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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 2003

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 2003, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 137 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Chemicals from Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 06/06/2003
Daughton, C G. Chemicals from Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products. E. Julius Dasch (ed.), Water: Science and Issues. Macmillan Reference USA, New York, NY, 1:158-164, (2003).
Abstract: The use or consumption of natural resources often leads to ecological alteration. These changes can result from exposure of living systems to "stressors" ranging from physical alteration (such as habitat disruption) to chemical pollution. Untoward effects on wildlife and humans can range from the aesthetic to increased morbidity and mortality. This chapter focuses on a large class of chemicals designed for use by humans and domestic animals - Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). While the benefits of these chemicals are undisputed and wide-ranging, the consequences of their release or escape to the environment are poorly understood. As early as the 1950s, the focus of environmental chemists had been agrochemicals (e.g., DDT) and industrial chemicals and wastes/by-products (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs) and dioxins) as the major sources of chemical pollutants in the environment. These toxic chemicals are frequently lipophilic (dissolving in fat), persistent (resisting environmental breakdown), and volatile (evaporating, subject to atmospheric transport) - properties giving these "conventional" pollutants the ability to concentrate in body fat (bioaccumulating in food chains) and to disperse globally, Despite the long, concerted attention afforded these conventional pollutants, it is not known what portion of total toxicity-risk they comprise. Indeed, many other classes of synthetic and naturally occurring toxicants can and do enter the environment.

BOOK CHAPTER Assessing the Accuracy of Satellite-Derived Land Cover Classification Using Historical Aerial Photography Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, and Airborne Video Data 04/16/2003
Skirvin, S. M., W G. Kepner, S. E. Marsh, S. E. Drake, J. K. Maingi, C M. Edmonds, C. J. Watts, AND D. R. Williams. Assessing the Accuracy of Satellite-Derived Land Cover Classification Using Historical Aerial Photography Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles, and Airborne Video Data. , Chapter 9, Ross Lunetta & John G. Lyon (ed.), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 137-154, (2003).
Abstract: As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades'worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data are not available for accuracy assessment of the image-derived land cover classes, and other data and methods must be employed. The feasibility of utilizing historical aerial photography, digital orthophoto quadrangle (DOQ) images, and high-resolution airborne color video data to determine the accuracy of satellite derived land cover maps was investigated for a southwestern U.S. watershed. Satellite imagery included Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired over an approximately 25-year period.

This paper summarizes the results of three methods used to assess overall and individual
accuracy for ten land cover classes for the upper San Pedro River watershed, in southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Land cover maps were produced from classifications of MSS imagery (5 June 1973, 10 June 1986, and 2 June 1992) and TM imagery (8 June 1997). The MSS imagery was projected to Universal Transverse Mercator ground coordinates with a pixel size of 60 meters; the 30 meter TM imagery was re-sampled and mapped with a pixel size of 60 meters to facilitate comparison.

BOOK CHAPTER Land Use Change Due to Urbanization for the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment Region of the Eastern United States 01/23/2003
Rapport, D. J., W. L. Lasley, D. E. Rolston, N. O. Nielsen, C. O. Qualset, AND A. B. Damania. Land Use Change Due to Urbanization for the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment Region of the Eastern United States. , Chapter 76, Managing for Healthy Ecosystems. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, (2003).
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Vulnerability Assessment Pro- gram (REVA) is designed to develop and demonstrate approaches to identify the ecosystems at the greatest risk from regional population growth and economic activity (Smith, 1999). A region is a multi-state area involving many metropolitan areas, drainage basins, associated ecosystems, and cultural infrastructures. The term vulnerability is a variable, ranging from no vulnerability to low and high vulnerability; without a qualifier, the term implies nothing. REVA is particularly used to compare risks arising from all sources of potential harm, acting alone or in combination, over the entire region. REVA is beginning with a pilot study conducted as part of the Middle Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). The study area includes all of Pennsylvania; Maryland; West Virginia; Virginia; the District of Columbia; and parts of North Carolina, Delaware, New York, and New Jersey. This area was selected because it has a wealth of ecological data collected by field surveys, remote sensing, and other ecological monitoring, modeling, and research activities. The study reported herein addresses two key questions: (1) What will be the land conversion to urban use and nitrogen loading during the next 5 to 25 years? and (2) Where are the most vulnerable ecosystems located? Immediate objectives are these:

1. Integrate multiple data sources and existing assessment technologies
2. Expand research to fill critical gaps in our ability to apply existing data at the regional scale
3. Incorporate socioeconomic research to better understand factors driving environmental change and to more accurately assess the true costs of environmental degradation

REVA will test alternative approaches by applying the technology as it is developed to the MAIA and obtain feedback from decision makers at the regional and local levels and the public.

JOURNAL Watershed Level Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Export 12/18/2003
Wickham, J D. AND T G. Wade. Watershed Level Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Export. COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS IN AGRICULTURE 37(1-3):15-24, (2003).
Abstract:
The distribution of different types of land cover across a watershed is a principal factor in controlling the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous exported from a watershed. A well developed literature of nutrient export coefficients by land-cover class was used to model the risk of equaling or exceeding specified levels of nutrient export. The model was applied to about 1000 comparatively small watersheds mapped for the state of Maryland for environmental analysis and planning. Risk estimates generally increased from east to west, but numerous areas of high variability were evident. Risk of exceeding specified levels of nitrogen and phosphorous export were non linearly related to the amount of forest in the watershed. Risk increased more dramatically for phosphorous and nitrogen when forest dropped below about 85 and 95 percent, respectively. Bifurcations in ths nonlinear relationship were the result of the relative abundance of agriculture and urban land in the watershed. The nonlinear relationship between percentage forest and risk increased more dramatically for phosphorous and less dramatically for nitrogen when urban was relatively more abundant than agriculture. Regional-scale variation in risk is discussed in terms of its relevance to environmental management.

JOURNAL A Comparison of Vector and Raster GIS Methods for Calculating Landscape Metrics Used in Environmental Assessments 11/24/2003
Wade, T G., J D. Wickham, M S. Nash, A C. Neale, K. H. Riitters, AND K B. Jones. A Comparison of Vector and Raster GIS Methods for Calculating Landscape Metrics Used in Environmental Assessments. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 69(12):1399-1405, (2003).
Abstract: GIS-based measurements that combine native raster and native vector data are commonly used to assess environmental quality. Most of these measurements can be calculated using either raster or vector data formats and processing methods. Raster processes are more commonly used because they can be significantly faster computationally than vector, but error is introduced in converting vector data to raster. This conversion error has been widely studied, but the impact on environmental decision making has not been addressed. We examined four GIS-based measurements of environmental quality in approximately 1000 watersheds in the state of Maryland and Washington, D.C. Each metric was calculated using vector and raster methods and estimated values were compared using a paired t-test, Spearman rank correlation and cluster analysis. Paired t-test results showed significant differences between methods for three of the four metrics. Spearman ranks were nearly identical between methods for all four metrics. Cluster analysis also reported nearly identical results between methods, with over 98% of watersheds assigned to the same group for three of the four methods. The paired t-test results are consistent with other studies that show credible differences in metrics that depend on whether estimation was done in a raster or vector format, but the Spearman rank correlations and the cluster analysis suggest that these quantitative differences would not influence environmental decisions.

JOURNAL Localizing National Fragmentation Statistics With Forest Type Maps 11/24/2003
Riitters, K. H. AND J D. Wickham. Localizing National Fragmentation Statistics With Forest Type Maps. JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 101(4):18-22, (2003).
Abstract: Fragmmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003 National Report on Sustainable Forests by combining state vegetation maps with national forestland fragmentation maps. The degree and scale of fragmentation of different forest types can be gauged from the amount of forestland that meets certain fragmentation thresholds at multiple scale of analysis.

JOURNAL Identifying Compounds Despite Chromatography Limitations: Organophosphates in Treated Sewage 11/10/2003
Grange, A H., L I. Osemwengie, AND G W. Sovocool. Identifying Compounds Despite Chromatography Limitations: Organophosphates in Treated Sewage. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 21(11):1062-1076, (2003).
Abstract: Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and
disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest in
detecting, identifying, and quantifying these and related compounds, in determining their
toxicities, and in assessing the risks they pose to ecosystems and to humans. For any compounds posing such risks, their sources, degradation rates, and degradation products must also be investigated before remediation strategies are developed Gas chromatographic separation in time coupled to mass spectrometric selection by mass (GC/MS) provides the most effective analytical method for identifying trace and ultra-trace levels of analytes in complex extracts that elute or coelute from a GC column, When coelution occurs, MS provides distinct patterns of ion abundances from each compound, which can be correlated with the individual compounds. By contrast, FTIR and NMR require larger amounts than MS of well-separated compounds for analyses. Rather than devise techniques to isolate and concentrate coeluting compounds prior to analysis by other analytical techniques, we have developed a high resolution mass spectrometric technique to identify compounds in complex environmental extracts based on GC/MS data alone.

JOURNAL How Far to the Nearest Road? 10/27/2003
Riitters, K. H. AND J D. Wickham. How Far to the Nearest Road? FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1(13):125-129, (2003).
Abstract: Ecological impacts from roads may be the rule rather than the exception in most watersheds of the conterminous United States. We measured total area, and forestland area located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type in each of 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall, 20% of the total area was within 90 meters of the nearest road, and the proportion increased rapidly with distance such that 83% was within 750 meters of a road and only 3% was more than 3,660 meters away. Forestland area measurements differed by <2% for all distances. There was also substantial geographic variation. For example, the proportion of total watershed area within 270 meters of a road varied from 1% to 94% among watersheds. Geographic "clusters" of watersheds with a substantial portion of area in close proximity to roads were located in Northeast, lower Great Lakes, and Pacific Northwest and Southwest coastal regions, on the southeast Piedmont and coastal plain, and in parts of the Ohio, Brazos, Colorado, San Joaquin, and Sacramento River basins

JOURNAL A High-Level Calculation of the Proton Affinity of Diborane 10/09/2003
Betowski, L D. AND M. Enlow. A High-Level Calculation of the Proton Affinity of Diborane. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: THEOCHEM 638(1-3):189-195, (2003).
Abstract: The experimental proton affinity of diborane (B2H6) is based on an unstable species, B2H,+, 4 which has been observed only at low temperatures. The present work calculates the proton 5 affinity of diborane using the Gaussian-3 method and other high-level compound ab initio 6 methods as a check of the experimental value. The present value of the proton affinity of 7 diborane is thus reported at 147.7 kcal/mol, compared with the experimental value of 147 + or - 4 kcal/mol. However, the experimental value was found to be based on two values, each of which 9 are presently held in error by 12 kca1/mol, but in opposite directions.

JOURNAL Gy Sampling Theory in Environmental Studies 2: Subsampling Error Measurements 10/02/2003
Gerlach, R. W., J M. Nocerino, C. A. Ramsey, AND B. C. Venner. Gy Sampling Theory in Environmental Studies 2: Subsampling Error Measurements. ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA 490(1-2):159-168, (2003).
Abstract: Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating methods that relate sample characteristics to analytical performance. Predicted uncertainty levels allow appropriate study design decisions to be made, facilitating more timely and less expensive evaluations. Gy sampling theory can predict a significant fraction of sampling error when certain conditions are met. We report on several controlled studies of subsampling procedures to evaluate the utility of Gy sampling theory applied to laboratory subsampling practices. Several sample types were studied and both analyte and non-analyte containing particles were shown to play important roles affecting the measured uncertainty.
Gy sampling theory was useful in predicting minimum uncertainty levels provided the theoretical assumptions were met. Predicted fundamental errors ranged from 46% to 68% of the total measurement variability. The study results also showed sectorial splitting outperformed incremental sampling for simple model systems and suggested that sectorial splitters divide each size fraction independently. Under the limited conditions tested in this study, incremental sampling with a spatula produced biased results when sampling particulate matrices with grain sizes about 1 mm.

JOURNAL Self-Organizing Maps for Integrated Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region 09/30/2003
Tran, L. T., C. G. Knight, R. V. O'Neill, E R. Smith, AND M. O'Connell. Self-Organizing Maps for Integrated Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 31(6):822-835, (2003).
Abstract: A. new method was developed to perform an environmental assessment for the Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR). This was a combination of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA). The method is capable of clustering ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting relative cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land-cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and
topography of the Mid-Atlantic region, we were able to point out areas which were in relatively
poor condition and/or vulnerable to future deterioration, Combining the strengths of SOM with
PCA, the method offers an easy and useful way to perform a regional environmental assessment.

JOURNAL Thematic Accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data (Nlcd) for the Eastern United States: Statistical Methodology and Regional Results 09/23/2003
Stehman, S. V., J D. Wickham, AND L. Yang. Thematic Accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data (Nlcd) for the Eastern United States: Statistical Methodology and Regional Results. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 86(4):500-516, (2003).
Abstract: The accuracy of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or alternate reference label determined for a sample pixel and a mode class of the mapped 3x3 block of pixels centered on the sample pixel. Results are reported for each of the four regions comprising the Eastern United States for both Anderson Level I and II classifications. Overall accuracies for Levels I and II are 80% and 46% for New England, 82% and 62% for New York/New Jersey, 70% and 43% for the Mid- Atlantic, and 83% and 66% for the Southeast.

JOURNAL A Geospatial Study of the Potential of Two Exotic Species of Mosquitoes to Impact the Epidemiology of West Nitle Virus in Maryland 09/15/2003
Kutz, F W., T G. Wade, AND B. B. Pagac. A Geospatial Study of the Potential of Two Exotic Species of Mosquitoes to Impact the Epidemiology of West Nitle Virus in Maryland. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION 19(3):190-198, (2003).
Abstract: Geospatial techniques were used to study the potential impact of two exotic mosquitoes, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), on the epidemiology of West Nile virus in Maryland. These two species have established populations in Maryland over the past 15 years. The larval habitats of both mosquito species are natural and artificial water-holding containers; water in tires appears to be favored larval environment. Therefore, locations of licensed tire dealers and of tire dumps scheduled for clean-up were used as a surrogate for sources of mosquito vectors. Since discarded tires are a common trash item in developed areas, this surrogate was deemed to underestimate the actual population of source habitats. West Nile virus activity from 1999, 2000 and 2001 was indicated by the presence of dead, infected birds, particularly American crows and other corvids; infected pools of mosquitoes; and human and horse infections. Susceptible vertebrate hosts, particularly birds, are ubiquitously distributed throughout the developed areas of the State. This analysis demonstrated a spatial convergence of the virus, the exotic mosquito vectors and susceptible hosts. This conjunction indicated that these two mosquito species have a high potential to serve as vectors, and thus impact the epidemiology of West Nile virus under favorable environmental and climatic conditions. Positive mosquito pools were collected only from the Baltimore- Washington metropolitan corridor suggesting a newly created enzootic focus for this virus Land-cover analysis of the sites where virus activity had been detected showed predominantly developed land uses. Most of the sites were in urban areas suggesting that exposure to West Nile virus may be an environmental justice issue.


