach, S. Augustine, A R. Selle, A. Calderon, M. Viger, K A. Hermann, R. K. Hall, A. D. Weiss, AND V. Haack. Demonstration of Potential Grazing Impact to Water Quality in the Western United States. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Grazing is a widespread stressor on ecosystems in the western United States. As part of the US EPA's Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the potential for grazing impacts to surface water quality was modeled using commonly available data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Inputs to the model are derived from four sources: land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), land ownership from the National Atlas, distance-to-water from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD; 1:100,000 scale,) and topographic position from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The model uses 30 meter grid cells for input, analysis, and output. The input grids to the model have their values scaled to a range of 0 (not possible to graze) to 10 (most likely to be grazed). The potential grazing impact model operates by multiplying each of the four input grids together to determine a value between 0 and 10,000 for each cell. The areas with the highest potential for water quality impacts due to grazing are flat, non-protected, grasslands that are within 90 meters of a water source. Maps of potential grazing impact for Oregon and the Central Valley of California, along with maps of the model input layers are included on the poster as a demonstration.

PRESENTATION A Landscape Approach for Evaluationg Change in a Semi-Arid Environment and a Subsequent Analysis of the Hydrological Consequences 06/01/2004
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, C. J. Watts, D. C. Goodrich, AND D A. Mouat. A Landscape Approach for Evaluationg Change in a Semi-Arid Environment and a Subsequent Analysis of the Hydrological Consequences. Presented at International Conference "60 Years of Remote Sensing of Natural Resources: Milestones and Perspectives", St. Petersburg, Russia, June 1-5, 2004.
Abstract: Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the past century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been available on the regional or watershed scale. During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial analysis technologies have been used to better understand the distribution of natural communities and ecosystems, and the ecological processes that affect these patterns. These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape measurements that can be integrated within hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. This case study employs a system of land cover maps generated from a multi-date satellite imagery database which incorporates Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) imagery from the early 1970s, mid 1980s, and early 1990s and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1997. It has been tested over the Upper San Pedro Watershed (U.S./Mexico) where results indicate that extensive, highly connected grassland and desertscrub areas are the most vulnerable ecosystems to fragmentation and actual loss due to encroachment of xerophytic mesquite woodland and urbanization. Changes in surface vegetation have important impact for the hydrology of the region, since the energy and water balance characteristics for these cover types are significantly different. Landscape change was examined relative to its impact on surface water conditions, e.g. sediment yield and surface runoff. Changes in hydrological outputs were estimated for the period of 1973-1997 using hydrological process models and land cover derived from Landsat satellite platforms.

PRESENTATION An Integrated Approach to Air Quality Using in Situ, Satellite, and Modeled Data Focused on the Future of Earth Observations System (Eos) 06/01/2004
Szykman, J., D M. Holland, A B. Gilliland, T. Watkins, F. Dimmick, D. H. Boothe, D. Neil, AND A. Chu. An Integrated Approach to Air Quality Using in Situ, Satellite, and Modeled Data Focused on the Future of Earth Observations System (Eos). Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: EPA through statutory mandates has monitored air, water, land and human health for the past several decades. The design of the ambient air monitoring networks, for the most part, has been loosely tied single-pollutant networks focused on large urban areas. These networks supply the basic data and information, allows for the development of regulations based on science, and for assesses results of activities to improve the environment and people's health. While results to date are compelling, the spatial distribution of the networks limit our ability to characterize ambient air quality beyond the urban area, and identify issues such as increases in ambient background concentrations, exposures beyond the urban corridors, and intercontential transport of air pollutants.
Working with our federal partners at CDC, NOM, and NASA, along with state agencies, such as NYDEC, EPA is leading the way in research and develop to integrate in-situ, satellite, and air quality model data sets to help characterize air quality beyond the urban corridor for public health uses. Using in-situ measurements of PM2.5, aerosol optical depth data from the NASA MODIS sensors, and air quality modeled predictions from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, used by NOM/NWS for air quality forecast, EPA is developing the science to integrated the data from these different temporal and spatial scales and provide meaningful data for use in air quality assessments and the CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN).

PRESENTATION Indirect Measurement of Biological Activity to Monitor Natural Attenuation 06/01/2004
Werkema, D. Indirect Measurement of Biological Activity to Monitor Natural Attenuation. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in the biogeochemical environment due to the biologically mediated breakdown of the contaminant. The research helps support the Superfund, RCRA, and the Oil Spills program research priorities and ground water research needs. Basic research is presented on the bulk ground electrical conductivity response to the biogeochemical dynamics occurring during the biologically-mediated breakdown of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs).
Investigations into the geoelectrical response that results from the biodegradation of NAPLs include a 5-year field study, 45-day lab slurry experiment, and a 2-year lab column study were performed by a multi-disciplinary group of scientists including several universities and the U.S. EPA. Metabolic by-products of the microbial degradation of NAPLs react with the subsurface sediments and increase the geoelectrical conductivity of the contaminated zone undergoing biodegradation. The measurement of the geoelectrical conductivity is a very simple, inexpensive geophysical technique which can be applied and measured automatically and/or remotely.

EPA expects these findings to provide a new scientific understanding and scientific tool. The results from this work are expected to be used by OSWER, Regional Project Managers, Principle Responsible Parties and project implementers to efficiently and effectively monitor and characterize natural attenuation in a cost-effective manner. This research has demonstrated a potential to improve monitoring for evaluating long-term performance of monitored natural attenuation. With this research providing the link between measurable physical changes and the biological breakdown of contaminants, the risks to human health and the environment that these contaminants pose can be more effectively controlled at contaminated sites. It is hoped these findings will reduce analytical chemistry costs, reduce hazardous waste products from analysis, provide the capability to passively monitor the biodegradation process, and provide data for the development of a conceptual site model (CSM). Furthermore, this research presents a tool to safely return contaminated sites to appropriate uses more effectively, efficiently and reliably than traditional methods.

PRESENTATION An Accuracy Assessment of Multiple Mid-Atlantic Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Maps 06/01/2004
Jennings, D B. AND S T. Jarnagin. An Accuracy Assessment of Multiple Mid-Atlantic Sub-Pixel Impervious Surface Maps. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change. As a single variable, it serves to integrate a number of concurrent interactions that directly influence a watershed's hydrology, stream chemical quality and thus the in-stream habitat. Although, numerous research efforts have explicitly mapped impervious surfaces at the local scale, using high-resolution remote sensing sources, few studies have attempted to explicitly map the variable at the regional scale using medium remote sensing sources such as Landsat imagery. Recent image processing advances have allowed impervious surface area to be mapped at the Landsat sub-pixel level and several Landsat sub-pixel mapping efforts in the mid-Atlantic region have been undertaken. The problem for the environmental community is at what level of accuracy these sub-pixel maps portray impervious surfaces and at what scale these maps can be adequately utilized ?
A "truth" mapping protocol as set forth in the United States Geological Survey (USGS) prospectus "Shared assessment of USGS and NGO impervious surface data-sets for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed" will be implemented to create a set of 600 "truth" impervious surface chips derived from high spatial resolution imagery. A USEPA peer-reviewed accuracy assessment (AA) protocol has been established which will be the basis for testing the sub-pixel impervious surface maps of the mid-Atlantic region produced by the USGS, University of Maryland, College Park and Towson University respectively.Our research partners are the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) in Reston, Virginia, The Chesapeake Bay Program in Annapolis, Maryland as well as the University of Maryland, College Park and Towson University in Baltimore, Maryland.

The requestor and primary user of the accuracy assessment results will be the Chesapeake Bay Program where it is necessary to know the statistical uncertainty, at multiple spatial scales, involved with the data. However, all users of landscape data - local to Federal and NGOs - within the Chesapeake Bay watershed will apply the results of the AA. Additionally, The NLCD00 mapping program will also use the results to determine the relevance of their national level sub-pixel mapping program.

PRESENTATION Great Lakes Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Areas at Risk 06/01/2004
Williams, D J., K Endres, AND D Pilant. Great Lakes Beach Closures: Using Satellite Images to Identify Areas at Risk. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lakes basin are vital national resources that provide recreation to more than a tenth of the U.S. population.. The high density of urban and industrial centers in the basin significant water quality impacts for the Lake's ecosystems and human health problems for beach visitors. Lake Michigan alone had over 900 beach closings in 2002. The waterborne bacteria E. coli and fecal coliform are the primary pathogens leading to beach closures. Water quality testing programs exist, but they are unable to sample and analyze with the frequency and speed required to fully ensure adequate diagnosis of beach conditions and to provide warnings of unsafe pathogen levels. As a result, many people become sick each year from swimming at beaches that had high levels of undetected pathogens due to gaps in laboratory sampling programs. Many sources contribute to unhealthy water quality: sewage discharges and overflows from treatment plants and inadequate septic systems, animal populations, recreational boating, and environmental conditions such as high rainfall, wind and waves. The exact mechanisms that lead to unsafe exposure to pathogens and the relationships between the pathogen source and environmental conditions are not yet fully understood. This investigation uses satellite imagery of Lake Michigan to examine the role of nearshore lake conditions as input to beach closure episodes. Data from the MODIS and Landsat TM sensors will be processed to derive information on the timing and locations of sediment and organic material plumes in the nearshore environment that may contribute to episodes of unhealthy pathogens. If nearshore sediment plumes are involved in the outbreak mechanism, early identification and characterization using daily satellite remote sensing measurements may aid in prediction of episodes of unhealthy pathogen levels, guide laboratory sampling efforts, and provide early warning of beach closures-- before people are exposed. Partners include the US EPA BEACHES program, EPA Regions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Naval Research Laboratory, and state and local environmental resource groups.

PRESENTATION Predicting Presence of Nutrients and Pesticides in Base Flow Conditions of First Order Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain 06/01/2004
Neale, A C. AND A M. Pitchford. Predicting Presence of Nutrients and Pesticides in Base Flow Conditions of First Order Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Excess nutrients and pesticides in the environment can cause a variety of ecological and human-health effects. When nutrients are unused by plants, or pesticides remain after use on their intended target, these compounds can be transported to streams, either directly through overland flow or through percolation through the soil, eventually contributing to ground-water discharge, sometimes termed "base flow," in a stream. Elevated concentrations of pesticides or nutrients can make water unfit for human consumption and can cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms (Briggs, 1992).
The Landscape Indicators for Pesticides Study in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams (LIPS-MACS) is a collaborative research effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. One of the objectives of the study was to develop models to relate land use, geology, and other geographic variables to water quality and aquatic ecology in small streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. A base network of 174 small (typically first-order) streams was selected across a gradient of hydrogeologic and land-use settings, from a population of 10,144 first-order watersheds in the region. Water samples were collected from all 174 streams and analyzed for selected pesticides, pesticide metabolites, nutrients, and major ions. Benthic-community and habitat assessments were also conducted at each stream. A data base of landscape metrics, computed from soils, land use, and topographic data for each sampled watershed, was compiled.

We used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between presence of pesticides and nutrients at various levels (dependent variables) and our suite of landscape metrics (independent variables). We will present our results for metolachlor, an herbicide, nitrate plus nitrite as total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. We were able to predict presence of metolachlor at levels above 0.06 g/L with an 87% concordance and at levels above 1 g/L with an 86% concordance. Nitrate plus nitrite was predicted at levels above 0.71 mg/L (ecoregional nutrient criteria) with a concordance of 78% and at levels above 1.5 mg/L with a concordance of 72%. Presence of total phosphorus at levels above 0.06 mg/L were predicted with a concordance of 67 %. From the models that we have developed, we will be able to predict presence of pesticides and nutrients at the levels above for most of our sample population of first-order watersheds. These models will enable managers to compare watersheds and make preliminary decisions about where to allocate resources for additional monitoring or remediation.