JOURNAL Distribution and Causes of Global Forest Fragmentation 09/05/2003
Wade, T G., K. H. Riitters, J D. Wickham, AND K B. Jones. Distribution and Causes of Global Forest Fragmentation. CONSERVATION ECOLOGY 7(2):7, (2003).
Abstract: Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g. wetland). Using 1 Km A VHRR based land cover, we present a method to separate estimated forest fragmentation into natural and anthropogenic components, and report results for all inhabited continents summarized by World Wildlife Fund biomes. Globally, over half of the temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biome and nearly one quarter of the tropical rainforest biome have been fragmented or removed by humans, opposed to only 4% of boreal forest. Overall, Europe had the most human caused fragmentation and South America the least. This method may allow for improved risk assessments and better targeting for protection and remediation by identifying areas with high amounts of human caused fragmentation.

JOURNAL Distribution of Mercury in the Tissues of Five Species of Freshwater Fish from Lake Mead, USA 09/02/2003
Cizdziel, J V., T A. Hinners, C L. Cross, AND J. E. Pollard. Distribution of Mercury in the Tissues of Five Species of Freshwater Fish from Lake Mead, USA. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 5(5):802-807, (2003).
Abstract: Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in seven tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, blood, gonad, brain, gill, and heart) of 59 striped bass and four tissues (muscle, liver, blood, and
gonad) of 69 largemouth bass, 76 channel catfish, 12 bluegill, and 22 blue tilapia collected from Lake Mead, USA. Mercury levels generally increased in these tissues according to trophic level and fish length. For striped bass, mean Hg levels (ng/g, wet mass) were highest in the liver (531), followed by muscle (309),heart(186),gonad(136),brain(77),gill(52),and blood (36). Similarly, Hg levels in the catfish and tilapia also show liver > muscle > gonad > blood. In contrast, largemouth bass and bluegill had the highest levels in muscle, followed by liver, gonad, and blood. At muscle-Hg concentrations greater than about 400 ng/g, the Hg concentrations in the other tissues increase relative to the muscle. Emaciation among striped bass was correlated with elevated Hg levels in all tissues. Liver-to-muscle ratios were similar to literature values, except for tilapia with an average ratio of -1.7, which is higher than generally reported for non-piscivores.

JOURNAL Identification of Unanticipated Compounds By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry 09/02/2003
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Identification of Unanticipated Compounds By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. SPECTROSCOPY LETTERS 18(5):12-24, (2003).
Abstract: Localized outbreaks of acute illness could result from deliberate addition of unanticipated compounds into water, air, or food. Cancer clusters resulting from long-term exposure to trace-
levels of compounds are more difficult to detect, but can be revealed by epidemiological studies
To find the causative agents in either case, the compounds in sample extracts must be identified
before any contribution they make toward the observed malady can be assessed. Most trace-level
compounds will pose little or no risk. However, all compounds unique to the locality should be
identified, quantified, and classified by their toxicity to ensure that no toxic compounds have
been overlooked.

Sample extracts are often complex mixtures. Separation of components in time by gas
chromatography followed by mass selection of ions using mass spectrometry (GC/MS) provides
distinctive mass spectra for many organic compounds. Mass spectrometer data systems permit
automated searches of mass spectral libraries for each compound's mass spectrum When a
single good match is found, a standard can be purchased, and its mass spectrum and retention
time on the column can be compared with those of the analyte to confirm its identity. But two
problems with this strategy often occur: multiple library matches may provide several candidate
compounds, (1) or worse yet, no matches may be found, since mass spectra for most compounds
are absent from the libraries.

JOURNAL Application of a Multipurpose Unequal-Probability Stream Survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain 08/29/2003
Ator, S. W., A R. Olsen, A M. Pitchford, AND J. M. Denver. Application of a Multipurpose Unequal-Probability Stream Survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 39(4):873-885, (2003).
Abstract: A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but important environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. A sample of 175 first-order non-tidal streams was randomly selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during the late winter and spring of 2000. Twenty-five streams were chosen within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated from physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Sampling sites on selected streams were located in the field on the basis of accessibility; alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land-use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

JOURNAL Spatial Prediction of Air Quality Data 08/15/2003
Holland, D M., W. M. Cox, R. Scheffe, A. J. Cimorelli, D. Nychka, AND P. K. Hopke. Spatial Prediction of Air Quality Data. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGER (August 2003):31-35, (2003).
Abstract: Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management practices use monitoring data as independent point measurements with an assumed area of representativeness (typically a county boundary). However, there is an increasing need to develop regional air quality management programs and associated regulatory policies using site measurements to make spatial statements at non-monitored locations. Based on deliberate statistical research over the past two decades and the advent of inexpensive, but powerful computing resources, there now exists well-accepted methodology for predicting pollutant values at unobserved locations across the entire spatial field of interest based on the data. This spatial information, coupled with prediction uncertainties, will enable air quality managers to construct better environmental management programs.

JOURNAL Multiresidue Determination of Acidic Pesticides in Water By Hplc/Dad With Confirmation By Gc/MS Using Conversion to the Methyl Ester With Trimethylsilydiazomethane 08/14/2003
Moy, T AND W C. Brumley. Multiresidue Determination of Acidic Pesticides in Water By Hplc/Dad With Confirmation By Gc/MS Using Conversion to the Methyl Ester With Trimethylsilydiazomethane. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY 41(7):343-349, (2003).
Abstract: A multiresidue pesticide methodology has been studied and results for acidics are reported here with base/neutral to follow. This work studies a literature procedure as a possible general approach to many pesticides and potentially other analytes that are considered to be liquid chromatographic candidates rather than gas chromatographic ones. The analysis of thesewage effluent of a major southwestern US city serves as an example of the application of the methodology to a real sample. Recovery studies were also conducted to validate the proposed extraction step. A gradient elution program was followed for the high performance liquid chromatography leading to a general approach for acidics. Confirmation of identity was by EI GC/MS after conversion of the acids to the methyl ester (or other appropriate methylation) by means of trimethylsilyldiazomethane. The 3,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was used as an internal standard to monitor the reaction and PCB #19 was used for the quantitation internal standard. Although others have reported similar analyses of acids, conversion to the methyl ester was by means of diazomethane itself rather than by the more convenient and safer trimethylsilyldiazomethane. Thus, the present paper supports the use of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with all of these acids (trimethylsilyldiazomethane has been used in environmental work with some phenoxyacetic acid herbicides) and further supports the usefulness of this reagent as a potential replacement for diazomethane. The HPLC approach here could also serve as the separation basis for an LC/MS solution to confirmation of identity as well as quantitation.

JOURNAL Determining Eosin as a Groundwater Migration Tracer By Capillary Electrophoresis/Laser-Induced Fluorescence Using a Multiwavelength Laser 07/30/2003
Brumley, W C. AND J. W. Farley. Determining Eosin as a Groundwater Migration Tracer By Capillary Electrophoresis/Laser-Induced Fluorescence Using a Multiwavelength Laser. ELECTROPHORESIS 24(14):2335-2339, (2003).
Abstract: Groundwater migration remains an important contributor in determining the distribution and fate of environmental pollutants originating from various waste sites or in understanding fate and transport .[ 1- 3] .Groundwater tracers are often used to determine the flow of groundwater. The tracers can be fluorescent dyes, in which case the use of synchronous scanning spectrofluorimetry is the technique of choice to determine the tracers in water or other samples. The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (Las Vegas) is interested in developing and applying 8 analytical tools that can strengthen the regulatory application of analysis. Among those tools under investigation is capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE/LIF), which is particularly well-suited to the analysisofwater-soluble and fluorogenic compounds. Fluorescent dyes are a convenient choice for tracers because of the ease of sensitive detection. Spectrofluorimetry , high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV or fluorescence detection, and capillary LC/fluorescence detection have also been used [2-6]. For HPLC or capillary LC, the retention of dye analytes is enhanced using ion-pairing techniques. Logically, applications of capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence (CE/LIF) detection should be ideal for the determination of anionic ( or cationic) dyes. In free-zone CE, the dyes are separated very simply on the basis of their mobilities in aqueous buffers. Among several reports on CE/LIF detection techniques are two early papers based on high-sensitivity detection of fluorescent dyes [7,8] and more recent work applied directly to groundwater migration studies [9-12] .General reviews of environmental applications of CE and sample handling were published [13-14], and more recently updated reviews appear regularly [15] Additional environmental

JOURNAL Investigating the Geoelectrical Response of Hydrocarbon Contamination Undergoing Biodegradation 06/30/2003
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, A. Endres, W. Sauck, AND D. P. Cassidy. Investigating the Geoelectrical Response of Hydrocarbon Contamination Undergoing Biodegradation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 30(12):49-1-49-4, (2003).
Abstract: A newly proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon contaminated sites predicts high conductivities coincident with t he Contaminated zone a s opposed t o t he traditionally accepted low conductivity. The model attributes the high conductivities to mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox processes. To evaluate this conductive model, in situ vertical conductivity measurements were acquired from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) contaminated site. The results showed high conductivities coincident with the zone of contamination and within the smear zone influenced by seasonal water table fluctuations. We infer this zone as an active zone of biodegradation and suggest significant microbial degradation under partially water saturated conditions. A simple Archie's Law analysis shows large p ore water conductivities necessary to reproduce the bulk conductivity measured at the contaminated location. This study supports the conductive layer model and demonstrates the potential of geoelectrical investigations for assessing microbial degradation of LNAPL impacted soils. INDEX TERMS: 0925 Magnetic and electrical methods, 5109 Magnetic electrical properties, 0915 Downhole methods, 1831 Groundwater quality.

JOURNAL Fuzzy Decision Analysis for Integrated Environmental Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region 06/25/2003
Tran, L. T., C. G. Knight, R. V. O'Neill, E R. Smith, K. H. Riitters, AND J D. Wickham. Fuzzy Decision Analysis for Integrated Environmental Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 29(6):845-859, (2003).
Abstract: A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators is developed. This is a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is capable ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land-cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and topography of the Mid-Atlantic region, we are able to point out areas which are in relatively poor condition and/or vulnerable to future deterioration. The method offers an easy and comprehensive way to combine the strengths of fuzzy set theory and the AHP for ecological assessment. Furthermore, the suggested method can serve as a building block for the evaluation of environmental policies.

JOURNAL Upstream-to-Downstream Changes in Nutrient Export Risk 06/24/2003
Wickham, J D., T G. Wade, K. H. Riitters, R. V. O'Neill, J H. Smith, E R. Smith, K B. Jones, AND A C. Neale. Upstream-to-Downstream Changes in Nutrient Export Risk. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 18(2):193-206, (2003).
Abstract: One of the early operating principles of landscape ecology was the importance of studying the movement of energy, nutrients, and biota in the horizontal or x,y plane (Risser et al. 1984). The new focus on horizontal movement was in part based on the recognition that many ecological studies had abstracted the horizontal domain (Reynolds and Wu 1999), Ecological risk assessment (O'Neill et al. 1982, Bartell et al. 1992, Suter 1993) emerged at about the same time as the field of landscape ecology, and focused on estimating the likelihood of an event
(e.g., local extinction of a taxa). Ecological risk assessment developed as an extension of ecotoxicology (Truhaut 1977). Application of risk assessment to the field of ecotoxicology was based on the observations: (1) that manufactured chemicals were being produced too rapidly for study of biotic effects to keep pace (Maugh 1978), and (2) that laboratory testing to determine lethal concentrations did not necessarily accurately re-create an ecological microsm that could be extended to an ecosystem level (O'Neill et al. 1982, Bartell et al. 1992). Some books on ecological risk assessment (Bartell et al. 1992, Suter 1993) close with discussions on how risk assessment might be applied to disciplines other than ecotoxicology, including landscape-scale studies. Richards and Johnson (1998) also discuss how ecological risk assessments fit within the context of landscape ecology. The few existing ecological risk assessments at a landscape- scale have focused on identifying spatial variation in risk across the x,y plane (Graham et al. 1991, Wickham and Wade in press, Wickham et al. in press). A horizontal, process-oriented perspective of landscape-level ecological studies (Reynolds and Wu 1999) suggests that propagation of risk in the xy plane should also be studied. Johnson (2000) investigated spatial propagation of toxic chemicals using organismal movement across the landscape - a landscape level ecotoxicology. Spatial propagation of nutrient export across watersheds provides a landscape-level perspective of nutrient transport.


JOURNAL Soil Microtopography on Grazing Gradients in Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands 05/20/2003
Nash, M S., E. Jackson, AND W G. Whitford. Soil Microtopography on Grazing Gradients in Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands. JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS 55(1):181-192, (2003).
Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that one of the significant impacts of livestock in the creation of piospheres centered on water points is the loss of soil microtopography. The size, height, and spatial distribution of micromounds and surrounding depressions were measured by a modified erosion bridge at three distances (50 m, 450 m, and 1050 rn) from water points in desert grassland pastures in the Jornada Basin, N. M.. Plots at 50 m had fewer n-iieromounds and the mounds were smaller than those recorded on the more distant plots. Microtopography of plots at 450 m from water was not significantly different from that recorded at 50rn. Microtopography of plots that were 1050 m frorn water points was significantly different from that of plots nearer water points. Loss of rnicrotopography from the impacts of livestock in piospheres exacerbates erosion processes and contributes to decertification.

JOURNAL Habitat Patch Occupancy By the Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented, Desert Landscape 05/06/2003
Bradford, D F., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, D. W. Sada, AND J R. Jaeger. Habitat Patch Occupancy By the Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented, Desert Landscape. ECOLOGY 84(4):1012-1023, (2003).
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests two predictions based on metapopulation theory, i.e., the incidence of habitat patch occupancy is (1) directly related to patch size and (2) inversely related to patch isolation. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were identified and surveyed for local environmental characteristics and presence/absence of B. punctatus. Patch size metrics reflected extent of water and riparian vegetation of several types. Patch isolation metrics were based on nearest neighbor distances, calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. B. punctatus was found at 72% of the sites, including 13 of 14 historic (pre-1970) sites. Patches were generally quite small, e.g., median linear extent of surface water was approximately 200 m (72 m2 median area). Median nearest neighbor distances among patches were 1.8 km Euclidian distance (range: 0.4 - 22.0 km) and 6.8 km via drainage channels (range: 0.5 - 64.9 km). Based on stepwise logistic regression, incidence of patch occupancy significantly increased with patch size, including both water- and vegetation-based metrics. Patch occupancy was also significantly related to elevation, latitude, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. In contrast, incidence of patch occupancy was not significantly related to patch isolation. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. However, application of the patchy population model is perplexing given the maximum known dispersal distances for B. punctatus (0.8 km) and Bufo spp. (2.6 km), which are well short of many of the observed nearest neighbor distances in this study.

JOURNAL Closed-Loop Stripping Analysis (Clsa) of Synthetic Musk Compounds from Fish Tissues With Measurement By Oc/MS/Sim 04/30/2003
Osemwengie, L I. AND S. Steinberg. Closed-Loop Stripping Analysis (Clsa) of Synthetic Musk Compounds from Fish Tissues With Measurement By Oc/MS/Sim. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A 993(1-2):1-15, (2003).
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the environment is attributable to high use and release into the environment. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-up procedures. To obtain fat-free extracts, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), column chromatography using alumina, and silica gel, and thin layer chromatography (TLC clean-up procedures are frequently employed. Despite the considerable effort and resources devoted to these processes, a fraction of the lipids and lipid-like compounds frequently remains in the extracts. These low-level lipids foul injection liners, contaminate columns, and yield elevated baselines during gas chromatographic analysis of synthetic musk compounds. In this study, a simple method for the determination of synthetic musk compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge- and-trap vessel, is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological
tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap
sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected multiple-ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using either closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The recoveries for the two techniques are presented.

JOURNAL Estimates of Cloud Water Deposition at Mountain Deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program Sites in the Appalachian Mountains 04/21/2003
Baumgardner, R E., S. Isil, T. L. Lavery, C. Rogers, AND C. Rogers. Estimates of Cloud Water Deposition at Mountain Deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program Sites in the Appalachian Mountains. JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 53(3):291-308, (2003).
Abstract: Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water while Clingrnan's Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. AU sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates Of S04 greater than 50 kg/ha and N03- rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of S04- and N03- on the order of 6 to 20 times greater compared to lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80 to 90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition.

JOURNAL Mass Spectrometric Identification of An Azobenzene Derivative Produced By Smectite-Catalyzed Conversion of 3-Amino-4-Hydroxphenylarsonic Acid 03/25/2003
Wershaw, R. L., D. W. Rutherford, C. E. Rostad, J. R. Garbarino, I. FerrerFelis, K. R. Kennedy, G M. Momplaisir, AND A H. Grange. Mass Spectrometric Identification of An Azobenzene Derivative Produced By Smectite-Catalyzed Conversion of 3-Amino-4-Hydroxphenylarsonic Acid. TALANTA 59(6):1219-1226, (2003).
Abstract: We report here the first evidence of a possible mechanism for the formation of an azobenzene arsonic acid compound in the environment The compound was formed when 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-amino-HPAA) was added to aqueous suspensions of smectite clay The 3-amino-HPAA is a degradation product excreted by chickens that are fed rations amended with roxarsone. Roxarsone is used to control coccidial intestinal parasites in most of the broiler chickens grown in the United States. The structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound was first inferred from negative- ion and positive-ion low-resolution mass-spectrometric analyses of the supernatant of the smectite suspension. Elemental composition of the parent ion determined by high-resolution positive-ion mass spectrometric measurements was consistent with the proposed structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound.

JOURNAL Preliminary Investigation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Mapping Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 03/20/2003
Williams, D J., T. M. O'Brien, N. B. Rybicki, AND R. B. Gomez. Preliminary Investigation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Mapping Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 81(1):383-392, (2003).
Abstract: The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral reflectance measurements using a field spectrometer, were obtained for the pilot sites in spring and early fall of 2000. Field-based shoreline surveys for the study area determined SAV presence, species, and distribution. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The goal of the spectral database is to automate the image processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. Map accuracy was high and had very low false positive detections. ne algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems.

JOURNAL A Quantitative Assessment of a Combined Spectral and GIS Rule-Based Land-Cover Classification in the Neuse River Basin of North Carolina 03/05/2003
Lunetta, R S., J. Ediriwickrema, J. Iiames, D. M. Johnson, J G. Lyon, A. McKerrow, AND A Pilant. A Quantitative Assessment of a Combined Spectral and GIS Rule-Based Land-Cover Classification in the Neuse River Basin of North Carolina. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 69(3):299-310, (2003).
Abstract: The 14,582 km2 Neuse River Basin in North Carolina was characterized based on a user defined land-cover (LC) classification system developed specifically to support spatially explicit, non-point source nitrogen allocation modeling studies. Data processing incorporated both spectral and GIS rule-based analytical techniques using multiple date SPOT 4 (XS), Landsat 7 (ETM+), and ancillary data sources. Unique LC classification elements included the identification of urban classes based on impervious surfaces and specific row crop type identifications. Individual pixels were aggregated to produce variable minimum mapping units or landscape "patches" corresponding to both riparian buffer zones (0.1 ha), and general watershed areas (0.4 ha). An accuracy assessment was performed using reference data derived from in situ field measurements and imagery (camera) data. Multiple data interpretations were used to develop a reference database with known data variability to support a quantitative accuracy assessment of LC classification results. Confusion matrices were constructed to incorporate the variability of the reference data directly in the accuracy assessment process. Accuracies were reported for hierarchal classification levels with overall Level 1 classification accuracy of 82 percent (n=825) for general watershed areas, and 73 percent (n=391) for riparian buffer zone locations. A Kappa Test Z statistic of 3.3 indicated a significant difference between the two results. Classes that performed poorly were largely associated with the confusion of herbaceous classes with both urban and agricultural areas.

JOURNAL Effects of Landscape Characteristics on Land-Cover Class Accuracy 02/19/2003
Smith, J H., S. V. Stehman, J D. Wickham, AND L. Yang. Effects of Landscape Characteristics on Land-Cover Class Accuracy. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 84(3):342-349, (2003).
Abstract:
Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover class relationships were established at both the level I and 11 classification schemes. Results indicate that the general pattern of the relationship between class accuracy and landscape structure was as expected: as heterogeneity increases, accuracy decreases, while as patch size increases, accuracy also increases. However, the magnitude of the effects of the variables varied by land-cover class resulting in some classes having patch size more important, while others had land-cover heterogeneity more important. Comparison of the results of the two classification schemes revealed that the heterogeneity odds ratios for the level I classes were smaller than those for the level 11 classes. In addition, their patch size odds ratios were greater than those at level 11. These results indicate that the level I classes are more sensitive to changes in the variables than the level 11 classes. Interaction between the two landscape variables was found to be significant for only a single class, indicting that the influence of heterogeneity was not impacted by the sample being in a small, or large patch. The information provided by the landscape variables remained significant even in the presence of regional dummy variables indicating that their impact was not due to regional differences in the mapping, assessment processes, or landscape characteristics Results of these analyses provides land-cover class specific quantitative information useful for extracting classification error information for a location on the map based on that location's land- cover class, patch size and land-cover heterogeneity.

JOURNAL Wet Deposition from Clouds and Precipitation in Three High-Elevation Regions of the Eastern United States 02/13/2003
Sickles II, J E. AND J. Grimm. Wet Deposition from Clouds and Precipitation in Three High-Elevation Regions of the Eastern United States. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 37(2):277-288, (2003).
Abstract: Three regions are identified in the eastern United States that contain substantial land area at high elevations: the Mid Appalachians, eastern New York state, and the New England region. Approximately 75% of the land cover in these areas is forested, with 5.6 to 29% of the total acreage above 600m and subject to cloud deposition. Measurements of cloud deposition are scarce. A six-year data record of measurements at two high-elevation locations is considered, and scaling factors are developed to enable the rough estimation of area-wide cloud deposition at various elevations in each region. Estimates of precipitation and associated ion deposition are made at 12 arc-second resolution for the eastern United States and are used to obtain elevation-resolved precipitation-mediated deposition for the three regions in question. At high elevations, clouds account for a substantial proportion of wet deposition (i.e., the sum of that from clouds and precipitation). For the total land area above 600m, clouds may account for 20 to 60% of the total wet ion deposition, with the exact proportion depending on both location and ion species. At elevations above 600m, but below the climatic tree line, the ratio of cloud- to precipitation-mediated deposition is higher in the New England region and eastern New York than in the Mid Appalachians. At the highest elevations of each study region clouds may account for over 80% of the wet ion deposition. Although the wet deposition of ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, and hydrogen ions is enhanced at higher elevations by clouds over precipitation, this enhancement is the largest for ammonium. This study illustrates the major and perhaps dominant role that clouds may play by delivering considerable ion loads to montane ecosystems in selected elevation ranges where these ecosystems may be especially vulnerable.

JOURNAL Fragmentation of Continental Unites States Forests 01/27/2003
Riitters, K. H., J D. Wickham, R. V. O'Neill, K B. Jones, E R. Smith, J. W. Coulston, T G. Wade, AND J H. Smith. Fragmentation of Continental Unites States Forests. ECOSYSTEMS 5(8):815-822, (2003).
Abstract: We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2.25 ha to 5314.41 ha. Most forest resided in fragmented landscapes. With 65.61-ha landscapes, for example, only 9.9 % of all forest was contained in a fully forested landscape, and only 46.9% was in a landscape that was more than 90% forested. Forest edge was located with 90 m of 43.5% of all forest, and within 150 m of 61.8% of all forest. Nevertheless, where forest existed it usually was dominant - 72.9% of all forest was in landscapes that were at least 60% forested for landscapes up to 5314.41 ha. Small (<7.29 ha) perforations in otherwise continuous forest cover accounted for about half of the fragmentation. These results suggest that forests are more or less connected over large regions, but also that fragmentation is so pervasive that edge effects potentially influence ecological processes over most forested lands.

JOURNAL Precision of Atmospheric Dry Deposition Data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet) 01/27/2003
Sickles II, J E. AND D. S. Shadwick. Precision of Atmospheric Dry Deposition Data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (Castnet). ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 36(36-37):5671-5686, (2003).
Abstract: A collocated, dry deposition sampling program was begun in January 1987 by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide ongoing estimates of the overall precision of dry deposition and supporting data entering the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) archives Duplicate sets of dry deposition sampling instruments were installed adjacent to existing instruments and have been operated for various periods at I I collocated field sites. All sampling and operations were performed using standard CASTNet procedures. The current study documents the overall precision of CASTNet data based on collocated measurements made at paired sampling sites representative of sites across the network. These precision estimates include the variability for all operations from sampling to data storage in the archives Precision estimates are provided for hourly, instrumental ozone (0,) concentration and meteorological measurements, hourly model estimates of deposition Velocity (Vd) from collocated measurements of model inputs, hourly 0, deposition estimates, weekly filter pack determinations of selected atmospheric chemical species, and weekly estimates of Vi and deposition for each monitored filter pack species.
Conservative estimates of variability of weekly pollutant concentrations, expressed as coefficients of variation, depend on species: NO,- - 8. 1; HNO, - 6.4; SO, - 4.3; NH4' - 4. 1; SO,'- - 2.5; and 0, - 1. I %. Precision of estimates of weekly Vd from collocated measurements of model inputs also depends on the chemical species: HN03 - 6.3; aerosols - 5.2; SO, - 3.5; and 03 - 2. 1 %. Corresponding precision of weekly deposition estimates are: NO,- - 11.3; HN03- - 10-5; S04'- - 6.2; SO, and NH4' - 5.9; and 03 - 3.1%. Weekly precision of concentration, Vd estimates, and deposition estimates are comparable in magnitude and slightly smaller than the corresponding hourly values. Annual precision estimates, although uncertain due to their small sample size, are consistent, but slightly smaller than corresponding weekly values.

JOURNAL Biases in Castnet Filter Pack Results Associated With Sampling Protocol 01/27/2003
Sickles II, J E. AND D. S. Shadwick. Biases in Castnet Filter Pack Results Associated With Sampling Protocol. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 36(29):4687-4698, (2003).
Abstract: In the current study, single filter weekly (w) results are compared with weekly results aggregated from day and night (dn) weekly samples. Comparisons of the two sampling protocols for all major constituents (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, HNO3, and SO2) show median bias (MB) of < 5 nmol m-3 (0.1 ppb) and median relative bias (MRB) of < 10%. Examination of seasonal results reveal larger biases in some cases, especially during summer. Systematic discrepancies are observed for all constituents except for SO42-. Composite dn results exceed the w results (in all cases except for the summer nylon HNO3), and the magnitude depends on the constituent and on the season. To use CASTNet results for trends analyses, it may be useful to put all of the data on the same basis. Algorithms derived from linear regression analyses are offered to convert the recent results to a uniform basis. To improve accuracy, adjustments are indicated for summer Teflon NO3 and nylon HNO3, and in each season for Teflon NH4 and Total SO2. Nylon filters are also shown to have variable collection characteristics for SO2 that are especially sensitive to humidity. A network-wide change in the SO2 collection and/or retention characteristics for the nylon filters is found in April 1997.

JOURNAL Responses of Salix Gooddingii and Tamarix Ramosissima to Flooding 01/27/2003
TallentHalsell, N G. AND L. M. Walker. Responses of Salix Gooddingii and Tamarix Ramosissima to Flooding. WETLANDS 22(4):776-785, (2003).
Abstract: Impoundments create artificial shorelines that differ from natural lake shorelines in patterns of water-level fluctuations, flow, sediment transport, and shoreline vegetation dynamics. Shoreline plant communities in the American Southwest often become dominated by mature, senescent Populus and Salix, with few if any seedlings. The failure of native plant community replacement is exacerbated by the fact that Tamarix, a prolific invader, is abundant on regulated rivers and occupies extensive areas along the shores of impoundments. Efforts to replant natives within the often-flooded drawdown zone surrounding Lake Mohave, a lower Colorado River impoundment bordering Nevada and Arizona, have not been successful. A greenhouse experiment was designed to examine the responses of cuttings of a native species, Salix gooddingii (Goodings willow), and the invasive species, Tamarix ramosissima (salt cedar), to
different water levels comparable to those influencing Lake Mohave riparian plant communities
High survival and rapid growth under saturated but not flooded soil conditions demonstrated that both Salix and Tamarix cuttings can prosper in soils within the exposed drawdown zone,
provided the shoots are not submerged. However, particularly rapid growth in Tamarix under
conditions favorable to the native Salix also indicates that Tamarix invasion will have to be
controlled. Revegetation efforts must include matching the natural hydrodynamics of the
waterway to the requirements of native plant species.


NEWSLETTER An Experimental Assessment of Minimum Mapping Unit Size 09/16/2003
Knight, J F. AND R S. Lunetta. An Experimental Assessment of Minimum Mapping Unit Size. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, (9), EPA/600/N-03/006, 2003.
Abstract: Land-cover (LC) maps derived from remotely sensed data are often presented using a minimum mapping unit (MMU). The choice of a MMU that is appropriate for the projected use of a classification is important. The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal MMU of a LC classification of the Neuse River Basin (NRB) in North Carolina. The results of these analyses indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy estimates for the classification when using either the 0.36 ha or 1.4 ha hectare MMUs. Therefore, the MMU of 0.42 hectares that was selected during the creation of the NRB classification was also not significantly different from either of these. Since a classification would commonly use the smallest MMU that has sufficient accuracy, the 0.42 hectare MMU was a valid choice. An analyst might also choose to use other values in the 0.36 ha to 1.4 ha range, depending on the application, while maintaining statistically insignificant differences in overall accuracy estimates for this classification.