PRESENTATION Satellite Imagery Analyses of the Mississippi River: A Map Series from Headwaters to the Gulf of Mexico 06/01/2004
Lopez, R D. AND D T. Heggem. Satellite Imagery Analyses of the Mississippi River: A Map Series from Headwaters to the Gulf of Mexico. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The purpose of the Mississippi River map series is to provide the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with a comprehensive and contemporary view of the Mississippi River, and to provide a basis for identifying ecological vulnerability throughout the Mississippi River Basin. The current map series components consist of several printable posters, which have a nominal scale of 1 inch = 3 miles. We optimized the number and size of the presentations to provide detail in the images, and are using the underlying Landsat imagery to explore the presence of persistent available nesting habitat for the least tern (Sterna antillarum), an endangered bird species. A miniature scale poster set is also included on a compact disc for quick reference for managers and for field activities throughout the river basin. This remote sensing product has been actively used the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, Ducks Unlimited, and other important stakeholders in the river basin. This map series is an important first step toward developing a system-wide approach to understanding the functioning of large rivers at a landscape scale.

PRESENTATION Locating Buried World War 1 Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS 06/01/2004
Slonecker, E T. Locating Buried World War 1 Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote sensing in supporting the Agency's efforts in supporting healthy communities and healthy ecosystems. Six presentations will document how remote sensing is playing a critical role in protecting human and ecological health on both a National/Regional scale, and on a local/site specific scale.
In the National/Regional applications area, Jim Wickham (NERL) will present on the development and utilization of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Second, Bruce Jones (ORD) will present on the development of Landscape Indicators from the NLCD and their relationship to ecosystem quality. Third, Karl Hermann (Region 8) will present on the develop of nutrient loading statistics from both the NLCD and Landscape Indicators for specific application in Region 8.

In the site specific area, Taylor Jarnagin (NERL) will present research on the mapping of Impervious Surfaces and their relationship to streamflow, water quality and watershed protection. David Jennings (NERL) will present the application of high resolution LIDAR data in the Clarksburg, Maryland Special Protection Area, discussing the use this emerging technology as a new and potentially significant tool in watershed modeling. Finally, Steve Hirsh (Region 3) will present the use of remote sensing to remediate buried munitions and arsenic contamination at the Spring Valley FUDS site in Washington D.C.

PRESENTATION Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment: A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool 06/01/2004
Semmens, D J. AND W G. Kepner. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment: A GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling Tool. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving toward complex, spatially explicit regional assessments. These problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales. The extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input parameter files, however, have long been an obstacle to the timely and cost-effective use of such complex models by resource managers. The U.S. EPA Landscape Ecology Branch in collaboration with the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center has developed a geographic information system (GIS) tool to facilitate this process. A GIS provides the framework within which spatially distributed data are collected and used to prepare model input files and evaluate model results. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool uses widely available standardized spatial datasets that can be obtained via the internet. The data are used to develop input parameter files for KINEROS2 and SWAT, two watershed runoff and erosion simulation models that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. AGWA automates the process of transforming digital data into simulation model results and provides a visualization tool to help the user interpret results. The utility of AGWA in joint hydrologic and ecological investigations has been demonstrated on such diverse landscapes as southeastern Arizona, southern Nevada, central Colorado, northwest Oregon, and upstate New York.

PRESENTATION Applied Remote Sensing 06/01/2004
Slonecker, E T., S T. Jarnagin, AND K B. Jones. Applied Remote Sensing. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1, 2004.
Abstract: Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote sensing in supporting the Agency's efforts in supporting healthy communities and healthy ecosystems. Four presentations will document how remote sensing is playing a critical role in protecting human and ecological health.

PRESENTATION Multi-Scale Remote Sensing Mapping of Anthropogenic Impervious Surfaces: Spatial and Temporal Scaling Issues Related to Ecological and Hydrological Landscape Analyses 06/01/2004
Jarnagin, S T. AND D B. Jennings. Multi-Scale Remote Sensing Mapping of Anthropogenic Impervious Surfaces: Spatial and Temporal Scaling Issues Related to Ecological and Hydrological Landscape Analyses. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining impervious surface growth and, with concurrent daily stream flow and precipitation records, allows the historical relationship of impervious surfaces and stream flow to be explored. Satellite-based remote sensing systems offer the ability to analyze large spatial areas but do not have the temporal (historical) scale of aerial photography. Our research is focused on the development of impervious surface ?truth' data sets derived from high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. We use these local ?truth' sets to do accuracy assessments of regional-scale estimators of impervious surfaces. Our methods will both be useful in developing regional-scale estimators of impervious surfaces and in determining the accuracy and appropriate spatial scale for application for other remotely sensed estimators of imperviousness. In this presentation, we will also discuss some of the spatial and temporal issues to consider when scaling estimators of imperviousness and trying to predict water quality outcomes as a result.
Our research partners include the US Geologic Survey, Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection, University of Maryland - Baltimore County, and the Chesapeake Bay Program. Our research results will be employable by EPA units such as Regions and the Office of Water, States and local governments, and non-governmental organizations seeking to understand the relationship between anthropogenic impervious surfaces and water quality and quantity.

PRESENTATION Communication: Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria 06/01/2004
Wickham, J D. AND K B. Jones. Communication: Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The continuing expansion of anthropogenic influence across the continental United States has motivated the establishment of nutrient criteria for streams, lakes, and estuaries as a means to promote the protection of aquatic resources. Nutrient criteria have been established based on ecoregional differences, recognizing that geographic variation in climate, topography, geology, and land use require use of different criteria values for different regions of the continental United States. Several studies have demonstrated that land-cover composition also strongly influences nutrient concentrations and yields. We examined the relative roles of ecoregions and watershed land-cover composition in explaining variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by re-analyzing the National Eutrophication Survey (NES) data reported by Omernik (1977). The variance of N concentrations among land-cover composition classes within ecoregions was six times larger than the variance among ecoregions. For P concentrations, land-cover composition within ecoregions accounted for 3 times more variance than ecoregions themselves. Variance across ecoregions was only weakly significant after accounting for variance in land-cover composition within ecoregions. The results suggest that the relationship between land-cover composition and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems should also be used to help guide establishment of nutrient criteria.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing for Detecting Swine Animal Feeding Operations 06/01/2004
Garofalo, D AND D B. Jennings. Remote Sensing for Detecting Swine Animal Feeding Operations. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to algal blooms and anoxic water conditions, shellfish bed contamination, loss of water recreation activities, and possibly fish kills and human health dangers. Developing a cost-effective approach for locating and studying existing AFO's over a broad regional area is a first step to determining the spatial relationships between these facilities and water quality. A system which is capable of identifying and inventorying existing facilities and determining their geographic location and distribution with regard to other landscape features such as drainage, geology, soils, slope, and vegetation, should provide important insight for assisting farmers and planners in reducing the environmental risks associated with existing and future animal feeding operations, respectively.

Our research focused on the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and high spatial resolution IKONOS sateJlite data for semi-automatically detecting animal feeding operations in an area of Duplin County, North Carolina. Our results show that single-date, high resolution satellite remote sensing data (IKONOS 4-meter, multi-spectral data) combined with GIS-based semi-automated image processing and geometric analysis of swine animal feeding operation features and geography can yield overall detection accuracies of 76% for hog barns and 79% for lagoons.

Our study area is a portion of Duplin County, North Carolina. The county has experienced problems of excessive nutrients in its waterways and of the 1,359 farms in the county (based on the 1992 Census of Agriculture survey), nearly one quarter, 338, raise hogs or pigs. In total, more than one million hogs and pigs are raised in Duplin County annually.

PRESENTATION Leaf Area Index (Lai) Changes Detection of Understory Vegetation in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin Ikonos and Landsat Etm+ Satellite Data 06/01/2004
Iiames, J. Leaf Area Index (Lai) Changes Detection of Understory Vegetation in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin Ikonos and Landsat Etm+ Satellite Data. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: The advent of remotely sensed data from satellite platforms has enabled the research community to examine vegetative spatial distributions over regional and global scales. This assessment of ecosystem condition through the synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, biomass, and seasonal dynamics has begun to answer questions related to carbon sequestration and the expansion of greenhouse gases, biogenic emissions and the inputs into air quality, and other significant environmental issues. The validation of these satellite-derived vegetative parameters includes the examination of accumulated variances stemming from data acquisition, to data processing, and to final accuracy assessment. The importance of understanding variation through the entire process involves the significance of these inputs into process-based models. One input of interest, leaf area index (LAI) defined here as one-half the total green leaf area per unit ground surface area has been used for the quantification of surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration, and annual net primary production used in the calculation of terrestrial energy, carbon, water cycle processes, and biogeochemistry of vegetation.
The significance of LAI as source data for process-based ecological models has been well documented. Running and Coughlan (1988) ranked LAI as the most important attribute of vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. Most ecosystem process models that simulate carbon and hydrogen cycles require LAI as an input variable. By controlling terrestrial mass and energy fluxes, vegetation plays a vital role in global climate change. Interest in tracking LAI change includes the role forests play in the sequestration of carbon from carbon emissions (Johnsen et al., 2001), and the formation of tropospheric ozone from biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) naturally released into the atmosphere (Geron et al., 1994).

PRESENTATION The Emerging Use of Lidar as a Tool for Assessing Watershed Morphology 06/01/2004
Jennings, D B. AND S T. Jarnagin. The Emerging Use of Lidar as a Tool for Assessing Watershed Morphology. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Stream channel morphology is an integral component of the stream fluvial process and is inherently related to the stability of stream aquatic ecology. Numerous studies have shown that changes in stream channel geometry are related to changes in biotic integrity. In urbanizing landscapes, the most prevalent impact on stream morphology is due to impervious surfaces, roads, rooftops, etc. - and their related storm sewers. These features focus surface water runoff into the receiving streams, increase the volume and velocity of peak flows and thereby increase the number of erosional flooding events. Sedimentation due to stream channel incision and/or stream bank erosion are the primary causes of stream degradation related to stream channel change.
Past research into stream morphology issues has primarily relied on field survey techniques. The field surveys, though highly accurate, are labor intensive efforts that provide sparse information for volumetric analysis or longitudinal stream profiles. The lack of data density is problematic with respect to determining the systematic effects of landscape development upon the entirety of the stream channel. What is necessary is a survey vehicle that can detect the complete 3-dimensional component of the stream channel length. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technology has emerged over the past ten years as a viable remote sensing modeling tool for analyzing topographic change. LIDAR utilizes laser pulse technology to produce digital elevation models (DEM) with sub-meter postings. Combining repeat LIDAR collects with repeat high-resolution imagery collects will used to determine the impact of landscape change on stream channel geometry in the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA is a 35km2 area that is planned for sub-division and commercial development along with various best management practices (BMP) for stream mitigation purposes.

Our research partners are Montgomery County, Maryland and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Water Research Division (WRD) in Baltimore, Maryland. This research is an example of a Federal-Local technology-transfer partnership where innovative strategies are researched at the Federal level and the results made available at a local level for neighborhood solutions. This research is a collaborative effort where local stakeholders are involved in both conducting the research and applying the results and the Federal agencies are involved offering expertise and capabilities not available at the local level.

A successful modeling effort would provide local environmental managers with a strategy for 1) determining the impacts of development on stream morphology as well as 2) determining the success of BMPs for mitigating channel erosion and sedimentation.


PRESENTATION A Semi-Automated Approach for Detecting and Locating Swine Animal Feeding Operations Over Regional Areas 06/01/2004
Garofalo, D AND D B. Jennings. A Semi-Automated Approach for Detecting and Locating Swine Animal Feeding Operations Over Regional Areas. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Abstract: Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to algal blooms and anoxic water conditions, shellfish bed contamination, loss of water recreation activities, and possibly fish kills and human health dangers. Developing a cost-effective approach for locating and studying existing AFO's over a broad regional area is a first step to determining the spatial relationships between these facilities and water quality. A system which is capable of identifying and inventorying existing facilities and determining their geographic location and distribution with regard to other landscape features such as drainage, geology, soils, slope, and vegetation, should provide important insight for assisting farmers and planners in reducing the environmental risks associated with existing and future animal feeding operations, respectively.