NEWSLETTER Stopover Ecology of Neotropical Migratory Birds 06/30/2003
Tankersley, R. D. AND E R. Smith. Stopover Ecology of Neotropical Migratory Birds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2003.
Abstract: The distribution of intact stopovers may be as important as the condition of individual stopover. We modeled migratory flights based on flight distance and direction to examine how nightly flights link stopovers into flyways. The resulting maps highlight portions of the landscape that are important for the continued success of migratory birds. Areas where many different migration senarios overlap are particularly important, as these areas wll support a diverse collection of migratory strategies and populations

NEWSLETTER Protecting Biodiversity 06/19/2003
Smith, E R. Protecting Biodiversity. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2003.
Abstract: At present, over 40% of the earth's land surface has been converted from its natural state to one dominated by human activities such as agriculture and development. The destruction and degradation of natural habitats has been clearly linked to the loss of biodiversity. Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, is a broad concept that encompasses the richness of biological organisms, functions, and systems. Protecting biodiversity is important for a number of different reasons. For example, protecting biodiversity safeguards important ecosystem services such as clean air and water. Other reasons include: preventing the loss of organisms that may have as yet undiscovered medicinal uses, aesthetic reasons, and the intrinsic value of biodiversity. Therefore, preserving biodiversity is often the primary goal of conservation planning.

NEWSLETTER Reva Client Partnerships 06/19/2003
Smith, E R. Reva Client Partnerships. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2003.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is an applied research program that is focused on the synthesis and presentation of existing environmental data and model results to inform multicriteria environmental decision-making through a comprehensive analysis of information on resource condition, sensitivity, and current and projected stressor distributions. To facillitate development of tools and information that can be used directly by decision-makers at levels ranging from regional EPA offices to local communities. ReVA has established a number of client partnerships. These partnerships provide feedback to the ReVA scientists developing tools, demonstrate the application of ReVA approaches and information in real-life decision-making, and start the process of technology transfer to the users.

NEWSLETTER Pollution from the Combined Activities, Actions, and Behaviors of the Public: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 02/23/2003
Daughton, C G. Pollution from the Combined Activities, Actions, and Behaviors of the Public: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, (1), EPA/600/N-03/002, 2003.
Abstract: ORD's four-fold objectives in its efforts have been to: (i) Identify potential (future) environmental concerns (anticipatory research and identification of emerging issues, especially to identify pivotal sources of uncertainty that might affect risk estimates), (ii) Be proactive versus reactive (allowing for pollution prevention versus remediation/restoration; identify and foster investigation of "hidden" or potential environmental issues/concerns before they become critical ecological or human health problems), (iii) Foster interdisciplinary research, collaboration, and debate (catalyze research by academe, private sector, and government, both nationally and internationally, and to further the scientific dialog and debate needed to determine the relative importance of the topic with respect to overall environmental pollution), and ultimately (iv) Rule-in or rule-out those individual aspects of the overall issue that might need concerted attention (as a basis for any future informed rule making; to ensure that sound science serves as the basis for any eventual decisions for guidance or regulation).

PRESENTATION Decision-Making Using Existing Data 12/10/2003
Smith, E R. Decision-Making Using Existing Data. Presented at Forest-Related Activities and Integrated Assessment Approaches in the European Union and the United States Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, December 10, 2003.
Abstract: Decision-makers need information on cumulative and aggregate stressors as well as clear information on where problems are likely to occur in the future in order to prioritize risk management actions. The most prevasive and difficult to assess changes are the result of regional-scale drivers of change that act simultaneously on a suite of resources that are important to society and to ecological sustainability. A great deal of data already exist that could potentially inform risk management decision, however, there has been no effort previously to synthesize these data into meaningful assessment results that can inform the multiple criteria that go into any kind of decision-making. Methods to do this are critical to timely, responsive, and proactive decision-making.

PRESENTATION Scaling-Up Information in Land-Cover Data for Large-Scale Environmental Assessments 12/10/2003
Wickham, J D. Scaling-Up Information in Land-Cover Data for Large-Scale Environmental Assessments. Presented at Forest-Related Activities and Integrated Assessment Approaches in the European Union and the United States Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, December 10, 2003.
Abstract: The NLCD project provides national-scope land-cover data for the conterminous United States. The first land-cover data set was completed in 2000, and the continuing need for recent land-cover information has motivated continuation of the project to provide current and change information on land cover for regional- to national-scale applications. As with any project, the lessons learned NLCD's first implementation have uncovered new methodological approaches that are anticipated to improve future land-cover products. The majority of these are scaled approaches to land-cover mapping, and include: I ) "smart" scene selection using seasonal (temporal) NDVI to select Landsat TM data; 2) regression-based land-cover "derivatives" ( e.g., impervious surface) for input into the land-cover mapping process and database development; 3) rule-based(e.g., CART) land-cover mapping, and 4) mapping by ecoregion- like mapping zone to improve spectral separation of classes and improve edge-matching. The land-cover data support development of several indicators for regional- to national-scale environmental assessments. Examples of indicators for regional- to national-scale environmental assessments discussed include nitrogen and phosphorus export risk, landscape unit identification and delineation, and change detection.

PRESENTATION Geoelectrical Evidence of Microbial Degradation of Diesel Contaminated Sediments 12/08/2003
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, E. A. Atekwana, S. Rossbach, AND W. Sauck. Geoelectrical Evidence of Microbial Degradation of Diesel Contaminated Sediments. Presented at Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 8-12, 2003.
Abstract: The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynamics were determined by the rDNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), microbial mineralization of diesel fuel was assessed using dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), enhanced mineral dissolution was determined by dissolved calcium, and the vertical geoelectrical profile was measured using DC resistivity (converted to conductivity). The columns simulated a saturation profile and contained sanitized, uniform sand with the following experimental treatments: diesel + microbes, diesel, microbes, and no treatment.

After 16 months, two important conclusions were drawn. First, the relative increase in magnitude of the parameters measured was highest in the diesel + microbe column (showing at least 110% increase), lower in the diesel column and lowest (actually showing a decrease) in the column with no treatment. Further, the diesel + microbe column showed the greatest increase in oil degrading microbial populations (135 %) compared to the column with no treatment, which showed no changes. Secondly, the depth at which the conductivity reached the maximum occurred within and slightly above the diesel layer (which represents a depth that was originally water wet). It was further observed that the relative change in bulk conductivity below the saturated zone is of a lower magnitude than above <1 0 % ). These results suggest the diesel layer, and the zone slightly above, were the most biologically active. Additionally, the diesel + microbe column showed RISA fragments attributed to microbial succession typically observed in organic contaminant plumes.

A simple Archie's Law analysis was used to estimate the pore water conductivities necessary to reproduce the bulk conductivity measured. This analysis shows that relative to the column with only microbes (selected as the control to be most representative of field conditions), the diesel column revealed a 2.3 fold increase and the diesel + microbe column showed a 3 fold increase in pore water conductivity. This increase was located within the diesel layer above the water saturated zone. Within the saturated zone, the no treatment column showed a 0.81 fold increase, the diesel column a 1.28, and the diesel + microbe column 1.45.

PRESENTATION Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva): Targeting Risk Management Actions and Providing Options for Integrated Management 12/08/2003
Wagner, P F. Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva): Targeting Risk Management Actions and Providing Options for Integrated Management. Presented at 2003 Meeting: Environmental Information; Building for the Future, Scottsdale, AZ, December 08-12, 2003.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is an approach to regional scale, priority-setting assessment being developed by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). ReVA will effectively informs decision-makers as to the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated environmental vulnerabilities. ReVA will expand cooperation among the laboratories and centers of ORD, by integrating research on human and environmental health, ecorestoration, landscape analysis, regional exposure and process modeling, problem formulation, and ecological risk guidelines. ReVA's objectives are the sequential steps needed to: 1. Provide regional-scale, spatially explicit information on the extent and distribution of stressors and sensitive resources.
2. Develop and evaluate techniques to integrate information on exposure and effects so that relative risk can be assessed and management actions can be prioritized
3. Predict potential consequences of environmental changes under alternative future scenarios.
4. Effectively communicate economic and quality of life trade-offs associated with alternative environmental policies.
5. Develop techniques to prioritize areas for ecological restoration.
Identify information gaps and recommend actions to improve monitoring and focus research.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Issues Regarding Human Exposure 12/03/2003
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Issues Regarding Human Exposure. Presented at Sixth National Environmental Public Health Conference, Atlanta, GA, December 3-5, 2003.
Abstract: Since the 1970s, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on conventional "priority pollutants", especially on those collectively referred to as "persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic" (PBT) pollutants, persistent organic pollutants" (POPs) or "bioaccumulative chemicals of concern" (BBCs).
The "dirty dozen" is a ubiquitous, notorious subset of these, comprising highly halogenated organics (e.g. DDT, PCBs).

The conventional priority pollutants, however, are only one piece of the larger risk puzzle.

It is important to recognize that the current "lists" of priority pollutants were primarily established in the 1970s in large part for expediency - that is, they could be measured with off the shelf chemical analysis technology. Priority pollutants were NOT necessarily selected solely on the basis of risk.

PRESENTATION Contemporary Environmental Applications of Photographic Interpretation 12/02/2003
Slonecker, E T. Contemporary Environmental Applications of Photographic Interpretation. Presented at Conference on Contemporary Environmental Applications of Photographic Interpretation, Fairfax, VA, December 2, 2003.
Abstract: Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 25+ year history of utilizing aerial photo interpretation to provide research and technical support to the EPA Regions and Program offices in support of major environmental mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA This presentation will demonstrate the contemporary applications of aerial photographic interpretation including hazardous waste, emergency and disaster response, landscape ecology, accuracy assessment, and litigation support.

PRESENTATION Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1997? 12/02/2003
Nash, M S., T G. Wade, D T. Heggem, AND J D. Wickham. Does Anthropogenic Activities or Nature Dominate the Shaping of the Landscape in the Oregon Pilot Study Area for 1990-1997? Presented at North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - Committee on the Challenge of Modern Organization (CCMS) and Science Committee Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue, Valencia, Spain, December 2-5, 2003.
Abstract: We developed a simple method to locate changes in vegetation greenness, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data, which can be derived from many sources, and basic statistical and mapping software. AVHRR data are useful for evaluating large areas , but finer scale studies can be performed using higher resolution imagery. The use of remotely sensed data are far more cost effective than field studies and can be performed much more quickly.

PRESENTATION Metapopulation Processes of Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert 11/20/2003
Bradford, D F., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, D. W. Sada, AND J R. Jaeger. Metapopulation Processes of Infinite Dispersal?: Habitat Patch Occupancy By Toads (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Desert. Presented at Annual Meeting of Desert Fishes Council, Death Valley National Park, NV, November 22-23, 2003.
Abstract: Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late Pleistocene. This study tests two predictions based on metapopulation theory '--- the incidence of habitat patch occupancy is directly related to patch size and inversely related to patch isolation ---and a third, potentially competing hypothesis that patch occupancy is influenced by local environmental conditions. In a 20,000 km2 area of the eastern Mojave Desert, 128 potential habitat patches (primarily springs) were identified and surveyed for local environmental characteristics and presence/absence of B. punctatus. Patch isolation metrics were based on nearest-neighbor distances, calculated both as Euclidian distance and distance via connecting drainage channels. B. punctatus was found at 73% of the sites, including all of the 15 historic (pre-1970) sites. Based on stepwise multiple logistic regression, the incidence of patch occupancy increased significantly with patch size, and was also significantly related to elevation, latitude, and four metrics that were associated with rocky terrain, periodic scouring water flows, and ephemeral water. In contrast, incidence of patch occupancy was not significantly related to patch isolation. These findings are consistent with a "patchy population" model, rather than the classical equilibrium metapopulation model, implying frequent dispersal among patches and virtually no local extinctions. Implicated dispersal distances of many kilometers are large for an amphibian.

PRESENTATION Tdem and Numis (Plus) Soundings at the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: A Case Study 11/19/2003
Abraham, J. D., A. Legtchenko, A T. Mazzella, E. White, AND J. B. Fleming. Tdem and Numis (Plus) Soundings at the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: A Case Study. Presented at 2nd International Workshop on the Magnetic Resonance Sounding Method Applied to Non-Invasive Groundwater Investigations, Orleans, France, November 19-21, 2003.
Abstract: During the summer of 2002, a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres was undertaken to evaluate and gain knowledge of the Iris NUMIS instrument. The system was deployed at several sites throughout the United States of America (USA). One of these sites was the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. The following describes the geology, hydrology , and geophysical results (including NUMIS and time-domain electromagnetic soundings) in this unique desert oasis environment. Ash Meadows is located in southern Nye County, Nevada approximately 145 kIn northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Ash Meadows lies within the southern part of the Great Basin, an internally drained subdivision of the Basin and Range physiographic province. TDEM soundings were collected at each of the NUMIS site locations. The TDEM results clearly show the resistive carbonate fault blocks as well as a horizontal resistive layer that is broken by faults. These TDEM soundings provided a resistivity section for input into the NUMIS inversions. The NUMIS inversions indicate several water rich zones throughout the Ash Meadows area. Resource managers will use the results from this study to improve the hydrologic model of the Ash Meadows.

PRESENTATION Ther Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Identifying and Removing Buried World War I Munitions at the American University, Washington, Dc 11/13/2003
Slonecker, E T. Ther Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Identifying and Removing Buried World War I Munitions at the American University, Washington, Dc. Presented at USGS, Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Symposium, Fort Collins, CO, November 13, 2003.
Abstract: During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. After the end of the War in 1918, many of the weapons and chemical agents were haphazardly buried in and around the American University testing area which is now known as Spring Valley. In 1993, chemical-laden mortar shells were accidentally unearthed by a construction crew setting off a series of investigations that, to date, has cost over 40 million dollars and is still on-going. The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is supporting the on-going Superfund investigation efforts using remote sensing technology .Both conventional and research applications of remotely sensed imagery , along with GIS database developments, are playing a critical role in the discovery and removal of chemical weapons and contamination in this area. This poster will document EPIC's use ofhistorica1 imagery, GIS, photogramrnetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing these weapons from the environment.

PRESENTATION Microtopography and Grazing in Desert Range Land: A Lesson in Statistics Versus Reality in the Field 11/12/2003
Nash, M S. Microtopography and Grazing in Desert Range Land: A Lesson in Statistics Versus Reality in the Field. Presented at Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB) Seminar Series, Las Vegas, NV, November 12, 2003.
Abstract: This presentation summarizes two experiments on the effects of grazing on soil microtopography in a Chihuahuan Desert rangeland. In the first experiment, we measured the effect of three consecutive years of short duration <48 hours per year) intense grazing (20--40 yearling cows per hectare) and shrub removal on microtopography. Microtopography were measured in 18 plots (treatments). Treatments were a combination of two factors: (I) three levels of grazing (winter-grazed, summer-grazed, and not grazed), and (2) two levels of habitat structure (shrubs-removed and shrubs-intact). Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) shrubs were removed from half of the plots (9 out of 18 plots ). In the second experiment, three grazing gradients from water point, measurements were made using a modified erosion bridge at three distances (50 m, 450 m, and 1050 m) from water points.
From Experiment I, we found that the average height of the micromounds, the average depths of intermound depressions, and the number of micromounds were significantly reduced on the grazed plots. There were significant differences in average micromound heights and intermound microdepression depths attributable to the season of grazing. Microtopography was significantly reduced on grazed plots from which shrubs were removed, compared to ungrazed plots, and grazed plots with shrubs present. Grass canopy reduction, and destruction of the micromound structure in a short duration, plus intense grazing, results in erosion of micromounds and in-filling of intermound depressions. The loss of microtopography coupled with reduction in vegetation height and cover resulting from short.
From Experiment 2, we found that microtopography of plots at 450 m from water was not significantly different from that recorded at 50m. Microtopography of plots that were 1050 m from water points was significantly different from that of plots nearer water points. Strong correlation between microtopography and the cover of long-lived perennial grasses (R 2 = 91% ) was found, such dependence could be used assessing the trend in organic matter content that is in concordance with that of microtopography .Loss of microtopography from the impact of livestock in biospheres exacerbates erosion processes and contributes to desertification.

PRESENTATION Integrative Sampling of Antibiotics and Other Pharmaceutically-Related Compounds 11/08/2003
Alvarez, D. A., T JonesLepp, J. D. Petty, J. N. Huckins, AND B. L. McGee. Integrative Sampling of Antibiotics and Other Pharmaceutically-Related Compounds. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Austin, TX, November 8-13, 2003.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals from human and veterinary use continually enter the environment through municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), surface runoff from animal waste, and direct disposal of unused medications. The presence of these chemicals, albeit often at subtherapeutic trace levels, may be partly responsible for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and sublethal effects in aquatic organisms. Conventional sampling techniques (i.e., grab sampling) often are insufficient for detecting these trace levels. A new sampling technique, the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), developed by scientists at the USGS's Columbia Environmental Research Center, can provide the time-weighted average concentrations of these complex mixtures. A pilot study targeting the antibiotic azithromycin involved deploying the POCIS for 30 days in the effluents of three WWTPs in Nevada, Utah, and South Carolina. Azithromycin was detected at each WWTP at 19 to 66 ng/L. This translates to a yearly loading, into each of the three receiving waters, of 0.4 to 4 kg/year. In a separate study investigating potential impacts of confined animal feeding operations on national wildlife refuges in the Delmarva peninsula, the antibiotic tetracycline and the natural hormone 17B-estradiol were detected at multiple sites.

PRESENTATION Integrating a Landscape Hydrologic Analysis for Watershed Assessment 10/27/2003
Hernandez, M., W G. Kepner, D J. Semmens, D W. Ebert, D. C. Goodrich, AND S. N. Miller. Integrating a Landscape Hydrologic Analysis for Watershed Assessment. Presented at First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Benson, AZ, October 27-30, 2003.
Abstract: Methods to provide linkages between a hydrologic modeling tool (AGW A) and landscape assessment tool (A TtILA) for determining the vulnerability of semi-arid landscapes to natural and human-induced landscape pattern changes have been developed. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of A TtILA and AGW A to investigate the spatial effects of varying levels of anthropogenic disturbance on runoff volume and soil erosion in the San Pedro River Basin. Results were particularly useful for assessing the effects of land cover change in the watershed and highlighting subwatersheds that require careful management.

PRESENTATION The San Pedro Spatial Data Archive, a Database Browser for Community-Based Environmental Protection 10/27/2003
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, D T. Heggem, E. J. Evanson, C M. Edmonds, S. N. Scott, AND D W. Ebert. The San Pedro Spatial Data Archive, a Database Browser for Community-Based Environmental Protection. Presented at First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Benson, AZ, October 27-30, 2003.
Abstract: It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in southeast Arizona and northeast Sonora, Mexico using a system of landscape pattern measurements derived from satellite remote sensing, spatial statistics, process modeling, and geographic information systems technology. These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape composition and pattern indicators as sensitive measures of large-scale environmental change and thus may provide an effective and economical method for evaluating watershed condition related to disturbance from human and natural stresses. This project utilizes spatial data from a number of sources. The information has been modified to fit the community project area and assembled into a database browser with search functionality. We have produced all spatial data into a one-stop, easy-access product that will be useful to all others who utilize geographic information systems and could benefit from the information in regard to research, natural resource management, human-use planning, and policy development. The San Pedro Data Browser is currently available on-line via the EPA server (htip://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/land- sci/san-pedro.htm) and distributed as CD-ROMS. The purpose of the database is to disseminate available data that could be used by the stakeholder community to address environmental issues and improve environmental decision-making.

PRESENTATION US EPA Geospatial Quality Council Poster 10/21/2003
Brilis, G M. US EPA Geospatial Quality Council Poster. Presented at US EPA ORD-QA Conference 2003, Ada, OK, October 21-23, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Non-Regulated Contaminants: Emerging Research 10/16/2003
Daughton, C G. Non-Regulated Contaminants: Emerging Research. Presented at Environmental Health Sciences Research and Medicine (EHSRT), Washington, DC, October 16, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Non-Regulated Contaminants Emerging Research, Existing and Future Pollutants in Water Supplies: Old Pollutants, New Concerns New Pollutants, Unknown Issues 10/16/2003
Daughton, C G. Non-Regulated Contaminants Emerging Research, Existing and Future Pollutants in Water Supplies: Old Pollutants, New Concerns New Pollutants, Unknown Issues. Presented at National Academies, Institute of Medicine: Roundtable on Environmental Health Science, Research, and Medicine (EHSRT), Washington, DC, October 16, 2003.
Abstract: Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health.
This presentation examines the less-discussed aspects of the background and assumptions that underlie society's "relationship" with chemical pollutants in water. The major intent of this synopsis. is to open some windows onto the landscape of resources (all conveniently accessible via the Internet) for pursuing the many and disparate aspects of "emerging" research regarding water pollutants. A wide spectrum of research needs and gaps has been compiled for a particularly diverse array of water pollutants here: httQ://www.eQa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistrx/Qharma/needs.htm/; in general, these needs and gaps are equally pertinent to most water pollutants.

Briefly summarized are some of the many, disparate issues that require consideration in assessing the challenges in ensuring public health with regard to the use of water. The sections that follow are pertinent to answering questions such as: What types of "new" chemical stressors can be anticipated in water? How important are these stressors to human health? What research gaps might hamper the safeguarding of public health? What disconnects might exist between policy and science?

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Diverse Galaxy of Environmental Pollutants 10/16/2003
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Diverse Galaxy of Environmental Pollutants. Presented at eHormone 2003, Fifth International Symposium, New Orleans, LA, October 16-18, 2003.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.
Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the largest unknown.

Beginning in the late 1990's, the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas became involved in several international activities involving PPCPs. This initial work has now evolved into a lead role at EPA. ECB's work is captured on the Agency's PPCPs web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma), which is the only comprehensive site in the world devoted to this topic. The web site serves as a central point of access and major public outreach tool for a wide array of materials and information.

ECB's role serves in part to catalyze research, and to foster collaborative efforts. In the span of the last 4 years, what had originally been a predominantly European-led effort, now involves researchers from other federal agencies (esp. CDC, FDA USDA, and USGS), other countries (e.g., Health Canada), and universities (e.g., EPA STAR grants targeted to PPCPs).

PRESENTATION Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times 10/14/2003
Schumacher, B A. Re-Evaluation of Applicability of Agency Sample Holding Times. Presented at Biological Advisory Committee - Research Methods Symposium, Newport, RI, October 14 - 15, 2003.
Abstract: The Purpose and Rationale is to:
To assess the validity of currently recognized holding times and to provide a scientific basis for changes tha may be necessary to the current regulations.

While holding times may appear adequate to protect sample integrity and provide sufficient time for laboratory analysis, relevant data is sparse on individually defined holding times and, thus, some of the holding times appear to be arbitrary and/or politically driven.

When holding times are exceeded, even if only by 1 day, the data must be flagged and are often declared invalid or are reported as "estimated", and the data are then called into question, especially if the data are to be used in a court of law.

PRESENTATION A Projection of Urban Growth in Atlanta, Georgia 10/11/2003
Matheny, R W. A Projection of Urban Growth in Atlanta, Georgia. Presented at 41st Annual Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, October 11-15, 2003.
Abstract: The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program(ReVA) is designed to develop and demonstrate approaches to identify the ecosystems at the greatest risk from regional population growth and economic activity. As part of this program, a cellular-based model. the Community Growth Model (CGM) is being developed to examine alternative land use patterns that could be influenced by policy changes. This paper examines various uses of the model applied to the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area to determine growth and the conversion of forest and agricultural land uses to urban land uses. The model itself can examine possible policy changes in urban growth as reflected through the model spread equations, spontaneous growth equations and planned development assumptions. The various model parameters can be modified by the decision-maker to analyze the implications of various land use policies. ReVA has used CGM to examine the population impacts in the Mid-Atlanticregion and in the Neuse River Basin, in the Charlotte-Rock Hill metropolitan area and has completed baseline land use change projections by county for the entire Mid-Atlantic region.

PRESENTATION Sacrificing the Ecological Resolution of Vegetation Maps at the Altar of Thematic Accuracy: Assessed Map Accuracies for Hierarchical Vegetation Classifications in the Eastern Great Basin of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (Sw Regap) 10/07/2003
Sajwaj, T. D., W G. Kepner, D F. Bradford, AND C T. Herndon. Sacrificing the Ecological Resolution of Vegetation Maps at the Altar of Thematic Accuracy: Assessed Map Accuracies for Hierarchical Vegetation Classifications in the Eastern Great Basin of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (Sw Regap). Presented at 13th Annual National Gap Analysis Program Meeting, Fort Collins, CO, October 7-10, 2003.
Abstract: The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SW ReGAP) improves upon previous GAP projects conducted in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah to provide a consistent, seamless vegetation map for this large and ecologically diverse geographic region. Nevada's component of the land cover mapping effort comprises 15 mapzones, or 291,700 km2. As of October 2003, preliminary field sampling has been completed via road-based sampling and backpacking surveys in all 15 of Nevada's mapzones yielding a data set of 17,000+ sites. Based on plant community data collected in the field, each site is labeled with NVCS alliance and ecological system labels, and a National Land Cover Database (NLCD) label. Site polygons were intersected with 40+ spectral, topographic, climatic, and edaphic datalayers. A set of decision rules ( or land cover models) was generated by the application of a classification/regression tree (CART) algorithm to the plant community label and its associated dependent variables. Land cover models were implemented in Imagine 8.6 image processing software to create classified vegetation maps. Three maps were constructed for each mapping unit at increasing levels of ecological resolution: an NLCD level map (coarsest), and ecological systems map (intermediate), and an alliance level map (finest). Maps have been constructed for the Mojave, Eastern Great Basin, and Lahontan Basin mapping units. Final vegetation maps were assessed for thematic accuracy at each of the three levels of ecological resolution. The NLCD level maps produced the highest thematic accuracy while the alliance level map produced the lowest thematic accuracy. The procedures used in field data collection, land cover modeling, accuracy assessment, and edge-matching adjacent mapping units are illustrated with examples from the east Great Basin mapping unit of east central Nevada.

PRESENTATION Testing Tree-Classifier Variants and Alternate Modeling Methodologies in the East Great Basin Mapping Unit of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (Sw Regap) 10/07/2003
Sajwaj, T. D., W G. Kepner, AND D F. Bradford. Testing Tree-Classifier Variants and Alternate Modeling Methodologies in the East Great Basin Mapping Unit of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (Sw Regap). Presented at 13th Annual National Gap Analysis Program Meeting, Fort Collins, CO, October 7-10, 2003.
Abstract: We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping unit comprising four mapzones in Nevada. Competing approaches to data set generation included the use of averaged digital data values within a training site polygon or use of randomly selected individual pixel values to create modeling data sets. Use of averaged values was faster but created smaller data sets. Use of individual pixels created larger data sets but was slower. Competing approaches to model construction included use of a single model for all vegetation types versus use of multiple presence/absence models for individual vegetation types. Use of the single model required minimal time but did not map all sampled communities, particularly rare types. Use of multiple models mapped all community types, typically with greater map accuracies, but was slower. Competing tree-classifier variants included the use of a simple CART algorithm and two iterative tree algorithms (See5 and Random Forests software). The simple CART algorithm used binary splits of dependent variables to classify data points into "pure" groups. The See5 algorithm used a subset of the data pool to construct a set of decision rules, and then iteratively reconstructed the decision rules based on inaccuracies. The third algorithm used subsets of the data pool and dependent variables to construct numerous decision trees. Each set of decision rules got a "vote" in the final outcome of each pixel in the classified vegetation map. Alternate methodologies were compared based on required time, internal model validation, and accuracy assessments. The alternate methodologies are discussed in terms of the competing interests of time required for completion, final thematic accuracies, and complexity .

PRESENTATION Column Experiments and Anomalous Conductivity in Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils 09/14/2003
Sherrod, L., W. Sauck, D Werkema, AND E. Atekwana. Column Experiments and Anomalous Conductivity in Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils. Presented at Eighth International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 14-18, 2003.
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was designed to increase the understanding of the geoelectric effects of microbial " degradation of hydrocarbons. Eight large columns were were paired to provide a replicate of each of four experiments. These large-volume columns contained "sterilized" soil from a well-studied field site and 25% BH nutrient solution. Two columns contained diesel fuel, two contained microbes, and two contained both microbes and diesel. The remaining two columns were control columns, with only soil and 25% BH solution. A fixed vertical array of electrodes was mounted inside the wall of each column. Apparent resistivity data were collected from each column at 2-cm intervals every 10 days for more than 18 months. These data show large changes in the conductivity of the LNAPL-impacted zones, but relatively small changes in the control columns.

PRESENTATION Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area (USA): A Watershed Assessment of Landscape Change and Impacts to Aquatic Resources 09/13/2003
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, D T. Heggem, AND D. C. Goodrich. Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area (USA): A Watershed Assessment of Landscape Change and Impacts to Aquatic Resources. Presented at NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Workshop: Use of landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment, Debe, Poland, September 1-3, 2003.
Abstract: Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences. The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately owned lands that include estuarine, forest, and rangeland habitat interspersed with rural and metropolitan centers and agricultural areas. The pilot area supports 2.6 million inhabitants and is expected to undergo major changes relative to human development patterns and preferences over the next fifty years. In the present pilot study, future options were examined relative to their impact on surface water conditions, e.g. surface runoff and sediment yield. These hydrological outputs were estimated for a baseline year and predicted in the future using hydrological process models and spatially oriented land use models based on stakeholder preferences and historical growth.