Our research focused on the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and high spatial resolution IKONOS sateJlite data for semi-automatically detecting animal feeding operations in an area of Duplin County, North Carolina. Our results show that single-date, high resolution satellite remote sensing data (IKONOS 4-meter, multi-spectral data) combined with GIS-based semi-automated image processing and geometric analysis of swine animal feeding operation features and geography can yield overall detection accuracies of 76% for hog barns and 79% for lagoons.

Our study area is a portion of Duplin County, North Carolina. The county has experienced problems of excessive nutrients in its waterways and of the 1,359 farms in the county (based on the 1992 Census of Agriculture survey), nearly one quarter, 338, raise hogs or pigs. In total, more than one million hogs and pigs are raised in Duplin County annually.

PRESENTATION Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection on Loblolly Pine Forest Stands With Complete Understory Removal 05/23/2004
Iiames, J., D Pilant, T E. Lewis, AND R. O. Congalton. Leaf Area Index (Lai) Change Detection on Loblolly Pine Forest Stands With Complete Understory Removal. Presented at American Society for Photogrametry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Denver, CO, May 23-28, 2004.
Abstract: The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40% of the total LAI values. The primary factors influencing the near infrared (NIR) and visible (VI) spectral responses within forest stands are canopy closure, understory contribution, and soil types. The confounding issue in evaluating spectral vegetation indices is the near flat response of the NIR band occurring over a wide range of LAI values. Thus, forest stands with varying vertical profiles, i.e. differing understory contributions, could have similar LA! values due to horizontal homogeneity.

The two 1.0 ha study plots contained planted loblolly pine stands (ages 19 and 23) with similar crown closure estimates (70% and 71 %, respectively). Understory vegetation was removed from both stands via mechanical harvest and herbicide application in late July and early August 2002. Ikonos and Landsat ETM+ data were collected both prior and subsequent to understory removal and were evaluated for NIR and VI wavelength response. Total vegetative biomass removed under the canopies was estimated using the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) instrument combined with hemispherical photography. Initial results of ground-based measurements indicate significant differences in LAI before and after harvesting treatment. Preliminary satellite derived LAI results from Ikonos and Landsat ETM+ data will be presented.

PRESENTATION Determining Ion Compositions Using An Accurate Mass, Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer 05/23/2004
Grange, A H., W. Winnik, AND G W. Sovocool. Determining Ion Compositions Using An Accurate Mass, Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. Presented at American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Nashville, TN, May 23-27, 2004.
Abstract: For the past decade, we have used double focusing mass spectrometers to determine compositions of ions observed in mass spectra produced from compounds introduced by GC
based on measured exact masses of the ions and their +1 and +2 isotopic profiles arising from atoms of heavier isotopes such as 13C, 15N, 170, 180, 33S, and 34S.ln addition, comparison of measured abundances of the +1 and +2 profiles relative to the monoisotopic ion profiles
discriminated among ion compositions that were possible based on monoisotopic ions' exact
masses and the error limits of their measurement. Measuring these three exact masses and two relative abundances increased 4-fold, the mass for which unique ion compositions can be determined.

PRESENTATION An Arcgis Tool for Creating Populations of Watersheds 05/17/2004
Chaloud, D J., D W. Ebert, T G. Wade, AND A M. Pitchford. An Arcgis Tool for Creating Populations of Watersheds. Presented at American Water Resources Association, 2004 Spring Specialty Conference Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Water Resources lll, Nashville, TN, May 17-19, 2004.
Abstract: For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Although readily available watershed delineations such as the National Resource Conservation Service's 12- and 14-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) delineations provide consistently-determined watersheds within states, the level of detail varies among the states in the Midwest. To provide a consistently determined target population of watersheds across the entire area, we developed ArcGISTM arc macro language (AML) computer code that allows many options for generating watersheds. After examining the characteristics of watersheds derived from the different options, we generated watersheds associated with third order streams for the forty-two 4-digit HUCs comprising the study area. The approach involved using National Elevation Dataset (NED) data with partial burn-in of streams from the National Hydrographic Data set, and no walls. Details of this approach and the resulting watersheds will be described.

PRESENTATION Monitoring of Waterways for Emerging Contaminants Using Integrative Sampling Coupled With Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry 05/17/2004
JonesLepp, T, D. A. Alvarez, C. R. Casey, AND J. D. Petty. Monitoring of Waterways for Emerging Contaminants Using Integrative Sampling Coupled With Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry. Presented at 2004 National Monitoring Conference: "Building and Sustaining Successful Monitoring Programs", Chattanooga, TN, May 17-20, 2004.
Abstract: Assessing the potential impact to the aquatic environment from emerging contaminants, entails monitoring a complex mixture (pharmaceuticals, polar pesticides, industrial by- products and degradation products) in natural waters. The presence of these chemicals, often at ultra-trace levels, may be responsible for development of sub-lethal toxic effects in aquatic organisms (i.e., reproductive dysfunction, immune dysfunction, neurological disorders). Conventional sampling techniques (i.e., grab sampling) often are insufficient for detecting these trace levels. An integrative sampler, the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), developed by the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, provided a way to measure the time-weighted average concentrations of these complex mixtures of contaminants. When POCIS was combined with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), it proved to be a powerful tool in identification and quantification of polar anthropogenic contaminants. Data from a pilot study showed the antibiotic azithromycin, illicit drugs [methamphetamine and MDMA (Ecstasy)], polyfluorinated organic acids (PFOA and PFOS) (essential ingredients in the manufacture of fluoropolymers), and surfactants [i.e., diethanolamine polyethylene glycols (DAPGs), polyethylene glycols (PEGs), and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs)] were all present in the extracts from the effluents of three wastewater treatment plants and other bodies of natural waters. Although the impact of these chemicals may not yet be fully understood, their presence should be carefully considered with regards to wastewater re-use and groundwater re-charge.

PRESENTATION Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment 05/17/2004
Daughton, C G. Origins and Ramifications of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment. Presented at Water Reuse Foundations's 2004 Annual Water Reuse Research Conference, Las Vegas, NV, May 17, 2004.
Abstract: Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals.
Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as well as similar modes of action over multiple generations prompts a plethora of questions. While the environmental issues involved with antibiotics and sex steroids are the most widely recognized, numerous other therapeutic and consumer-use classes of PPCPs pose environmental concerns.

U.S. EPA and U.S. FDA are beginning to consider the many scientific issues involved with this multifaceted environmental concern. One of the most frequent questions is "So What? With therapeutic drugs, exposures of aquatic organisms are at levels far below therapeutic dosages for humans - and exposures for humans via drinking water are lower yet. So why should we be concerned even if PPCPs prove to be ubiquitous pollutants?" This question will be examined from a number of perspectives and suggestions will be offered with respect to actions regarding future direction for research and pollution prevention.

PRESENTATION Using Landscape Indicators to Predict Peticide and Nutrient Concentrations and Aquatic Biological Conditions in Small Streams in the Midwest 05/10/2004
Stark, J. R., A M. Pitchford, M D. Moeykens, D. L. Lorenz, S. P. Wente, AND T. A. Winterstein. Using Landscape Indicators to Predict Peticide and Nutrient Concentrations and Aquatic Biological Conditions in Small Streams in the Midwest. Presented at Workshop on Nutdrients Issues and Science Strategy for the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMBR), Bloomington, MN, May 10-11, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Modeling Physical Habitat Parameters 05/03/2004
Hall, R. K., D T. Heggem, A C. Neale, R. D. Van Remortel, P Kaufmann, D. Hagans, AND J. Y. Hashimoto. Modeling Physical Habitat Parameters. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sediments, nutrients, and organic matter). The interaction of these components influences primary production, and fish population and community structure within the stream. Physical habitat is an important and often overlooked ingredient for good stream condition. The objective of this paper is to predict, on a watershed scale, the characteristics of stream physical habitat structure in the Eel River Basin. Geology in the basin is dominated by the Franciscan formation, a complex assemblage of shales, sandstones and conglomerates of marine origin intermixed with igneous extrusives. These lithologies in combination with regional tectonic activity , steep terrain and climatic factors have rendered the Eel River Basin geologically unstable. Net result is high sediment loads to the streams. Terrestrial and riparian habitat consist of low elevation oak woodlands with valley oak grading to pines and fir at higher elevations. Canopy conditions range from closed, or nearly closed to open depending on the level of human disturbance. The metric of riparian habitat quality is calculated by using the National Land Cover Data along with the National Hydrological Data to determine the percentage of riparian vegetation cover. Per cent riparian forest correlated with channel alteration and bank stability .Sediment distribution, as tons per year for subwatersheds using the RUSLE model, correlated with the EMAP and Rapid Habitat Assessment sediment parameters.

PRESENTATION Potential Grazing Impact to Water Quality in the Western United States 05/03/2004
Wade, T G., P. Leinenbach, S. Augustine, A R. Selle, A. Calderon, M. Viger, D T. Heggem, K A. Hermann, R. K. Hall, A. D. Weiss, AND V. Haack. Potential Grazing Impact to Water Quality in the Western United States. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Grazing is a widespread stressor on ecosystems in the western United States. As part of the US EP A's Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the potential for grazing impacts to surface water quality was modeled using commonly available data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Inputs to the model are derived from four sources: land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), land ownership from the National Atlas, distance-to-water from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD; 1: 100,000 scale,) and topographic position from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The model uses 30 meter grid cells for input, analysis, and output. The input grids to the model have their values scaled to a range of O (not possible to graze) to 10 (most likely to be grazed). The potential grazing impact model operates by multiplying each of the four input grids together to determine a value between 0 and 10,000 for each cell. The areas with the highest potential for water quality impacts due to grazing are flat, non-protected, grasslands that are within 90 meters of a water source. Maps of potential grazing impact for Oregon and the Central Valley of California, along with maps of the model input layers are included on the poster.

PRESENTATION Distribution of Mercury in USEPA Region Ix R-EMAP Study Areas 05/03/2004
Hall, R. K., A R. Olsen, D T. Heggem, P. Husby, AND L. Chambers. Distribution of Mercury in USEPA Region Ix R-EMAP Study Areas. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Mercury distribution within U .S. EP A Region IX Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) study units is associated with geology and land-use practices. Stream water and sediment data indicate mercury is mobilized from weathering of ore bearing rock, and atmospheric deposition. In the Humboldt River Watershed Total Mercury (HgT) in sediment is detected at 26 of 34 sites ranging in concentration from 0.07 -1.50 fig/Kg. Lowest Effects Level (LEL) for aquatic organisms in sediments of 0.2 fig/Kg is exceeded at 6 sites, which are located downstream from historical mine sites and downwind from current mining activity. Mining facilities in the Humboldt Basin reported, in the 1998 USEP A Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), emitting an estimated 13,560 Ibs. of mercury directly into the atmosphere and over 9 million Ibs. are contained in tailings and waste rock piles. In the Central Valley, CA, irrigation canals, ditches and drains, HgT is found in 15 of 50 sites ranging from 0.1- 0.32 ug/L in water and 0.07-0.66 fig/Kg dry weight sediment. HgT is associated with abandoned mercury and gold mines in the Coast Ranges and Sierras. In the Walker River and Muddy River watersheds, HgT in sediment is found at 7 of28 sites ranging from 0.07- 0.78 fig/Kg, and in 4 of 37 sites ranging from 0.07- 0.80 fig/Kg respectively. One site in the Muddy River has detectable HgT concentration in water of 0.41 ug/L.