PRESENTATION Closed-Loop Stripping Analysis (Clsa) of Synthetic Musk Compounds from Fish Tissues With Measurement By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry With Selected-Ion Monitoring 09/09/2003
Osemwengie, L I. AND S. Steinberg. Closed-Loop Stripping Analysis (Clsa) of Synthetic Musk Compounds from Fish Tissues With Measurement By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry With Selected-Ion Monitoring. Presented at American Chemical Society Conference, New York, NY, September 7-12, 2003.
Abstract: Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique.

PRESENTATION GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling: the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool 08/06/2003
Miller, S. N., D J. Semmens, R. C. Miller, M. Hernandez, D. C. Goodrich, W. P. Miller, W G. Kepner, AND D W. Ebert. GIS-Based Hydrologic Modeling: the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool. 2nd Federal Interagency Hyddrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, NV, July 28-August 1, 2002.
Abstract: Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving from simple, local scale problems toward complex, spatially explicit regional ones. Such problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales The extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input
parameter files, however, have long represented an obstacle to the timely and cost-effective use of such complex models by resource managers. The USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, has developed a GIS tool to facilitate this process. A geographic information system(GIS) provides the framework within which spatially distributed data are collected and used to prepare model input files and evaluate model results. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool
(AGWA) uses widely available standardized spatial datasets that can be obtained via the internet, The data are used to develop input parameter files for KINEROS and SWAT, two watershed runoff and erosion models that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. AGWA automates the process of transforming digital data into simulation results and provides a visualization tool to help the user interpret results. The (use) of AGWA in joint hydrologic and ecological investigations has been demonstrated on such diverse landscapes as southeastern
Arizona, southern Nevada, central Colorado, and upstate New York.

PRESENTATION Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Gps, and GIS Applications in Opportunistic Plant Species Monitoring of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 07/27/2003
Lopez, R D., C M. Edmonds, AND J G. Lyon. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Gps, and GIS Applications in Opportunistic Plant Species Monitoring of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Las Vegas, NV, July 27-30, 2003.
Abstract: Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presence and dominance of several opportunistic plant species, including the common reed (Phragmites australis). Typically, P. australis communities form large monospecific "stands" that may predominate in wetland plant communities, supplanting other plant taxa. Compared to other more heterogeneous plant communities, P. australis stands are less suitable as animal habitat and reduce the overall biological diversity of wetlands. From a LGL resource perspective, P. australis is difficult to manage because it is persistent, produces a large amount of biomass, propagates easily, and is very difficult to control with mechanical or chemical techniques. We used a combined field and remote-sensing based approach to develop a semi-automated detection and mapping technique to support P. australis monitoring and assessment. Real-time- corrected GPS locations of field data provided an important measurable link between airborne sensor data and information about the physical structure of these plant communities, including physical structure of individual plants, soil type, soil moisture content, and the characteristics of other associated plant taxa. Ten LGL wetland sites on Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Huron were mapped in 2001, and resampled for mapping accuracy in 2002. User's accuracy of semi-autornated maps for P. australis exceeds 90% at some of the wetland sites. The results of this study demonstrate a technique for combining hyperspectral airborne remote sensing data, precision GPS data, and GIS techniques to map plant species and plant community characteristics under ephemeral wetland conditions. Our results demonstrate how remote sensor technologies may offer effective semi-automated methods for monitoring opportunistic plant species over large geographic regions.

PRESENTATION Broad-Scale Assessment of Wetland Vulnerability Using GIS and Landscape-Ecological Metrics 07/27/2003
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, AND J G. Lyon. Broad-Scale Assessment of Wetland Vulnerability Using GIS and Landscape-Ecological Metrics. Presented at American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Las Vegas, NV, July 27-30, 2003.
Abstract: Landscape-ecological indicators of ecosystem integrity are increasingly being sought for use in habitat suitability assessments, habitat vulnerability assessments, and as a means to set goals for restoration projects. We utilized currently available information from the Arkansas GAP Program, Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST), and National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to determine the ecological vulnerability of wetlands in the Lower White River Basin (Arkansas). The documented ecological requirements of wetland species in the region were used to inform the merged GAP, CAST, and NWI habitat models for the 897,000 White River Basin study area. Wetland patch size, patch shape, and human-induced disturbance factors were used to determine the relative ecological vulnerability of wetland habitat for mallard duck, black bear, and plant species undercurrent and future landscape conditions. Results in the white River Basin indicate that a substantial proportion of wetland habitat is vulnerable to fragmentation or loss, as a result of patch configuration and/or hurnan-induced disturbance factors. The models suggest that a future decrease in the occurrence or duration of wetland flooding along 226 kilometers of riparian habitat in the White River National Wildlife Refuge would result in the net loss of 2822 hectares of habitat for obligate-wetland or facultative-wetland organisms, in specific areas. The model results demonstrate that selected spectral remote sensing data, NWI data, and ecological principles can be combined to develop a practical ecological vulnerability model for wetlands at broad scales.

PRESENTATION Landscape-Scale Ecological Factors and Their Role in Plant Opportunism of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 07/25/2003
Lopez, R D., C M. Edmonds, AND D T. Heggem. Landscape-Scale Ecological Factors and Their Role in Plant Opportunism of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at The 7th International Association of Ecology (INTECOL) International Wetlands Coference, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25-30, 2004.
Abstract: Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (USA and Canada) are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems of the world. However, since the 1970s the presence of opportunistic plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Steudel) have increased in Great Lakes wetlands, potentially diminishing biological diversity. Generally, decreases in wetland plant species diversity have been correlated with human-induced disturbances, including fragmentation from roads, urbanization, and agricultural development. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) offer unique capabilities to measure the type, extent, and physical characteristics of coastal wetlands, wetland plant communities, and human-induced wetland disturbance across vast regions. Thus, we developed and used a field-based vegetation assessment protocol in combination with satellite/airborne and GIS data analyses to test for ecological relationships between wetland disturbance and the presence and configuration of common reed stands in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes. Plant community field measurements were conducted in thirteen representative wetlands within the coastal margin of the Great Lakes. Landscape-scale measurements were conducted throughout the Great Lakes basin to quantify wetland plant community composition; size and configuration of coastal wetlands; proximity to anthropogenic stressors and 'natural' land cover; and the potential effects of anthropogenic stressors and 'natural' land cover. The results describe differences among wetlands, differences among contributing watersheds, change along environmental gradients, and demonstrate how these relationships are being used to improve wetland conservation and management programs in the USA and Canada.

PRESENTATION A New Sw-846 Method: Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry as Applied to the Detection and Identification of Organotins Method 8323 07/21/2003
JonesLepp, T. A New Sw-846 Method: Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry as Applied to the Detection and Identification of Organotins Method 8323. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference (NEMC), Crystal City, VA, July 21-24, 2003.
Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that humans and other animals (terrestrial and marine) are being exposed continually to potentially harmful species of organotins. One possible route of environmental exposure in the U.S. to organotins (specifically dibutyltin and triphenyltin) is via fresh surface waters. A unique methodology (developed in-house at EPA-Las Vegas) was used for specific detection (speciation) and quantitation of the organotins. Method 8323 is the one of the newest EPA SW-846 methods and is the first EPA-approved method for organotins. This green-chemistry method uses solid-phase extraction discs, coupled with @L-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-ES/ITMS) as the detection method for the determination of organotins (as cations) in waters. This technique would also be applicable to ES-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ES-MS). The following compounds can be determined: tributyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, monobutyltin trichloride, triphenyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monophenyltin trichloride. Applications of this method have been directed towards detecting organotins leaching from PVC pipe, natural waters, and an industrial spill in Region 4.

PRESENTATION Pulsed Splitless and Large-Volume Injection in Capillary Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Ultra-Trace Level Pesticide Residues 07/21/2003
Rosal, C G., L A. Riddick, G M. Momplaisir, E M. Heithmar, AND K E. Varner. Pulsed Splitless and Large-Volume Injection in Capillary Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Ultra-Trace Level Pesticide Residues. Presented at National Environmental Monitoring Conference 2003, Arlington, VA, July 21-24, 2003.
Abstract: The possible presence of ultra-trace levels (sub- parts per trillion) of pesticides in pristine aquatic environments (e.g., alpine lakes) would raise questions regarding potential effects on biota. One hypothesis is that agricultural pesticides that are heavily applied in the San Joaquin Valley , California have drifted to the east of the valley, have been deposited along wind paths, and have reached high-elevation lakes of the Sierra Nevada. If so, these pesticides could be responsible for the disappearance of the mountain yellow-legged frogs. Conventional analytical techniques using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the determination of these pollutants cannot detect sub-parts per trillion levels. In order to quantify ultra-trace levels of pesticides, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for accurate and reliable determination of these pollutants. Toward this end, this poster presents experimental results for two sample introduction techniques, pulsed splitless injection (PSI) and large-volume injection (L VI), into a capillary column GC/MS. PSI introduces 1 uL of sample into the inlet liner at a pulsed high pressure, while L VI slowly injects at least 20 uL of sample into the GC inlet liner at a temperature below the solvent's boiling point. Optimization of parameters and analytical figures of merit for the two techniques will be presented.

PRESENTATION Examining Regional Land Use Change: the Community Growth Model (Cgm) 07/20/2003
Matheny, R W. Examining Regional Land Use Change: the Community Growth Model (Cgm). Presented at Urban Regional Information Systems Public Participation GIS Conference, Portland, OR, July 20-22, 2003.
Abstract: The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReV A) is designed to develop and demonstrate approaches to identify the ecosystems at the greatest risk from regional population growth and economic activity.
As part of this program, a cellular-based model is being developed to examine alternative land use patterns that could be influenced by policy changes. This presentation demonstrates various uses of the model to determine the conversion of forest and agricultural land uses to urban land uses under a variety of possible scenarios. The model itself examines possible policy changes in urban growth as reflected through the model spread equations, spontaneous growth equations and planned development assumptions. Concentration is placed on how the various model parameters can be modified by the decision-maker to analyze the implications of various land use policies. ReV A has used CGM to examine the population impacts in the Mid-Atlantic region and in the Neuse Rive Basin, and has completed baseline land use change projections by county for the entire Mid-Atlantic region.

Using a series of population projections the Community Growth Model produces a grid that integrates infrastructure and land use. It then calculates the area to be converted to three urban uses (low density residential, high density residential and commercial/industrial/transportation) from the population projections. Next it allocates new urban growth using three variations of a neighborhood function. CGM iterates for each projected year.

PRESENTATION Ppcps as Ubiquitous Pollutants from Health and Cosmetic Care: Significance, Concern, Solutions, Stewardship 07/16/2003
Daughton, C G. Ppcps as Ubiquitous Pollutants from Health and Cosmetic Care: Significance, Concern, Solutions, Stewardship. Presented at EPA OPPTS-ORD Seminar Series, Washington, DC, July 16, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations 07/16/2003
Holland, D M., P. Caragea, AND R. L. Smith. Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations. Presented at International Conference on Environmental Statistics and Health, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, July 16-18, 2003.
Abstract: As the focus of environmental management has shifted toward regional- scale strategies, there is a growing need to develop statistical methodology for the estimation of regional trends in air pollution. This information is critical to assessing the effects of legislated emission control programs. This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate sulfate (SO,'-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. In the first stage, a linear regression model is used to estimate site-specific trends in data adjusted for the effects of season and meteorology. In the second stage, kriging methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors. This method is extended to include a Bayesian analysis to allow more accurate determination of the prediction error variance that accounts for uncertainty in estimating the spatial covariance parameters. For both pollutants, significant improvement in air quality was detected that appears similar to the large drop in S02 power plant emissions. Spatial patterns of trends in S02 and SO,2- concentrations vary by location over the eastern United States. Both spatial prediction techniques produced similar results in terms of regional trends and standard errors.

PRESENTATION Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations 07/16/2003
Holland, D M., P. Caragea, AND R. L. Smith. Trends in Rural Sulfur Concentrations. Presented at International Conference on Environmental Statistics and Health, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, July 16-18, 2003.
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the U .5. In the first stage, a linear regression model is used to estimate site-specific trends in data adjusted for the effects of season and meteorology. In the second stage, kriging methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate regional trends and standard errors. The method is extended to include a Bayesian analysis to account for the uncertainty in estimating the spatial covariance parameters. Both spatial prediction techniques produced similar results in terms of regional trends and standard errors.

PRESENTATION Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment: A Nato Framework for International Cooperation 07/13/2003
Kepner, W G., F. Mueller, AND F W. Kutz. Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment: A Nato Framework for International Cooperation. Presented at 6th International Association for Landscape Ecology World Congress, Darwin, Australia, July 13-17, 2003.
Abstract: An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geographic information systems, spatial statistics, and process models with landscape ecology theory. This project has been established under the NATO Committee on the Challenges ofModern Society which has established a network of national experts within 46 countries in Europe and North America. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific cooperation which can lead to the transfer of technologies and information among the study group participants for their use in environmental protection and preservation programs.

PRESENTATION Integrating Landscape and Hydrologic Analysis for Watershed Assessment in An American Semi-Arid Bioregion 07/13/2003
Kepner, W G., M. Hernandez, D J. Semmens, D W. Ebert, D. C. Goodrich, AND S. N. Miller. Integrating Landscape and Hydrologic Analysis for Watershed Assessment in An American Semi-Arid Bioregion. Presented at 6th International Association for Landscape Ecology World Congress, Darwin, Australia, July 13-17, 2003.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of operational hydrologic modeling and landscape assessment tools to investigate the temporal and spatial effects of varying levels of anthropogenic disturbance in a semi-arid catchment and examine the consequences of landscape change on runoff volume and soil erosion.
We integrated landscape metrics generated from readily available spatial data with a hydrologic model to examine the temporal and spatial effects of varying levels of anthropogenic disturbance between 1973 and 1997 in the Upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Landscape pattern analysis was conducted on a sub-catchment basis with emphasis on different levels of human use. Landscape metrics were associated with landscape characteristics, human stressors, and physical characteristics at each sub- catchment and for four temporal land use layers (1973, 1986, 1992, and 1997). Chronological changes were then examined relative to catchment condition variables using two hydrological models to perform multi-scale watershed assessment for a variety of outputs such as runoff depth, runoff discharge, and erosion rates at the sub-catchment scale. The results were particularly useful for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disturbance in the catchment area over a period of 25 years and for identifying sub- catchments that require critical management attention.