PRESENTATION Cluster Analysis of Great Basin Ecoregions Using R-EMAP Stream Data 05/03/2004
Hall, R. K., J M. Omernik, A. J. Woods, S. A. Bryce, AND D T. Heggem. Cluster Analysis of Great Basin Ecoregions Using R-EMAP Stream Data. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Ecological regions ( ecoregions ) are defined as areas of relative homogeneity in ecosystem type, quality and quantity of environmental resources. Ecoregions are identified by analyzing biotic and abiotic geographic patterns, which are natural and human related. Parameters used in classifying these spatial patterns are climate, physiography, geology, soil, vegetation and land use (i.e. human influences). Human influences will accelerate changes in the ecosystem character. Over time ecoregions will develop patterns characteristic of human disturbance and alterations. The objective of this study is to test the viability of ecoregions using environmental data from the U .S. EP A Region IX Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R- EMAP) project in the Humboldt Basin, Nevada, to define areas impacted by human activity. Group averaging cluster analysis of environmental data indicates increasing nutrients and metal concentrations towards the basins as a result of upstream land use ( extensive grazing, agricultural pressure, mining). Phosphorus, arsenic and sulfate concentrations are indicative of the general geology, and the spatial distribution of land cover and land use (mining and agriculture) patterns. Variability, of water and sediment chemistry and benthic invertebrate community, within an ecoregion is associated with land use characteristics.

PRESENTATION Automated GIS Watershed Analysis Tools for Rusle/Sedmod Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Modeling 05/03/2004
Van Remortel, R. D., R. W. Maichle, D T. Heggem, AND A M. Pitchford. Automated GIS Watershed Analysis Tools for Rusle/Sedmod Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Modeling. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed using a suite of automated Arc Macro Language (AML ) scripts and a pair of processing- intensive ANSI C++ executable programs operating on an ESRI ArcGIS 8.x Workstation platform. The computing algorithms are rooted in the technical literature of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) soil erosion modeling framework and the Spatially Explicit Delivery Model (SEDMOD) sediment delivery framework. This suite of software programs can be used to estimate the RUSLE-based soil erosion rate, the SEDMOD-based sediment delivery rate, and other ancillary soil and landform characteristics at multiple reporting scales. Beta versions of the programs are currently available for testing and evaluation.

PRESENTATION Quantifying Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery 05/03/2004
Hall, R. K., R. Watkins, D T. Heggem, K B. Jones, AND P Kaufmann. Quantifying Structural Physical Habitat Attributes Using Lidar and Hyperspectral Imagery. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction. These habitat attributes will vary dependent on ecological setting and in the presence of anthropogenic disturbances. Lidar is an airborne scanning laser system that provides information on topography, as well as height and structure of vegetation and other ground features. Lidar-derived DEMs, at I meter horizontal and 0.3 meter vertical resolution, allow for the measuring of approximate channel dimensions (width, depth, volume), slope, channel complexity (residual pools, morphometric complexity, hydraulic roughness), riparian vegetation (height), dimensions of riparian zone, anthropogenic alterations and disturbances, and channel and riparian interaction. Hyperspectral imagery is comprised of narrow spectral bandwidths (IOnm) with a continuous spectrum in the visual to near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hyperspectral imagery offers the advantages of high spectral and spatial resolution allowing for the detection and identification of riparian vegetation and natural and anthropogenic features not possible with satellite imagery .When combined, or fused, these technologies comprise a powerful geospatial dataset for assessing and monitoring environmental characteristics and condition, and in delineating and quantifying structural physical habitat attributes at different spatial scales (reach, sub-basin, watershed). Examples taken from Nevada and Oregon pilot projects illustrate the utility and capability of high resolution remote sensing in detecting a variety of features ( e.g., vegetation type, sedimentation, water column constituents, potential sources of non-point source pollution), channel attributes, and in identifying ecological condition. .

PRESENTATION A Landscape Model to Predict Total Nitrogen Levels in Surface Waters of the Willamette and Central Valleys Ecoregion of the Western United States 05/03/2004
Heggem, D T., A C. Neale, R. K. Hall, AND K B. Jones. A Landscape Model to Predict Total Nitrogen Levels in Surface Waters of the Willamette and Central Valleys Ecoregion of the Western United States. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium 2004, Newport, RI, May 3-7, 2004.
Abstract: Excess nutrients are a leading cause of impairment to streams, rivers, lakes and the coastal ecosystems. Excessive nutrient loadings result in increased primary productivity of plant and algal communities leading to eutrophication and other impacts to aquatic resources. Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for primary production of plant communities and, when out of balance, is a direct contributor to water body impairment. As a part of the Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), we are developing a landscape indicator to predict nitrogen loading to western aquatic systems. The key to this work is to establish a quantitative relationship between landscape pattern metrics and nitrogen loading in streams. A number of recent studies have shown strong relationships between surface water quality and landscape characteristics. In this study, a simple nutrient export simulation model based on land-cover composition is used to estimate total loads of nitrogen to the stream using EMAP surface water nitrogen data collected in Oregon in 1997 and 1998. A regression model is developed using the landscape metric of nitrogen loading and relating that metric to the surface water nitrogen data.. This paper describes this model and then applies it to the Willamette and Central Valley nutrient ecoregions. This model will be a valuable tool for land use managers in determining nutrient conditions in surface waters and for identifying and reporting impaired water bodies.

PRESENTATION Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times 04/27/2004
Schumacher, B A. Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times. Presented at EPA Regional Laboratory Directors Spring Meeting, Kansas City, KN, April 27, 2004.
Abstract: Purpose and Rationale:
1) To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes that may be necessary to the current regulations.

2) While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provide sufficient time for laboratory analysis, relevant data is sparse on individually defined holding times and, thus, some of the holding times appear to be arbitrary and/or politically driven.

3) When holding times are exceeded, even if only by 1 day, the data must be flagged and are often declared invalid or are reported as "estimated", and the data are then called into question, especially if the data are to be used in a court of law.


PRESENTATION Synthetic Fragrances in the Environment: Overview of the Chemistry, Monitoring, and Significance 04/16/2004
Osemwengie, L I. Synthetic Fragrances in the Environment: Overview of the Chemistry, Monitoring, and Significance. Presented at California/Nevada Section of American Water Works Association Spring Conference, Las Vegas, NV, April 16, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals as Ubiquitous Pollutants: Significance, Concerns, Solutions 04/16/2004
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals as Ubiquitous Pollutants: Significance, Concerns, Solutions. Presented at California/Nevada Section of American Water Works Association, Spring Conference, Las Vegas, NV, April 16, 2004.
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use).

PRESENTATION Peer Review as a QA Tool for Photo Interpretation (Presented Tampa, Fl) 04/15/2004
BRILIS, G. AND J. G. LYON. Peer Review as a QA Tool for Photo Interpretation (Presented Tampa, Fl). Presented at 23rd Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Tampa, FL, April 15, 2004.
Abstract: Remotely Sensed (RS) images are used in may ways in the EPA. Eventually, the photo may be "interpreted," When images are interpreted, attempts are made by humans to determine what is on the ground (or in the air) by examining the photo or image, and the implementation of Quality Assurance (QA) takes a unique turn.

PRESENTATION Peer Review as a QA Tool for Photo Interpretation 04/15/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Peer Review as a QA Tool for Photo Interpretation. Presented at 23rd Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Tampa, FL, April 15, 2004.
Abstract: Remotely Sensed (RS) images are used in many ways in the EPA. Eventually, the photo may be interpreted. When images are interpreted, attempts are made by humans to determine what is on the ground (or in the air) by examining the photo or image, and the implementation of Quality Assurance (QA) takes a unique turn.Typically, the quality of an analysis is most often assessed by comparison of a product or result to an external, tangible standard. Deviations from that standard may be a reflection of quality. On the other hand, photo interpretation is, for the most part, a subjective process. Historically, the interpreters experience and education must be relied upon for quality assessment.This paper proposes an additional means for quality assessment, namely peer review.
The EPA published the EPA Peer Review Handbook, 2nd Edition, EPA 100-B-00-001, in December 2000. The reader is encouraged to review this document for detailed information on peer review.This proposal combines the EPA graded approach, QA Categories, and Peer Review in a strategy designed to provide known quality, and ensure that the photo interpretation results are defensible. Unlike QA in other disciplines, photo interpretation is unique in that peer review may be used as a QA procedure, not strictly as a means to determine acceptance by the general scientific community (US Supreme Court, Daubert v Dow, 1993).

PRESENTATION A Moving Average Bayesian Model for Spatial Surface and Coverage Prediction from Environmental Point-Source Data 04/13/2004
Wolpert, R. L., E R. Smith, AND M. O'Connell. A Moving Average Bayesian Model for Spatial Surface and Coverage Prediction from Environmental Point-Source Data. Presented at US EPA 23rd Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Tampa, FL, April 13-16, 2004.
Abstract: This paper addresses the general problem of estimating at arbitrary locations the value of an unobserved quantity that varies over space, such as ozone concentration in air or nitrate concentrations in surface groundwater, on the basis of approximate measurements of the quantity and perhaps of associated covariates at specificied locations. A nonparametric Bayesian approach is proposed, in which a joint prior distribution for the unobserved spatially-varying quantity is constructed as a moving average of independent-increment random measures. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computational approach is proposed for approximating the posterior distribution of the unobserved quantity at all spatial locations, as well as averages of the quantity over arbitrary regions and other summaries of interest. The moving average Bayesian approach is compared with more conventional nitrate concentrations in groundwater. The surfaces and coverages are intended for use as part of the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program in the mid-Atlantic region.

PRESENTATION Integration of Spatial Data: Evaluation of Methods Based on Data Issues and Assessment Questions 04/13/2004
Smith, E R., L. T. Tran, AND R. V. O'Neill. Integration of Spatial Data: Evaluation of Methods Based on Data Issues and Assessment Questions. Presented at US EPA 23rd Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, Tampa, FL, April 13-16, 2004.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program has focused initially on the synthesis of existing data. We have used the same set of spatial data and synthesized these data using a total of 11 existing and newly developed integration methods. These methods were evaluated in terms of 1) how well each individual method performs given different data issues that are encountered with existing data, and 2) how effectively each method addresses different types of assessment questions.
Specific data issues that are addressed in our evaluation of integration methods include:

Discontinuity -How are the methods affected by variables that (in raw form) are counts, such as number of aquatic species, versus having only continuous data?

Imbalance -What effect does having too many variables of a particular type ( e.g. representative of terrestrial conditions versus aquatic) have on the integration results from individual methods?

Skewness -What effect does having variables with highly skewed distributions have on integration results? Many statistical methods are valid only for symmetrically distributed data or require transformation of the data.
Interdependency -How are the methods affected by including variables that are highly correlated with one another?

Prioritization of risk management actions involves balancing many different factors that can be addressed through a series of assessment questions. ReVA's evaluation of integration methods considers which methods are most suitable to address questions such as:

What is the overall environmental condition of the region?
What is the relative condition of locations within a region?
Where are the most vulnerable (i.e. both high stressor levels and high numbers of resources) locations in a region?
How will conditions and vulnerabilities change in the future?
How applicable are risk management options to other locations in the region?

PRESENTATION Linking Broad-Scale Landscape Approaches With Fine-Scale Process Models: the Seql Project 04/02/2004
Wagner, P F. Linking Broad-Scale Landscape Approaches With Fine-Scale Process Models: the Seql Project. Presented at US International Association Landscape Ecology (IALE) Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, April 2, 2004.
Abstract: Regional landscape models have been shown to be useful in targeting watersheds in need of further attention at a local scale. However, knowing the proximate causes of environmental degradation at a regional scale, such as impervious surface, is not enough to help local decision makers of a major metropolitan community develop long- term planning strategies. Using broad scale models outputs in such a setting leaves little room for the future growth necessary to such communities. In order to meet local planning needs a finer scale modeling approach which takes into account both regional landscape data, as well as, community growth and development patterns must be implemented. A decision support tool developed by the EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) which synthesizes, presents, and projects future scenarios was utilized to combine both broad-scale landscape data and fine-scale process models. We have found that this mixed approach successfully meets the planning needs of local decision-makers, while providing information useful to regional EPA offices.

PRESENTATION Locating Buried Ww1 Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS 03/31/2004
Slonecker, E T. Locating Buried Ww1 Munitions With Remote Sensing and GIS. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the United States Regional Association of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 31-April 1, 2004.
Abstract: During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of the War in 1918, many of the weapons and chemical agents were haphazardly buried in and around the American University testing area which is now known as Spring Valley. In 1993, chemical-laden mortar shells were accidentally unearthed by a construction crew setting off a series of investigations that, to date, has cost over 40 million dollars and is still on-going. The EP A/Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is supporting the on-going Superfund investigation efforts using a variety of spatial technologies including geographic information systems, historical aerial photo analysis, and hyperspectral remote sensing technology. Both conventional and research applications of remotely sensed imagery, along with GIS database developments, are playing a critical role in the discovery and removal of chemical weapons and contamination in this area. This presentation will document the use of historical imagery and GIS, in locating and removing these weapons from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for on-going remedial activities.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape 03/31/2004
Slonecker, E T. AND S. R. Hirsh. Remote Sensing and GIS in the Remediation of Chemical Weapons Contamination in An Urban Landscape. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the United States Regional Association of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 31-April 1, 2004.
Abstract: During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of the War in 1918, many of the weapons and chemical agents were haphazardly buried in and around the American University testing area which is now known as Spring Valley. In 19f)3, chemical-laden mortar shells were accidentally unearthed by a construction crew setting off a series of investigations that, to date, has cost over 40 million dollars and is still on-going. The EPA/Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is supporting the on-going Superfund investigation efforts using a variety of spatial technologies including geographic information systems, historical aerial photo analysis, and hyperspectral remote sensing technology. Both conventional and research applications of remotely sensed imagery, along with GIS database developments, are playing a critical role in the discovery and removal of chemical weapons and contamination in this area. This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing these weapons from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for on-going remedial activities.

PRESENTATION Metapopulation Processes or Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Nautrally Fragmented Desert Landscape 03/31/2004
Bradford, D F., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, D. W. Sada, AND J R. Jaeger. Metapopulation Processes or Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Nautrally Fragmented Desert Landscape. Presented at Annual Meeting of International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 31-April 3, 2004.
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests two predictions based on metapopulation theory ---the incidence of habitat patch occupancy is directly related to patch size and inversely related to patch isolation ---and a third, potentially competing hypothesis that patch occupancy is influenced by local environmental conditions. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were identified and surveyed for local environmental characteristics and presence/absence of B. punctatus. Patch isolation metrics were based on nearest-neighbor distances, calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. B. punctatus was found at 73% of the sites, including all of the 15 historic (pre-1970) sites. Based on stepwise multiple logistic regression, the incidence of patch occupancy increased significantly with patch size, and was also significantly related to elevation, latitude, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. In contrast, incidence of patch occupancy was not significantly related to patch isolation. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. Implicated dispersal distances of many kilometers are large for an amphibian.

PRESENTATION The Southwest Regional Gap Project: A Database Model for Regional Landscape Assessment, Resource Planning, and Vulnerability Analysis 03/30/2004
Kepner, W G., P. Comer, D. Osborne, D J. Semmens, AND K. Gergely. The Southwest Regional Gap Project: A Database Model for Regional Landscape Assessment, Resource Planning, and Vulnerability Analysis. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 30-April 4, 2004.
Abstract: The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. Acquisition of primary data and database development are an initial feature of any landscape indicator and assessment project, including conservation mapping. The Southwest Regional GAP spatial data have been developed for the purpose of creating a regional tool for assessing biodiversity protection. One intent of the project is to make the database available in a format that can be used by other researchers, public agencies, resource managers, non-governmental organizations, decision-makers, and user groups. Additionally, the information can be utilized for resource management planning actions and other geographic initiatives to characterize relative vulnerability of natural resources within the 5-state area. It is the premise of this project that landscape composition and pattern measures are diagnostic of environmental and hydrological condition and can be quantitatively measured using GIS and remote sensing-based technologies. Acquisition of primary data is the first step of any research process to develop regional, state, and watershed scale environmental assessment and to predict future environmental risk to include other socially relevant end- points in addition to biodiversity .

PRESENTATION Use of Landscape Metrics to Prioritize Watersheds for Ecological Restoration in Arkansas White River Basin 03/30/2004
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, C M. Edmonds, K B. Jones, C L. Cross, AND D W. Ebert. Use of Landscape Metrics to Prioritize Watersheds for Ecological Restoration in Arkansas White River Basin. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the United States Regional Association of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 30-April 4, 2004.
Abstract: Techniques for the broad-scale identification of wetland restoration sites are increasingly being sought for the purposes of improving the functions of wetlands that influence watershed hydrology,e.g., groundwater recharge potential of watersheds and reduction of nutrient and sediment loads to the watersheds particularly in heavily agricultural landscapes. We utilized landscape metrics, publicly available geospatial data, geographic information systems (GIS), and existing national water quality data to prioritize watershed for riparian wetland restoration in Arkansas 101,533 square kilometer White River Basin. The White River Basin includes the southern portion of the heavily forested Ozark Mountains and the heavily agricultural Mississippi Alluvial Valley, permitting gradient analyses among watersheds. Results of the combined GIS and surface water sampling models for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment suggest that the following seven landscape metrics are practical for targeting sub-watershed and riparian areas for restoration: (1) percent cover of forest, (2) mean forest patch area (3) largest forest patch area (4) percent row-crop agriculture, (5) percent total agriculture (6) percent cover of nonagricultural vegetated land cover, and (7) percent agriculture on steep slopes. We demonstrate the efficacy of using landscape metrics as indicators of ecological condition and as a cost-effective technique to proved supplenentary information about the ecological functions of wetlands, otherwise unavailable at finer scales. We suggest a methodology for developing landscape indicators and using them to guide detailed field-based investigations, and to inform the decision-making processes for wetland restoration in the White River Basin.

PRESENTATION Communication: Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria? 03/30/2004
Wickham, J D., K. H. Riitters, T G. Wade, AND K B. Jones. Communication: Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria? Presented at US International Association of Landscape Ecology (IALE) Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, March 30-April 2, 2004.
Abstract: The continuing expansion of anthropogenic influence across the continental United States has motivated the establishment of nutrient criteria for streams, lakes, and estuaries as a means to promote the protection of aquatic resources. Nutrient criteria have been established based on ecoregional differences, recognizing that geographic variation in climate, topography, geology, and land use require use of different criteria values for different regions of the continental United States. Several studies have demonstrated that land-cover composition also strongly influences nutrient concentrations and yields. We examined the relative roles of ecoregions and watershed land-cover composition in explaining variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by re-analyzing the National Eutrophication Survey (NES) data reported by Omernik (1977). The variance of N concentrations among land-cover composition classes within ecoregions was six times larger than the variance among ecoregions. For p concentrations, land-cover composition within ecoregions accounted for 3 times more variance than ecoregions themselves. Variance across ecoregions was only weakly significant after accounting for variance in land-cover composition within ecoregions. The results suggest that the relationship between land-cover composition and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems should also be used to help guide establishment of nutrient criteria.

PRESENTATION Multiple Scales for Sustainable Results 03/30/2004
Smith, E R. AND M H. Mehaffey. Multiple Scales for Sustainable Results. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the US Regional Chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 30-April 2, 2004.
Abstract: This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at multiple scales and quantification of the full range of environmental costs and benefits associated with multiple decision-criteria. Work on a Regional scale contributes to local decision-making by extending the horizon such that environmental stresses that progress across the landscape ( e.g. land use change, atmospheric deposition, spread of non-indigenous species) can be evaluated within the context of current and future cumulative stresses. Similarly, small localized actions add up to regional impacts ( e.g. permitting of small point sources of atmospheric pollutants, linking of green space to provide habitat for migratory species) and are therefore important for maximizing opportunities and heading off actions having only short-term benefits.

PRESENTATION Comparisons and Contrasts Among Different Scaled Assessments 03/29/2004
Mehaffey, M H. Comparisons and Contrasts Among Different Scaled Assessments. Presented at International Association for Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 29-April 3, 2004.
Abstract: A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and South Carolina centered around Charlotte and Rockhill. We found that while broad scale data at a watershed unit was useful to regional managers and enabled targeted monitoring and special projects they were of less use at the local level. Local decision makers needed more specific
information in order to address issues such as traffic congestion, vehicle emissions, commuter time, and bringing in new businesses. In order to meet these needs more specialized data and smaller measurement units were required. We found the best unit to use at the local area was aggregated traffic area zones. Additional data needs included a traffic demand model, transit
routes, bike lanes, vehicle miles traveled, and average distance to work In conclusion we found that while larger scale landscape data such as acid deposition, forest fragmentation, urban sprawl, and economic and demographic trends provided information about both regional and local scales a more detailed assessment was required to enable local decision makers to address specific needs.

PRESENTATION A Pixel Composition-Based Reference Data Set for Thematic Accuracy Assessment 03/07/2004
Knight, J, R S. Lunetta, S. Khorram, H. Cakir, AND B. Hester. A Pixel Composition-Based Reference Data Set for Thematic Accuracy Assessment. Presented at ASPRS 2005 Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD, March 7-11, 2004.
Abstract: Developing reference data sets for accuracy assessment of land-cover classifications derived from coarse spatial resolution sensors such as MODIS can be difficult due to the large resolution differences between the image data and available reference data sources. Ideally, the spatial resolution of the reference data would be sufficient to resolve and identify major pixel inclusions; however, excessive resolution introduces additional complexity that can overwhelm the interpreter. Commonly used reference data sources for accuracy assessment include aerial photographs, on site sampling, image data from another sensor, and ancillary GIS data. The different resolutions of these data sources can create problems in developing a way to scale the resolution of the reference data to that of the image data, which is a subject of active research.
This presentation describes a method for creating a land-cover reference appropriate for comparison with 250 m resolution of MODIS pixels. A 250 m fishnet vector coverage corresponding to MODIS pixel resolution was first overlain on randomly selected USGS Digital Ortho Quarter Quads (DOQQs) across the study area. Next, a dot grid comprised of l00 dots was displayed for each 250 m cell. Each grid cell was then visually interpreted to determine the percent of each land-cover class of interest contained within the cell. Finally, a simple decision tree classifier is used to determine a class label for each cell based on its primary class composition and major inclusions.

This method, while labor intensive, resulted in a reference data set that can be compared on a pixel-wise basis with a MODIS derived land-cover classification. This method could be extended to incorporate different classification types, reference data sources, and image data.

PRESENTATION An Evaluation of Two Ground-Based Crown Closure Estimation Techniques Compared to Crown Closure Estimates Derived from High Resolution Imagery 03/07/2004
Iiames, J. An Evaluation of Two Ground-Based Crown Closure Estimation Techniques Compared to Crown Closure Estimates Derived from High Resolution Imagery. Presented at American Society for Photogrametry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Baltimore, MD, March 7-11, 2005.
Abstract: Two ground-based canopy closure estimation techniques, the Spherical Densitometer (SD) and the Vertical Tube (VT), were compared for the effect of deciduous understory on dominantlco-dominant crown closure estimates in even-aged loblolly (Pinus taeda) pine stands located in the Neuse River Basin in eastern North Carolina. Correlation of crown closure estimates for both techniques were compared to an unsupervised image crown closure classification (ICC) analysis generated from 1: 15840-scale panchromatic scanned (0.5 meter resolution) aerial photographs.
Crown closure measurements were taken prior to leaf cessation (leaf-on) and after leaf cessation (leaf -oft) between 1998 and 1999. Results indicate no significant differences occur when measuring dominantlco-dominant crown closure with the VT between leaf-on and 1eaf-offtime periods. However, significant differences were observed when comparing measurements made for that same period with the SD., The percent of the variation explained by the linear models was larger with the VT for both seasons (leaf-on and leaf-oft) than was for the SD when comparing regression results from both crown closure estimation techniques to the ICC analysis. The tighter fit to the linear regression model for the VT method was expected due to the smaller viewing angle (less than 1 degree) when compared to the 60 degree viewing angle of the SD. This larger viewing angle of the SD incorporated tree boles and the sides of tree crowns into the crown closure estimate thus causing a positive bias in the estimate (i.e., overestimation). In summary, dominant and codominant crown closure estimates ofloblol1y pine were consistent between leaf- on and leaf-offperiods for the VT, but not for the SD.