PRESENTATION Unique Environmental Chemistry Solutions to Superfund Problems 06/11/2003
JonesLepp, T. Unique Environmental Chemistry Solutions to Superfund Problems. Presented at National Institute of Environmental Health Services, Washington, DC, June 11, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Identification of Compounds in South African Stream Samples Using Ion Composition Elucidation (Ice) 06/08/2003
Grange, A H., P. Thomas, M. Solomon, AND G W. Sovocool. Identification of Compounds in South African Stream Samples Using Ion Composition Elucidation (Ice). Presented at 51st American Society for Mass Spectrometry Meeting, Montreal, CA, June 8-12, 2003.
Abstract: Analytical methods for target compounds usually employ clean-up procedures to remove potential mass interferences and utilize selected ion recording (SIR) to provide low detection limits. Such an approach, however, could overlook non-target compounds that might be present and that could pose risks to ecosystems or to humans. In an ideal world, it would be preferred that all compounds present be identified, quantified, and evaluated for toxicity.
The US EPA's Environmental Chemistry Branch is identifying as many compounds as possible in several stream samples collected near Johannesburg, South Africa, using Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE), a high resolution mass spectrometric technique developed in-house. This SIR based technique measures the exact masses of an ion and its +1 and +2 mass peak profiles that arise from heavier isotopes such as 13C, 2H, 15N, 17(, 180, 33S, and 34S. The abundances of the +1 and +2 profiles relative to the monoisotopic ion's profile are also measured for compounds that provide gas chromatographic peaks. Comparison of measured and calculated values of these three exact masses and two relative abundances for the ion compositions that are possible based on the ion's exact mass and its error limits provides unique compositions for the ions in a mass spectrum. Mass spectral interpretation based on these ion compositions often provides tentative identifications when multiple library matches occur, when poor quality mass spectra are obtained, or when no library matches are found.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing for Environmental Compliance Monitoring 05/28/2003
Garofalo, D. Remote Sensing for Environmental Compliance Monitoring. Presented at Managing Technology 2003, Policy, Politics, and Leadership, Atlanta, GA, May 28, 2003.
Abstract: I. Remote Sensing Basics A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
1. Spatial resolution addresses the smallest feature size which can be seen or differentiated from an adjacent feature based on the sensor being used.
2. Spectral resolution refers to the spectral bands which a sensor is capable of detecting as well as band width.
3. Temporal resolution refers to the frequency with which remote sensing data are collected and the archival record available for a given sensor.
4. Photogrammetryis the art and science of making accurate measurements on remote sensing images; the technology is also used for making accurate maps from remote sensing data.
C. Sensor types are varied. Selected sensor types are either active or passive. Radar is an active sensor because it generates and transmits its own source of electromagnetic energy which interacts with an object and is reflected back to the sensor for recording and analysis. Cameras, multi spectral and hyperspectral scanners, are passive devices which receive and record solar energy which has been reflected or transmitted from objects. Thermal scanners passively receive and detect temperature information being transmitted from hot or cold surfaces.

Aerial Camera/Film is sensitive to the visible and near infrared (reflective, not thermal) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, depending upon the type of film which is used in the camera.
Radar is an active sensor which can be mounted on aircraft or spacecraft. Radar generates and records its own electromagnetic energy .It "shouts out" its signal and records the part of the signal which bounces off objects and is returned to the sensor .

PRESENTATION The Modeling of the Fate and Transport of Environmental Pollutants 05/22/2003
Betowski, L D., M. Enlow, L A. Riddick, T W. Collette, AND J. C. D'Angelo. The Modeling of the Fate and Transport of Environmental Pollutants. Presented at Devils's Hole Workshop and Death Valley Regional Flow Model, Death Valley, CA, May 22, 2003.
Abstract: Current models that predict the fate of organic compounds released to the environment are based on the assumption that these compounds exist exclusively as neutral species. This assumption is untrue under many environmental conditions, as some molecules can exist as cations, anions, zwitterions, or neutrals, depending on pH. Computational methods can assist in the improvement of these models by simulating the Raman spectra of a particular species. This is accomplished through frequency calculations using quantum mechanical programs like Gaussian, which calculates energies of compounds based on their molecular structures. These calculations give information about the frequency and motion/direction of the vibration. Researchers are able to use this data as a tool to help predict the measurement of simultaneously occurring species of environmental pollutants at varied temperatures and pH. A direct comparison is made between the calculated Raman frequencies and the experimental frequencies for four microspecies of meta-hydroxypyridine.

PRESENTATION Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences for a Future Environment 05/13/2003
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, D. C. Goodrich, D A. Mouat, AND S. D. Bassett. Scenario Analysis for the San Pedro River, Analyzing Hydrological Consequences for a Future Environment. Presented at Using Science to Assess Environmental Vulnerabilities - A ReVA MAIA Conference, King of Prussia, PA, May 13-15, 2003.
Abstract: Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences. The San Pedro River in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico is an area that has undergone rapid changes in land use and cover and subsequently is facing keen environmental crises related to water resources. It is the location of a number of studies that have dealt with change analysis, watershed condition, and most recently, alternative futures analysis. The previous work has primarily dealt with resources of habitat and groundwater related to human development patterns and preferences. In the present study, future options were examined relative to their impact on surface water conditions, e.g. sediment yield and surface runoff. These hydrological outputs were estimated for the baseline year of 2000 and predicted twenty years in the future using hydrological process models and spatially oriented land use models based on stakeholder preferences and historical growth.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing of Seagrass With Aviris and High Altitude Aerial Photography 05/08/2003
Field, D., P. Biber, W. J. Kenworthy, L D. Worthy, AND M. Finkbeiner. Remote Sensing of Seagrass With Aviris and High Altitude Aerial Photography. Presented at American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Anchorage, AK, May 5-8, 2003.
Abstract: On May 15,2002 AVIRlS (Advanced VisuaJ/lnfrared Imaging Spectrometer) data and high altitude aerial photographs were acquired tor coastal .waters from Cape Lookout to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina. The study encompasses extensive areas of seagrass, federally protected submersed, rooted vascular plants that perform a wide variety of beneficial physical and biological functions. Most seagrasses in the study area are welldocumented through earlier mapping efforts and extensive in situ studies. The A V1RISand photographic imagery were processed for areas of known seagrass occurrence. 'The data were compared. to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two imagedata soures for mapping seagrass and detecting changes in such parameters as seagrassdensity and species composition. The AVIRIS data were also evaluated to determine the most efficient band combinations for seagrass detection in variably turbid class II inshore waters.

PRESENTATION Remote Detention of Invasive and Opportunistic Plant Species in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 05/05/2003
Lopez, R D. AND C M. Edmonds. Remote Detention of Invasive and Opportunistic Plant Species in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, from other physical disturbances within or on the periphery of wetlands, or as a result of all of these factors. Hyperspectral remotely sensed data is being used to develop spectral signatures of Phragmites-dominated wetlands. Successful identification of Phragmites using hyperspectral data will permit region-wide mapping, and the mapping results can then be used to develop replicate samples to test the hypothesis that increases in Phragmites abundance are associated with hydrologic or other physical wetland disturbances. This project is also exploring the same capability for mapping purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattails (and Typha spp.)

PRESENTATION Monitoring Ecosystems from Space: the Global Fiducials Program 05/05/2003
Williams, D J. AND L. Friedl. Monitoring Ecosystems from Space: the Global Fiducials Program. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Images from satellites provide valuable insights to changes in land-cover and ecosystems. Long- term monitoring of ecosystem change using historical satellite imagery can provide quantitative measures of ecological processes and allows for estimation of future ecosystem condition. Global change research questions may be answered by identifying, monitoring, and analyzing a collection of specific ecosystems, or fiducials. A fiducial site is defined here as a geographic location to be used as an "environmental benchmark" or an environmentally-significant site for the long-term monitoring of processes, both natural and anthropogenic, associated with the causes or effects of environmental change. There is no specific criteria for what constitutes a fiducial site, but, the sites ideally support an environmental process that needs to be monitored over time so that scientists can better understand the changes that are occurring. Some sites are linked to other ongoing long-term ground based ecological research programs. The Global Fiducials Program is preparing an archive, or library, of satellite images to support current and future scientists and policy-makers. For the next 25 years, satellites will collect periodic images

PRESENTATION Remote Detection of Invassive and Opportunistic Plant Species in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 05/05/2003
Lopez, R D. AND C M. Edmonds. Remote Detection of Invassive and Opportunistic Plant Species in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at U.S. EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, from other physical disturbances within or on the periphery of wetlands, or as a result of all of these factors. Hyperspectral remotely sensed data is being used to develop spectral signatures of Phragmites-dominated wetlands. Successful identification of Phragmites using hyperspectral data will permit region-wide mapping, and the mapping results can then be used to develop replicate samples to test the hypothesis that increases in Phragmites abundance are associated with hydrologic or other physical wetland disturbances. This project is also exploring the same capability for mapping purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattails (and Typha spp.)

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing of Pamlico Sound Plankton Communities Using Aviris Data 05/05/2003
Knight, J F., R S. Lunetta, J G. Lyon, T H. Mace, H. W. Paerl, AND B. L. Peierls. Remote Sensing of Pamlico Sound Plankton Communities Using Aviris Data. Presented at EPA/NASA sponsored special session Remote Sensing of Water Quality American Society for Photogrametry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) Annual Conference, Anchorage, AK, May 5-9, 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. EPA, in cooperation with NASA, NOAA and the University of North Carolina, has acquired AVIRIS hyperspectral data and high altitude (ER2) color infrared aerial photography (1: 65,000-scale) for the Pamlico Sound in North Carolina on May 15, 2002. The Pamlico Sound is a highly important fishery and recreational area that is impacted by urban growth, industry, and agriculture from the Neuse River Basin. The large size of the study area includes examples of a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic cover types in addition to varied estuarine environments ranging from sea grass beds to open water. Simultaneous in situ water quality samples, radiometric data, and aerosol optical depth measurements were also acquired. The objective of the project is to measure water quality parameters such as chlorophyll content, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter content from hyperspectral imagery in Case 11 waters. Additionally, project collaborators will conduct research to evaluate the potential application of advanced remote sensor technologies to measure indicators of estuarine health and condition that are currently under development across numerous estuarine systems for national application. Preliminary results linking AVIRIS reflectance measurements to water quality parameters will be presented.

PRESENTATION EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (Reva) Demonstrating Results Through Partnerships 05/05/2003
Smith, E R. EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (Reva) Demonstrating Results Through Partnerships. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges initiative that is focused on addressing broad-scale issues associated with land use change, resource extraction. pollution and pollutants, spread of non-indigenous species, and climate change. To date, ReVA has developed over 100 spatial coverages that depict the variability in resource condition, sensitivity , and current and future stressor distributions. In addition, we have developed new spatial integration methods and have evaluated both these new methods and traditional analysis methods with regard to data issues (skewness, imbalance, redundancy) and appropriateness for different assessment questions. A combination of regional-scale statistical and process models allow forecasting of the impacts of alternative management decisions along with insights into trends over which we have little to no control. Modeled results, spatial data coverages, and integration methods are all built into a web-based decision support system that allows flexibility in selecting and assessing different decision criteria.

ReVA is now putting into place client part11erships with regional, state and local organizations to further develop our tools such that they are useful to decision-makers. and to test the application of ReVA data and information at multiple scales. Our partnerships now include EPA Region 3, The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, The Canaan Valley Institute (covering the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region), and Baltimore County Department of Environmental Protection. Within all of these partnerships it is expected that we will demonstrate the application of ORD research towards targeting of risk management activities and evaluation of management alternatives.

PRESENTATION A Regional Ecological Analysis of the Great Lakes Basin 05/05/2003
Edmonds, C M., D T. Heggem, A C. Neale, AND K B. Jones. A Regional Ecological Analysis of the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the United States and Canada. The study area is comprised of watersheds which drain or historically drained into the Laurentian Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain 18 percent of the earth ' s fresh water and the ecosystem that surrounds the lakes is rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds, biological diversity and many human population centers. The land cover for this analysis was primarily developed by the CCRS and is based on 1990s North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) imagery and the CCRS Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) archive imagery of Canada. The analyses will use delineated watersheds and mapping units of fixed size. The analysis will feature many landscape indicators including the percentage of natural land cover (N-Index), forest fragmentation and estimates of total nitrogen stream loading throughout the basin. This poster will demonstrate the development of the data set, conversion to land cover, the delineated watershed coverages and models for developing landscape scale ecosystem indicators. Data images are given in ranked order by natural breaks and will provide the viewer with ecosystem conditional relationships throughout the entire Great Lakes Basin. Results from this basic study by EP A and CCRS are presented and future work is expected to include change detection dating back to the early 1970s.

PRESENTATION Cart Diagnosis of Watershed Impairment in the Mid-Atlantic Region 05/05/2003
Neale, A C. AND K B. Jones. Cart Diagnosis of Watershed Impairment in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a per watershed basis. CART uses recursive partitioning to separate observations into groups. Numerous data sets were compiled for 477 watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region, including land cover, atmospheric deposition, hydrogpraphy, topography, and soils, along with nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads. Results from the CART analysis identified 8 distinct groups of watersheds based on differences in the amount of atmospheric deposition, abundance of riparian land cover, abundance of forest land cover, and other factors.

PRESENTATION Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Estimates of Forest Biomass and Canopy Structure 05/05/2003
Pilant, A, J. Iiames, R S. Lunetta, K Endres, AND T E. Lewis. Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Estimates of Forest Biomass and Canopy Structure. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) launched in 1999 is the first satellite sensor to provide the kind of data necessary to intensively probe the global landscape for LAl. Because it is a new sensor, its data products must be validated with ground data. This research then has two goals; 1) Validate MODIS LAI and NDVI (Nom1alized Difference Vegetation Index) estimates using field measurements;.
2) Develop improved methods for land-cover mapping and landscape change detection using remote sensing.

We are using an emerging technology to measure LAl in the field: combined digital hemispherical photography and sunfleck profiling. This methodology captures geometric characteristics of canopy architecture that control the reflected sunlight signals received by
satellite sensors. We have established a network of six validation sites in the Albemarle~Pamlico Basin of North Carolina and Virginia and lead a collaboration to collect the necessary data. NASA is providing satellite imagery, Duke University and North Carolina State University are providing access to well-studied field locales for instrument validation, industry partners Westvaco and International Paper provide access to forest land, as are the States of North Carolina and Virginia. In this poster we present the methodology used and example imagery showing trends in forest LAI.