PRESENTATION Detection of Illicit Drugs in Municipal Wastewater Streams Using Integrative Samplers and LC Mass Spectrometry 03/07/2004
Alvarez, D. A., T JonesLepp, J. D. Petty, AND J. N. Huckins. Detection of Illicit Drugs in Municipal Wastewater Streams Using Integrative Samplers and LC Mass Spectrometry. Presented at Pittsburg Conference, Chicago, IL, March 7-12, 2004.
Abstract: A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drugs and abused controlled substances in sewage effluent can provide a community-scale assessment of drug use. Bodies of water not linked with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (i.e, streams, drainage basins, etc.) often are used to dispose of materials from illegal drug labs, can also be monitored by this technique. The background behind measuring illicit drugs in sewage as an objective measure of community-wide usage is provided here: http://www.e~a.Q:ov/nerlesdl/chemistrv/pharma/ book-conclude.htm/ .The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) was combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC- ES/ITMS) in efforts to monitor effluents from three WWTPs for the illicit pharmaceuticals methamphetamine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Methamphetamine was detected in the effluents from a Nevada WWTP during winter and summer samplings at 0.5 and 2.5 ng/L, respectively. At a South Carolina WWTP , MDMA was detected at 0.5 ng/L. Based on the average daily flow of effluent, an average of 0.12 and 0.02 kg/year of methamphetamine and MDMA, respectively, would be discharged from these WWTPs. The identification of the drugs was confirmed by collision induced dissociation experiments in the LC-ES/ITMS. The POCIS passively samples trace quantities of hydrophilic organic chemicals in an integrative manner, resulting in an enriched extract, providing a time-weighted average concentration of the analytes over the deployment period.

PRESENTATION Detection of Illcit Drugs in Municipal Wastewater Streams Using Integrative Samplers and LC Mass Spectrometry 03/07/2004
Alvarez, D. A., T JonesLepp, J. D. Petty, AND J. N. Huckins. Detection of Illcit Drugs in Municipal Wastewater Streams Using Integrative Samplers and LC Mass Spectrometry. Presented at Pittsburg Conference, Chicago, IL, March 7-12, 2004.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The EPA Remote Sensing Archive 03/02/2004
Benger, M J. The EPA Remote Sensing Archive. Presented at The Landscape Science Seminar Series, Video Teleconference, Reston, VA, March 2, 2004.
Abstract: What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and products generated by the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) over its 30 year history. What was once a disparate collection of materials has been inventoried, barcoded and organized into a one-of-a-kind collection of irreplaceable remote sensing data. This facility including over 5,500 rolls and 75,000 cut-frames of aerial photography, over 4,250 reports, and over 4,000 CD-ROMS of digital data from various sensors including Landsat Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, A VIRIS, Hyperion, and Hymap. The inventory is now managed by specialized library software and the database is increasing daily. This presentation will discuss the historical development of this unique facility, projects currently underway and its potential future contribution to the Agency's remote sensing program and information technology efforts.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Personal Actions 02/26/2004
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Personal Actions. Presented at Regional Science Liaison/Hazardous Substances Technical Liaison Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, February 26, 2004.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.
Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the largest unknown.

Beginning in the late 1990's, the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas became involved in several international activities involving PPCPs. This initial work has now evolved into a lead role at EPA. ECB's work is captured on the Agency's PPCPs web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma), which is the only comprehensive site in the world devoted to this topic. The web site serves as a central point of access and major public outreach tool for a wide array of materials and information.

ECB's role serves in part to catalyze research, and to foster collaborative efforts. In the span of the last 4 years, what had originally been a predominantly European-led effort, now involves researchers from other federal agencies (esp. CDC, FDA USDA, and USGS), other countries (e.g., Health Canada), and universities (e.g., EPA STAR grants targeted to PPCPs).

PRESENTATION Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons 02/22/2004
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, E. A. Atekwana, J. W. Duris, S. Rossbach, J. Allen, L. Smart, AND W. Sauck. Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Presented at 2004 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental & Engineering Problems, Colorado, Springs, CO, February 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: The results of a field and laboratory investigation of unconsolidated sediments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and undergoing natural biodegradation are presented. Fundamental to geophysical investigations of hydrocarbon impacted sediments is the assessment of how microbial degradational processes affect their geoelectrical response. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to understand how microbially mediated processes in hydrocarbon impacted sediments influence the geoelectrical response of this impacted zone. The field and laboratory results showed higher bulk conductivity in sediments impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons. The impacted sediments also showed increased populations of alkane degrading microbes and elevated dissolved cations ( e.g. Ca2+). The elevated cations in the contaminated sediments relative to uncontaminated sediments suggest enhanced mineral dissolution related to the microbial degradation of the hydrocarbon. Both the laboratory and field data showed the highest bulk conductivities occurring within zones impacted with the free-phase and residual phase hydrocarbon and not within the water saturated zone. A model using a simplified form of Archie's Law suggests highly elevated estimated pore water conductivities within this conductive zone ( ~4-6 times background bulk conductivity) for both the laboratory and field data. The similar results for hydrocarbon contaminated sediments in laboratory experiments and field settings suggest that the mechanism for the high bulk conductivity in the contaminated zone is related to the microbial metabolism of the hydrocarbon and the resulting geochemical alterations within the contaminated zone. This study demonstrates that the higher bulk conductivity measured by geoelectrical methods at hydrocarbon impacted sites may be in part related to the microbial mineralization of the hydrocarbon.

PRESENTATION Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Bulk Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons 02/22/2004
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, E. Atekwana, J. W. Duris, S. Rossbach, J. Allen, AND W. Sauck. Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Bulk Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Presented at 2004 Symposium on the Applications of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Colorado Springs, CO, February 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: Diesel contaminated layer (i.e. 32-45 cm) was the most geoelectrically conductive and showed the peak microbial activity. Below the saturated zone microbial enhanced mineral weathering increases the ionic concentration of pore fluids, leading to increased bulk electrical conducitivity for the contaminated columns. The geoelectrically conductive zone is most likely due to biological activity and/or the resulting processes. Lab results are available to replicate field results.

PRESENTATION Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria? 02/17/2004
Wickham, J D., K. H. Riitters, T G. Wade, AND K B. Jones. Should Ecological Regions or Land-Cover Composition Guide Establishment of Nutrient Criteria? Presented at Landscape Sciences Seminar Series, Research Triangle Park, NC, February 17, 2004.
Abstract: The continuing expansion of anthropogenic influence across the continental United States has motivated the establishment of nutrient criteria for streams, lakes, and estuaries as a means to promote the protection of aquatic resources. Nutrient criteria have been established based on ecoregional differences, recognizing that geographic variation in climate, topography, geology, and land use require use of different criteria values for different regions of the continental United States. Several studies have demonstrated that land-cover composition also strongly influences nutrient concentrations and yields. We examined the relative roles of ecoregions and watershed land-cover composition in explaining variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by re-analyzing the National Eutrophication Survey (NES) data reported by Omernik (1977). The variance of N concentrations among land-cover composition classes within ecoregions was six times larger than the variance among ecoregions. For P concentrations, land-cover composition within ecoregions accounted for 3 times more variance than ecoregions themselves. Variance across ecoregions was only weakly significant after accounting for variance in land-cover composition within ecoregions. The results suggest that the relationship between land-cover composition and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems should also be used to help guide establishment of nutrient criteria.

PRESENTATION Possible Ramifications of Higher Mercury Concentrations in Fillet Tissue of Skinnier Fish 01/25/2004
Hinners, T A. Possible Ramifications of Higher Mercury Concentrations in Fillet Tissue of Skinnier Fish. Presented at EPA's National Forum on Contaminants in Fish, San Diego, CA, January 25, 2004.
Abstract: Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a consequence of a faster loss of the body's fillet tissue (by metabolism) than the loss of methyl mercury from the body. Because such a response could be a common phenomenon, one having relevance to consumer guidance, it is offered for consideration during the Forum's special session on the development of a Joint National Mercury Advisory.

PRESENTATION Metapopulation Processes or Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape 01/15/2004
Bradford, D F., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, D. W. Sada, AND J R. Jaeger. Metapopulation Processes or Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert Landscape. Presented at Annual Meeting of Declining Amphibian Task Force, Reno, NV, January 15-16, 2004.
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests two predictions based on metapopulation theory ---the incidence of habitat patch occupancy is directly related to patch size and inversely related to patch isolation ---and a third, potentially competing hypothesis that patch occupancy is influenced by local environmental conditions. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were identified and surveyed for local environmental characteristics and presence/absence of B. punctatus. Patch isolation metrics were based on nearest-neighbor distances, calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. B. punctatus was found at 73% of the sites, including all of the 15 historic (pre-1970) sites. Based on stepwise multiple logistic regression, the incidence of patch occupancy increased significantly with patch size, and was also significantly related to elevation, latitude, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. In contrast, incidence of patch occupancy was not significantly related to patch isolation. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. Implicated dispersal distances of many kilometers are large for an amphibian.

PRESENTATION Status of the Relict Leopard Frog (Rana Onca): Our Limited Understanding of the Distribution, Size, and Dynamics of Extant and Recently Extinct Populations 01/15/2004
Jaeger, J R., D F. Bradford, R. D. Jennings, AND B. R. Riddle. Status of the Relict Leopard Frog (Rana Onca): Our Limited Understanding of the Distribution, Size, and Dynamics of Extant and Recently Extinct Populations. Presented at Annual Meeting of Declining Amphibian Task Force, Reno, NV, January 15-16, 2004.
Abstract: The relict leopard frog (Rana onca) was once thought to be extinct, but has recently been shown to comprise a valid taxon with extant populations. Here, we discuss research from several studies, conducted between 1991 and 200 1, that represent the basis for our understanding of the distribution, size, and dynamics of extant and recently extinct relict leopard frog populations. We review phylogeographic findings that have been used to identify this taxon, discuss the delineation of a minimum historical range, report the findings from mark-recapture studies and visual encounter surveys, and describe the extinction of 2 of 7 populations extant in the 1990s and speculate on the causes for these extinctions. A minimum historical range for this taxon was based on records from 24 localities (> 1 km apart) along the Virgin and Muddy River drainages and adjacent portion of the Colorado River drainage in southern Nevada, northwestern Arizona, and southwestern Utah. These frogs currently exist naturally at only 5 spring sites distributed in 2 general areas: near the Overton Arm of Lake Mead, and in Black Canyon along the Colorado River below Lake Mead, Nevada. The loss of populations in the 1990's greatly reduced the extant distribution of this frog. These population extinctions occurred concomitantly with encroachment of emergent vegetation into pools. A rough estimate for the total number of frogs at all sites in 2001 was approximately 1100 adults (range 693-1833). Annual adult survivorship from a mark-recapture studyat one site was estimated at 0.27. The limited number and distribution of populations, the low estimated total population size, the high estimated population turnover, and the observations of recent population extinctions are reasons for concern about the continued existence of the relict leopard frog.

PRESENTATION Reno, Nv, January 15, 2004: Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States 01/15/2004
BRADFORD, D. F. Reno, Nv, January 15, 2004: Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States. Presented at Annual Meeting of Declining Amphibian Task Force, Reno, NV, January 15 - 16, 2004.
Abstract: Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from 267 species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in the forthcoming book, 'Status and Conservation of U.S. Amphibians'. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of 91 anurans and 93 (53%) of 176 caudates.

PUBLISHED REPORT Fingerprint Analysis of Contaminant Data: A Forensic Tool for Evaluating Environmental Contamination 12/18/2004
Plumb, R. H. Fingerprint Analysis of Contaminant Data: A Forensic Tool for Evaluating Environmental Contamination. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-04/054.
Abstract: Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting process. This process, Fingerprint Analysis of Leachate Contaminants (FALCON), was developed through the EPA's Technical Support Center (TSC) in response to the need for identifying the source of contaminant plumes. FALCON combines data for several contaminants to develop a distinctive graphical fingerprint or multi-parameter chemical signature. These fingerprint patterns can be used to characterize the source of a contaminant plume, differentiate the contaminant plume from background conditions at the source, and monitor the migration of leachate into the environment. It can be applied to both organic and inorganic contaminants and is effective over a wide range of contaminant concentrations. This data evaluation process is analogous to using fingerprints to identify individuals. However, rather than using the size and location of ridges and swirls on the fingertip, the relative abundance of selected constituents is used to develop distinctive chemical signatures.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that FALCON is a quantitative, defensible fingerprinting process. A description of the stepwise FALCON technique is provided in Section 2.0. Examples are presented to illustrate the range of situations in which fingerprinting can be applied to characterize the occurrence and distribution of environmental contaminants. These examples were developed using routine monitoring data obtained from a variety of ongoing site characterization and monitoring programs. Case studies of FALCON applications are presented in Section 3.0.

PUBLISHED REPORT Potential Environmental Impacts of Dust Suppressants: "ADVOIDING Another Times Beach" 11/05/2004
Van EE, J., Piechota, T., J. Batista, K. Stave, AND D. James. Potential Environmental Impacts of Dust Suppressants: "ADVOIDING Another Times Beach". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/031 (NTIS PB2005-101023), 2004.
Abstract: In the past decade, there has been an increased use of chemical dust suppressants such as i water, salts, asphalt emulsion, vegetable oils, molasses, synthetic polymers, mulches, and lignin 1 products. Dust suppressants abate dust by changing the physical properties of the soil surface \ and are typically used on construction sites, unpaved roads, and mining activities. The use of chemical dust suppressants has increased dramatically due to rapid population growth and I increased emphasis on the need to control particulates in the interest of air quality. In the United States, there are over 2,500,000 km of public unpaved roads, of which 25% (625,000 km) are r treated with chemical dust suppressants. A critical problem in the arid southwestern U.S. is dust f"' suppression on land disturbed for residential construction.
Recognizing that it is important to achieve and maintain clean air, the concern that prompted this report is that application of dust suppressants to improve air quality could potentially have other adverse environmental impacts. Times Beach, Missouri is a classic example where the resolution of dust emissions from unpaved roads leads to the creation of a Superfund site. In 1972 and 1973 waste oil contaminated dioxin was sprayed on unpaved roads and vacant lots for dust control in Times Beach. After realizing the adverse situation that had occurred, the costs to relocate the residents and clean up the site was over $80 million. Much more stringent regulations are now in place to avoid another Times Beach; however, there is still concern over the use of dust suppressants since most products used as dust suppressants are by-products and their exact composition is unknown.

The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the potential environmental impacts of chemical dust suppressants. Furthermore, the report summarizes the views of an Expert Panel that was convened on May 30-31, 2002 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas to probe into the potential environmental issues associated with the use of dust suppressants.

PUBLISHED REPORT Standard Operating Procedure for Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry Methods Development 10/27/2004
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Standard Operating Procedure for Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry Methods Development. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/189 (NTIS PB2005-100591), 2004.
Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) is engaged in the development, demonstration, and validation of new or newly adapted methods of analysis for environmentally related samples. Recognizing that a "one size fits all" approach to quality requirements will not work in organizations as diverse as the EPA, implementation of the EPA Quality System is based on the principle of graded approach.
Applying a graded approach means that quality systems for different organizations and programs will vary according to the specific objectives and needs of the organization. The initiation of the development of a method may be the result of: an EP A Program Office request; a request from a Region; or the foresight of a scientist who sees the future needs for a method.

Data quality objectives (DQOs) and the EPA Data Quality Objective Process may not always be appropriate for the method development process. The reason for this is that if quantifiable objectives are put before a research investigator, the danger exists that a bias may evolve from the administrative drive to reach the objective.

In lieu of DQOs, scientists engaged in methods development should strive for Project Quality Objectives (PQOs). In some cases, science investigators will use this plan directly; in other cases, this plan may be used as a "blueprint" for developing a final QAPP, due to the "uniqueness" of research.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Milestone Inc.'s Direct Mercury Analyzer (Dma)-80 09/10/2004
Billets, S N., J. Nicklas, AND J. Evans. Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Milestone Inc.'s Direct Mercury Analyzer (Dma)-80. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/012 (NTIS PB2005-100261), 2004.
Abstract: Milestone's Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the DMA-80 and four other field measurement devices for mercury in soil and sediment. The key objectives of the demonstration were: 1) determine sensitivity of each instrument with respect to a vendor-generated method detection limit (MDL) and practical quantitation limit (POL); 2) determine analytical accuracy associated with vendor field measurements using field samples and standard reference materials (SRMs); 3) evaluate the precision of vendor field measurements; 4) measure time required to perform mercury measurements; and 5) estimate costs associated with mercury measurements for capital, labor, supplies, and investigation-derived wastes.
The demonstration involved analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs ), field samples collected from four sites, and spiked field samples for mercury. The performance results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory using reference method, "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846) Method 7471 B.

The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision measurements were successfully com MA-80 performed well in all these categories. The measurement costs were estimated to be $13,381 for milestone's DMA-80 rental option or $77.35 per sample; excluding rental fees.

The DMA-80 exhibited good ease of use and durability, as well as no major health and safety concerns. However, the device portability is somewhat limited by its size. Despite these limitations, the demonstration findings collectively indicated that the DMA-80 is a reliable field mobile measurement device for mercury in soil.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Mti Inc's Pdv 6000 Stripping Voltammetry 09/10/2004
Billets, S N., J. Nicklas, AND J. Evans. Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Mti Inc's Pdv 6000 Stripping Voltammetry. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/028 (NTIS PB2005-100120), 2004.
Abstract: Monitoring Technologies International Pty. Ltd. (MTI) has developed a Portable Digital Voltammeter (PDV) designed to identify and measure the concentration of heavy metal ions. MTI's PDV 6000 was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2003 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the Demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the PDV 6000. Four other field measurement devices for mercury in soil and sediment were evaluated in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The key objectives of the Demonstration were: 1) determine sensitivity of each instrument with respect to a vendor-generated method detection limit (MDL) and practical quantitation limit (PQL); 2) determine potential analytical accuracy associated with vendor field measurements; 3) evaluate the precision of vendor field measurements; 4) measure time required to perform mercury measurements; and 5) estimate costs associated with mercury measurements for capital, labor, supplies, and investigation-derived wastes (IDW).
The Demonstration also involved analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs), field samples collected from four sites, and spiked field samples for mercury. The performance results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory using reference method, "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846) Method 74718.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Niton's Xli/Xlt 700 Series X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer 08/16/2004
Billets, S N., J. Nicklas, AND J. Evans. Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Niton's Xli/Xlt 700 Series X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/148 (NTIS PB2005-100119), 2004.
Abstract: NITON's XL-700 Series X-ray fluorescence analyzers were demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XLi 702 and XU 792 and four other field measurement devices for mercury in soil and sediment. The key objectives of the Demonstration were: 1) determine sensitivity of each instrument with respect to a vendor-generated method detection limit (MDL) and practical quantitation limit (POL); 2) determine analytical accuracy associated with vendor field measurements using field samples and standard reference materials; 3) evaluate the precision of vendor field measurements; 4) measure time required to perform mercury measurements; and 5) estimate costs associated with mercury measurements for capital, labor, supplies, and investigation-derived wastes. The Demonstration involved analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs), field samples collected from four sites, and spiked field samples for mercury. The performance results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory reference method, "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846) Method 7471 B.
The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision measurements were successfully completed for both instruments. Results with the XU 702 were found to be very precise and accurate when compared to standard reference materials. During the Demonstration, NITON required 17.5 hours (assumes one technician) for analysis of 197 samples. The measurement costs were estimated to be $7, 786 for NITON's XU 702 rental option, or $39.52 per sample; $13.18 per sample excluding capital costs. Results for the XU 792 was found to be very precise and accurate when compared to standard reference materials. During the Demonstration, NITON required 17.5 hours (assumes one technician) for analysis of 197 samples. The measurement costs were estimated to be $9,396 for NITON's XU 792 rental option, or $47.69 per sample; $13.18 per sample excluding capital costs.

The XL-700 Series Analyzers exhibited good ease of use and durability, as well as no major health and safety concerns. The analyzers are hand-held single units and extremely portable. While the devices are available for purchase, the lead time of 2 to 6 weeks may limit their application to some sites where rapid response is required; although, rental units are usually available in 10 to 14 days. NITON maintains 10 isotope and 3 X-ray tube units for rental, but their availability is subject to demand. The Demonstration findings collectively indicated that the XL-700 Series Analyzers are rapid, lightweight, hand-held portable field measurement devices for mercury in soil.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Ohio Lumex's Ra-915+/Rp-91c Mercury Analyzer 08/16/2004
Billets, S N., J. Nicklas, AND J. Evans. Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Ohio Lumex's Ra-915+/Rp-91c Mercury Analyzer. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/147 (NTIS PB2005-100262), 2004.
Abstract: Ohio Lumex's RA915+/91 C mercury analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the RA915+/91C and four other field measurement devices for mercury in soil and sediment. The key objectives of the Demonstration were: 1) determine sensitivity of each instrument with respect to a vendor-generated method detection limit (MDL) and practical quantitation limit (POL); 2) determine analytical accuracy associated with vendor field measurements using field samples and standard reference materials; 3) evaluate the precision of vendor field measurements; 4) measure time required to perform mercury measurements; and 5) estimate costs associated with mercury measurements for capital, labor, supplies, and investigation-derived wastes.
The Demonstration also involved analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs), field samples collected from four sites, and spiked field samples for mercury. The performance results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory using reference method, "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846) Method 7471B.

The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision measurements were successfully completed. Results of these measurement evaluations suggest that the Ohio Lumex field instrument can perform as well as the laboratory analytical method. Accuracy comparisons to standard reference materials showed statistical equivalence but field sample analysis suggested possible matrix interferences. Field instrument precision was better than laboratory precision as determined by relative standard deviation calculations. During the demonstration, Ohio Lumex required 21.25 hours (1,275 minutes), for analysis of 197 samples. The cost per analysis, based on measurement of 197 samples, when incurring a minimum 1-month rental fee for the RA-915+/RP-91 C, was determined to be $23.44 per sample. Excluding the instrument rental cost, the cost for analyzing the 197 samples was determined to be $15.82 per sample. Based on the 3-day field demonstration, the total cost for equipment rental and necessary supplies was estimated at $8,600. The cost breakout by category is: capital costs, 32.5%; supplies, 10.8%; support equipment, 6.0%; labor, 19.5%; and IDW disposal, 31.2%.

The RA915+/RP-91C exhibited good ease of use and durability, as well as no major health and safety concerns. However, the device portability is somewhat limited by its size. Additionally, the device is readily available for purchase or lease. The Demonstration findings collectively indicated that the RA915+/RP-91 C is a reliable field mobile measurement device for mercury in soil.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Metorex's X-Met 2000 X-Ray Fluoresence Technology 08/16/2004
Billets, S N., J. Nicklas, AND J. Evans. Field Measurement Technology for Mercury in Soil and Sediment Metorex's X-Met 2000 X-Ray Fluoresence Technology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/6009/R-03/149 (NTIS PB2005-100263), 2004.
Abstract: Metorex's X-MET 2000 X-ray fluorescence analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the X-MET 2000 and four other field measurement devices for mercury in soil and sediment. The key objectives of the Demonstration were: 1) determine sensitivity of each instrument with respect to a vendor-generated method detection limit (MDL) and practical quantitation limit (POL); 2) determine analytical accuracy associated with vendor field measurements using field samples and standard reference materials; 3) evaluate the precision of vendor field measurements; 4) measure time required to perform mercury measurements; and 5) estimate costs associated with mercury measurements for capital, labor, supplies, and investigation-derived wastes. The Demonstration involved analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs), field samples collected from four sites, and spiked field samples for mercury .The performance results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory reference method, "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846) Method 74718.
All primary objectives were successfully evaluated. The X-MET 2000 was found to have an MDL of between 16.5 and 26.9 mg/kg and a POL of approximately 64 mg/kg. The instrument was found to be very precise (Metorex had an average relative standard deviation on sample replicates of 9.34% compared to the referee laboratory's 20.6%), but have poor accuracy (22 of 32 samples had a percent difference of greater than 50%). During the Demonstration, Metorex required 18 hours (36 man hours) for analysis of 197 samples. The measurement costs were estimated to be $6,556 for Metorex's X-MET 2000 rental option or $33.28 per sample; $16.02 per sample excluding capital costs.

The X-MET 2000 exhibited good ease of use and durability, as well as no major health and safety concerns. The analyzer is lightweight and extremely portable. Additionally, while the device is available for purchase, the lead time of 30 days may limit its application to some sites where rapid response is required. Metorex maintains two or three units for rental, but it's availability is subject to demand. The Demonstration findings collectively indicated that the X-MET 2000 is a rapid and portable field measurement device for mercury in soil.

PUBLISHED REPORT Field Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan 08/15/2004
Nicklas, J. AND J. D. Evans. Field Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/053 (NTIS PB2005-100118), 2004.
Abstract: The Demonstration of innovative field devices for the measurement of mercury in soil and sediment is being conducted under the EPA's SITE Program in February 2003 at the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation's Department of Energy Oversight facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary purpose of the Demonstration is to evaluate innovative field devices for the measurement of mercury in soil and sediment based on their performance and cost as compared to a conventional, off-site laboratory analytical method. The five field measurement devices listed below will be demonstrated:
.Metorex's X-M ET 2000 Metal Master Analyzer, X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer
.Milestone Inc.'s Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80), Thermal Decomposition Instrument
.NITON's XL-700 Series Multi-Element Analyzer, X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer
.Ohio Lumex's RA-915+ Portable Mercury Analyzer, Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Thermal
Decompostion Attachment RP 91C
.MTI, Inc.'s PDV 5000 Hand Held Instrument, Anodic Stripping Voltamm eter<1).

This Demonstration Plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of each field measurement device. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to document each device's performance and cost. A separate Innovative Technology Verification Report (ITVR) will be prepared for each device. The ITVRs will present the Demonstration findings associated with the Demonstration objectives.

PUBLISHED REPORT Navel Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California EPA Characterization Test Cell Report on Electromagnetic Surveys in the Test Cell Area 07/30/2004
Werkema, D. Navel Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California EPA Characterization Test Cell Report on Electromagnetic Surveys in the Test Cell Area. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-04/073 (NTIS PB2004-106608), 2004.
Abstract: The objective of the geophysical surveys at the EPA Characterization Test Cell (CTC) area (Site) at Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California is to locate geophysical anomalies indicative of metallic objects within the area of the cell. The goal was to provide background metallic object content at the Site for future construction and research activities. To achieve the objective, detailed reconnaissance geophysical mapping using Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) was conducted throughout the Site. The EMI survey was performed using the Geonics EM-31 and the Geonics EM-61. The following series of geophysical property maps were produced from the survey results: an EM-31 Quadrature response (bulk ground conductivity), EM-31 In-Phase response, EM-61 Bottom Channel, EM-61 Top Channel, and the EM-61 Normalized Differential Channel. The EM- 31 revealed bulk ground conductivities, while the EM-61 revealed responses due to ferrous and/or non-ferrous metallic objects. The EM-31 maps show no anomalous responses within the area surveyed. An increasing bulk ground conductivity gradient was observed along the eastern and southeastern portions of the Site interpreted as due to a nearby chain- link fence as well as an underground utility along the southeastern boundary. The EM-61 maps reveal several discrete anomalies indicative of small metallic objects throughout the site and one large discrete anomaly of no known cause. In addition a few north-south trending linear anomalies may represent elongate pipe-like metallic objects or surface material contrasts. Overall, the EMI surveys suggest the locations of several subsurface metallic objects, which may be encountered during excavation and construction and if so, should be removed prior to construction of the CTC.

PUBLISHED REPORT Geospatial Data Accuracy Assessment 07/19/2004
Lunetta, R S. AND J G. Lyon. Geospatial Data Accuracy Assessment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/064, 2004.
Abstract: The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the development and application of spatial data throughout the latter 20th century. This trend, which is expected to continue, will become evermore pervasive, and continue to revolutionize future decision making processes. However, our current ability to validate large-area spatial data sets, represents a major impediment to many future applications. Problems associated with assessing spatial data accuracy are primarily related to their valued characteristic of being continuous data, and to the associated geometric or positional errors implicit with all spatial data. Continuous data routinely suffer from the problem of spatial autocorrelation which violate the important statistical assumption of "independent" data, while positional errors tend to introduce excessive (anomalous) errors with the combining of multiple data sets or layers. The majority of large-area spatial data coverages are derived from remote sensor data and subsequently analyzed in a GIS, to provide baseline information for data driven assessments to facilitate the decision making process.

PUBLISHED REPORT Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan Technologies for the Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment 06/24/2004
Billets, S N. AND A. B. Dindal. Demonstration and Quality Assurance Project Plan Technologies for the Monitoring and Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/036 (NTIS PB2004-105926), 2004.
Abstract: The demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin in soil and sediment is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan, at Green Point Environmental Learning Center from approximately April 26 to May 6, 2004. The primary purpose of the demonstration is to evaluate innovative monitoring technologies. The technologies listed below will be demonstrated.
.AhRC PCRTM Kit, Hybrizyme Corporation
.Ah-IMMUNOASSY@ Kit, Paralsian, Inc.
.Coplanar PCB Immunoassay Kit, Abraxis LLC
.DF-l Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit, CAPE Technologies L.L.C.
.CALUX@ by Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc-
.Dioxin ELISA Kit, Wako Pure Chemical Industries LTD.

This demonstration plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of these technologies. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to document each technology's performance and cost. A separate innovative technology verification report (ITVR) will.be prepared for each technology. The ITVRs will present the demonstration findings associated with the demonstration objectives.

PUBLISHED REPORT Regional Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region: Evaluation of Integration Methods and Assessments Results 04/27/2004
Smith, E R., L. T. Tran, R. V. O'Neill, AND N. W. Locantore. Regional Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region: Evaluation of Integration Methods and Assessments Results. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/082 (NTIS PB2004-104952), 2004.
Abstract: This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated environmental vulnerabilities. ReVA: 1. Provides regional data on stressors and sensitive resources.
2. Develops techniques to integrate information on exposure and effects.
3. Evaluates potential environmental changes under alternative future scenarios.
4. Evaluates alternative environmental policies.
5. Develops techniques to prioritize areas for ecological restoration.
6. Identifies information gaps.

These integrated assessments and comparisons provide a framework for assessing relative
risk and prioritizing management actions. For example, areas may be identified and prioritized for ecological restoration. This framework also facilitates communication and dialogue
regarding economic and quality of life trade-offs associated with alternative environmental policies.

To achieve these goals, ReVA has developed a number of integration methods. This report will describe each of the integration methods, their advantages and disadvantages for integrated assessment, and make recommendations for development and application.

PUBLISHED REPORT 15-Meter Landsat Analyses of the Mississippi River Map Series from Headwaters in the Gulf of Mexico 04/17/2004
Edmonds, C M., R D. Lopez, D T. Heggem, D. W. Williams, AND K. L. Short. 15-Meter Landsat Analyses of the Mississippi River Map Series from Headwaters in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/084 (NTIS PB2004-104950), 2004.
Abstract: The purpose of the Mississippi River map series is to provide reference for ecological vulnerability throughout the entire Mississippi River Basin, which is a forthcoming product. This map series product consists of seven 32 inch x 40 inch posters, with a nominal scale of 1 inch = 3 miles. Each map includes metadata, as follows: (1) Data type: Landsat ETM+ Panchromatic Band, 15 meter nominal spatial resolution
(2) Imagery acquisition dates
(3) Map projection: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 15
(4) Imagery provided by: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, a Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium member
(5) Constructed by: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (C.M. Edmonds, R.D. Lopez, D.T. Heggem) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (D.M. Williams and K.L. Short)
(6) Map Version: 1.0
(7) Map production date: August 5, 2003

The format of the map series is intended to allow for easy reference and includes basic reference information so that further ecological vulnerability analyses can be conducted using existing water quality data, existing hydrologic data, and land cover data. Reference data is overlaid on the map series, as follows:
(a) River mile locations at 25-mile intervals (source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District)
(b) Lock and dam location (source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District)
( c) City location with state abbreviation
(d) Major Mississippi River tributaries
(e) Floodway locations (source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District).

We optimized the number and size of the presentations to allow for sufficient detail in the images and provide a hardcopy for reference as forthcoming additional ecological analyses are performed. The miniature scale posters are included for quick reference. Forthcoming ecological vulnerability analyses include investigation of water quality or habitat vulnerability (after Lopez et. al, 2003). This map series is an important first step toward developing a system-wide approach to understanding the functioning of large rivers at a landscape scale.

PUBLISHED REPORT Literature Review and Report: Surface-Sediment Sampler Database 03/09/2004
FieldsCapri, J. AND B A. Schumacher. Literature Review and Report: Surface-Sediment Sampler Database. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/115 (NTIS PB2004-101011), 2004.
Abstract: A literature review was conducted to identify available surface sediment sampling technologies with an ability to collect undisturbed sediments to depths of up to 1 meter below the water sediment interface. This survey was conducted using published literature and references, Environmental Protection Agency reports, professional sources, journal articles, internet web sites, sales brochures, and other sources as identified. For each piece of sampling equipment or sampling tool identified during the literature search, the following information was collected: general description of the equipment or tool, including its size, shape, weight, and composition; manufacturer's name, address, phone number, and email; a picture of the equipment or tool; the general mechanism of operation; sample volume collected; chemical and physical compatibility concerns; labor requirements; cost; and other requirements such as electrical power or specialized training.
Sampling methodologies included in this investigation are grab or core types of sampling devices, as these types are most typically used in collecting surface sediments. In this review, 40 samplers were identified that included 13 grab samplers and 27 core samplers. Grab samplers included in the review are the Ponar, Birge-Ekman, Van Veen, Peterson, Mud Snapper, Scoopfish, Shipek, Smith-McIntyre, and others. Core samplers included in the review are the piston, splitcore, box, Vibracore, Mackereth, Ballchek, Craib, Gomex, Phleger, and others. These technologies were identified through contacts with centers of contaminated sediments expertise and included in the study. Vendors were solicited to provide required information for the report.

All information collected in the literature search phase is maintained in an Access@ database. Pictures of equipment will be maintained in digital PDF or JPEG file formats in a sediment sampler picture file directory associated with the database. Information contained in the database is provided in the Appendix to this report.

PUBLISHED REPORT National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (Nelac): Constitution, Bylaws, and Standards 01/16/2004
Autry, L. National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (Nelac): Constitution, Bylaws, and Standards. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-04/003 (NTIS PB2004-102502), 2004.
Abstract: The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental laboratories. The standards also include requirements for state or federal agencies which elect to become accrediting authorities. The standards were developed through a consensus process by the states, territories, EPA, and other federal agencies with input from the private sector.

 

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