PRESENTATION How Far to the Nearest Road? 05/05/2003
Wickham, J D. AND K. H. Riitters. How Far to the Nearest Road? Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Increases in impervious surface area lead to declines in chemical and biological indicators of water quality .Roads are an important aspect of impervious surface, and distance to roads is an indicator of the potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although roads are expected to be common in urban settings, the pervasiveness of roads in rural ecosystems is not well appreciated. We combined national land..cover (MRLC/NLCD) and road maps to measure the proportion of land area that was located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type, and summarized the results for 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall, 20% of the total land area was within 127 meters of the nearest road, and the proportion increased rapidly with distance such that 83% was within 1,061 meters of a road. Geographic regions with more than 60% of total land area within 127 meters of a road may be at greatest risk of cumulative ecological impacts from roads. Those regions include nearly all coastal zones as well as substantial portions of the southeast Piedmont, the southeast coastal plain, and the Ohio, Brazos, Colorado, San Joaquin, and Sacramento River basins. This research demonstrates how an interagency approach based on principles of landscape ecology and consistent national databases can be used to identify regions of the country at highest risk to road-mediate adverse impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

PRESENTATION Unique Chemistry Solutions to Regional Issues 05/05/2003
JonesLepp, T. Unique Chemistry Solutions to Regional Issues. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Many of ORD's research projects relate to broad scientific themes, such as biological and chemical indicators or computational toxicology .Others are discrete studies resulting from requests from or informal contacts with clients and collaborators. This poster presents a montage of five recent "grass roots" research efforts that the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas has conducted in response to real-world analytical chemistry problems of the Regions, the States, and Tribal Authorities. EP A Regions 2, 4, and 9 have requested help in identifying unknown compounds found in samples collected around Superfund sites. A unique software package (ion composition elucidation -ICE) developed by ECB scientists for high resolution mass spectrometry was used to determine the compositions of unknown and potentially toxic pollutants that were unresolved via conventional methodology .
Region 2 needed to determine vinyl chloride (a known human carcinogen) in milk; instrumentation (vacuum distillation) developed in ECB for the multi-media determination of volatile organics was used to address this need. This led to a survey of MTBE and other volatile organics in milk from Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and California.
One scientist is closely working with Tribal authorities and the State of Alaska to study the occurrence of mercury in indigenous food sources, using a recently developed method to determine mercury directly in solid matrices.
ECB's scientists provided support, using state-of-the-art technologies (electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry), to solve the source and fate of an industrial spill of organotins for the state of South Carolina.
Region 9, the National Park Service, and others want to better understand regional air transport of pesticides, which could be implicated in the disappearance of the yellow-legged frog from the alpine lakes of the Sierra Nevada. Our chemists are working with other scientists within ORD and outside EP A to provide answers.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants 05/05/2003
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) as Environmental Pollutants. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.
Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the largest unknown.

Beginning in the late 1990's, the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas became involved in several international activities involving PPCPs. This initial work has now evolved into a lead role at EPA. ECB's work is captured on the Agency's PPCPs web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma), which is the only comprehensive site in the world devoted to this topic. The web site serves as a central point of access and major public outreach tool for a wide array of materials and information.

ECB's role serves in part to catalyze research, and to foster collaborative efforts. In the span of the last 4 years, what had originally been a predominantly European-led effort, now involves researchers from other federal agencies (esp. CDC, FDA USDA, and USGS), other countries (e.g., Health Canada), and universities (e.g., EPA STAR grants targeted to PPCPs).

PRESENTATION Linking in Situ Time Series Forest Canopy Lai and Phenology Metrics With Modis and Landsat Ndvi and Lai Products 05/05/2003
Pilant, A, J. Iiames, R S. Lunetta, T E. Lewis, AND J. Ediriwickrema. Linking in Situ Time Series Forest Canopy Lai and Phenology Metrics With Modis and Landsat Ndvi and Lai Products. Presented at American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Conference and Exhibition, Anchorage, AK, May 5-9, 2003.
Abstract: The subject of this presentation is forest vegetation dynamics as observed by the TERRA spacecraft's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper, and complimentary in situ time series measurements of forest canopy metrics related to Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI is related to ecosystem state, and LAI is an important input to ecosystem and landscape process models. Current research efforts involve development of remote sensing methodology for detecting landscape change and estimating LAI from satellite, particularly using time series analyses of MODIS data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a number of long-term forest research sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin of North Carolina and Virginia (USA). At each site, we conduct biophysical surveys of site composition and landscape character, as well as time series optical surveys of LAI at various phenological stages. LAI is estimated indirectly using combined hemispherical photography and TRAC (Tracing Architecture and Radiation of Canopies) optical surveys arranged in permanent grids and transacts. This research focuses on two fundamental questions: (i) how can LAI be measured accurately and effectively in situ, and (ii ) how can meter-scale field measurements be correlated with kilometer-scale MODIS geophysical products? We present initial results exploring relationships between the in situ LAI time series measurements and MODIS LAI and NDVI image products.

PRESENTATION Utilizing Satellite Observations to Expand EPA's Air Monitoring Network: A New Partnership Between Nasa and EPA 05/05/2003
Szykman, J., D J. Williams, V Kilaru, J. Fishman, D. Neil, B. Pierce, AND C. Kitta. Utilizing Satellite Observations to Expand EPA's Air Monitoring Network: A New Partnership Between Nasa and EPA. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Over the next decade, data requirements to inform air quality management decisions and policies will need to be expanded to large spatial domains to accommodate decisions which more frequently cross geo-political boundaries; from urban (local) and regional scales to regional, super-regional and international scales. Decisions and policies that involve these larger spatial scales will require data that can provide synoptic views of critical environmental variables. To a large degree, atmospheric chemistry models have filled this infrequent need in the past, but "', models are resource intensive and coming to a consensus use of such models can be difficult.However, as the world moves toward a global economy, and the scientific fact that air pollution has no boundaries, the need for more frequent assessments' to combat global air pollution will increase. The fact will remain that large ground level monitoring networks are impractical to implement on a global basis and present numerous issues.
Over the past several years we have seen the emergence of trace gas and aerosol space-based measurements that can help provide these larger scale views for Air Quality assessments. Current instruments aboard US and European satellites can provide measurements of trace gases and aerosols relating directly to most of EPA's criteria pollutants (e.g., 03, NO2, SO2, CO, and particulate matter [aerosols]). This poster will present an overview of tropospheric trace gas column products from instruments such TOMS (Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and aerosols from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). We will provide examples showing the utility of the data in conjunction with EP A 's ground monitoring networks; discuss the enormous potential for the use of data from these instruments and future satellite instruments such ~ OM! (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite) within EPA's air program; and identify how a new and emerging partnership between EP A and NASA can fulfill these needs.


PRESENTATION Landsat-Based Water Quality Monitoring of Pyramid Lake 05/05/2003
Heggem, D T. AND C Edmonds. Landsat-Based Water Quality Monitoring of Pyramid Lake. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT) in cooperation with federal, state and local entities has been able to increase stream flow, establish water quality standards and improve fish habitat in the Truckee River, a primary source of water for pyramid Lake. In the past, pyramid Lake water quality has been affected adversely by noxious blooms of Nodularia (a blue-green alge). Nodularia fixes nitrogen from air and Truckee River inputs, and decomposition of the Nodularia is considered the primary source of total nitrogen to pyramid Lake. Blooms can occur in all parts of the pyramid lake from August to early November. Temporal Landsat imagery has been investigated as a tool for monitoring the abundance of Nodularia in pyramid Lake. Increases in Nodularia abundance have been associated with increases in near-infrared reflectance measure from Landsat (MSS). Temporal database of Landsat near-infrared reflectance has been used to monitor changes in Nodularia abundance and outbreaks. Results suggest that temporal Landsat MSS near-infrared reflectance data are effective for monitoring Nodularia dynamics.

PRESENTATION Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) Improving Environmental Decision Making Through Client Partnerships 05/05/2003
Smith, E R. Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) Improving Environmental Decision Making Through Client Partnerships. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: The Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) Program is an applied research program t,1at is focusing on using spatial information and model results to support environmental decision-making at regional- down to local-scales. Re VA has developed analysis and assessment methods to support multi- criteria decision-making; and tools and methods that can be applied with available monitoring and spatial data in any region and at any scale. Development and use of exposure models enable us to forecast the impacts of alternative environmental decisions allowing analysis of associated trade-offs that may not be apparent within short-term planning horizons and within the context of other changes that are occurring across the landscape (e.g. climate change impacts, resource extraction, spread of non-indigenous species ). Re V A is now working directly with client partners to further develop and test our approaches and tools such that our research results contribute to desired outcomes that protect the environment while sustaining our quality of life.
The goal of this session w.ould be to communicate and demonstrate bow these newly available approaches can support environmental decision-.making at the various scales and to solicit input for further refining and testing ReVA methods and tools Presentations from partners would potentially include Region 3 (Debra Forman, Acting Director. Environmental Data Division), Maryland Department of Natural Resources (Bill Jenkins, Director, Watershed Management and Analysis Division), Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (possibly could get Katie McGinty, Deputy Secretary for the Environment; others have changed with change in administration so not sure of names), Baltimore County Department of Environmental Protection (Don Outen), and the Centralina Council of Governments (Rebecca Yarbrough, Program Administrator; alternatively Lillda Rimer with R4, or Chris Stoneman, team leader for OAQPS Charlotte, NC/Rockhill, SC project). Additionally, a demonstration of our web-based decision-support system could be provided Discussions will be led by Betsy Smith. ReVA program director.

PRESENTATION Use of Lidar to Map Stream Morphology and Monitor Changes Due to Urbanization of a Small Suburban Watershed 05/05/2003
Jarnagin, S T. AND D B. Jennings. Use of Lidar to Map Stream Morphology and Monitor Changes Due to Urbanization of a Small Suburban Watershed. Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: Urbanization has been associated with changes in stream flow regime, morphology, and water quality of rural watersheds being developed. Most studies of the effect of urbanization on stream morphology have been done post hoc -after development has occurred -and involve the extrapolation of limited stream transects (across-channel topography measurements) to monitor measure changes in stream morphology .

We are using LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) imagery to construct a high-resolution, three-dimensional model of the topography of a small suburban watershed north of the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. This watershed is in the early stages of urbanization and LIDAR was obtained using a small aircraft to acquire the imagery during early winter (no snow and leaf-off) conditions. This imagery will be used to construct a baseline (pre-development) three-dimensional stream channel model. Subsequent LIDAR overflights will be obtained every three years or as the pace of development requires. These LIDAR acquisitions will allow for future three-dimensional stream channel models to be compared to the baseline model. We hope to spatially relate changes in stream morphology to specific patterns of development, storm sewer networks, and best management practices used while this watershed undergoes development.

PRESENTATION Pollution from Personal Actions and Activities Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps) 05/05/2003
Daughton, C G. Pollution from Personal Actions and Activities Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcps). Presented at Science Forum 2003, Washington, DC, May 5-7, 2003.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.
Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the largest unknown.

Beginning in the late 1990's, the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas became involved in several international activities involving PPCPs. This initial work has now evolved into a lead role at EPA. ECB's work is captured on the Agency's PPCPs web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma), which is the only comprehensive site in the world devoted to this topic. The web site serves as a central point of access and major public outreach tool for a wide array of materials and information.

ECB's role serves in part to catalyze research, and to foster collaborative efforts. In the span of the last 4 years, what had originally been a predominantly European-led effort, now involves researchers from other federal agencies (esp. CDC, FDA USDA, and USGS), other countries (e.g., Health Canada), and universities (e.g., EPA STAR grants targeted to PPCPs).

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing/GIS: A Strategic Tool for Environmental Regulation and Research 04/16/2003
Lyon, J G. AND G M. Brilis. Remote Sensing/GIS: A Strategic Tool for Environmental Regulation and Research. Presented at Legal Applications of Geospatial Data and Information Conference, Tupelo, MS, April 16, 2003.
Abstract: Protection of the environment is, in part, dependent on the quality of data used in decision making. Whether the decisions are part of the scientific process or relate to application of the laws governing people and their living condtitions, good quality data are required/ needed by two disciplines with distinct differences. The presentation examines some differences between science and the law, provides a brief history of science in law, discusses the effects of law on science, compares RSGIS and U.S. Supreme Court credible science criteria and speculates on the future use of science data by the courts.

PRESENTATION Remote Sensing/GIS and Sound Science 04/16/2003
Brilis, G M. AND J G. Lyon. Remote Sensing/GIS and Sound Science. Presented at Legal Applications of Geospatial Data and Information Conference, Tupelo, MS, April 16, 2003.
Abstract: Protection of the environment is, in part, dependent on the quality of data used in decision making. Whether the decisions are part of the scientific process or relate to application of the laws governing people and their living condtitions, good quality data are required/ needed by two disciplines with distinct differences. The presentation examines some differences between science and the law, provides a brief history of science in law, discusses the effects of law on science, compares RSGIS and U.S. Supreme Court credible science criteria and speculates on the future use of science data by the courts.

PRESENTATION The Emerging Relationship Between Ground Level Ozone and Landscape Characteristics 04/15/2003
Slonecker, E T. The Emerging Relationship Between Ground Level Ozone and Landscape Characteristics. Presented at USGS Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Science Symposium, Nebraska City, NE, April 15-17, 2003.
Abstract: One of the most serious environmental health problems facing our society is that of poor air quality caused primarily by the formation of ground level ozone. Although natural ozone is beneficial in the upper atmosphere as a filter for ultraviolet radiation, ground- level ozone is primarily the result of anthropogenic activity and is the primary component of smog and poor air quality in urban environments. Washington D.C. is one of 14 cities with serious air quality problems and has, since 1990, been designated as an air quality, non-attainment area under the Clean Air Act.
Ground level ozone is formed when precursor chemicals, originating mostly from vehicle emissions, react with heat and light to form the 03 chemical bond. The landscape profile of dense urban environments of concrete and other 'impervious surfaces' create increased thermal profiles conducive to this reaction.

From a regulatory standpoint, the monitoring and study of ozone is generally focused on Regional or Synoptic scales of management and study However, readings from the past ten years from the 18 monitoring stations indicate that ozone formation is highly variable across the region. Funded under the 2002 USGS Geography Discipline Research Prospectus Grant, this paper presents some of the preliminary findings of the relationship of Ozone formation to landscape variables such as impervious surfaces, vegetation height and structure, building height and roof color. Some of these landscape relationships appear to be significant and have important implications to the study of urban air quality.

PRESENTATION Integration of Spatial Data: Methods Evaluation With Regard to Data Issues and Assessment Questions 04/14/2003
O'Connell, M., E R. Smith, R. V. O'Neill, L. T. Tran, AND N. W. Locantore. Integration of Spatial Data: Methods Evaluation With Regard to Data Issues and Assessment Questions. Presented at EPA 22nd Annual National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, New Orleans, LA, April 14-17, 2003.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize existing spatial data on resource condition and sensitivity, and estimated stressor distributions to facilitate decision-making on alternative environmental policies or risk management strategies. A total of 9 methods, ranging from simple spatial overlays to estimates of changes in multivariate state space, have been tested with regard to sensitivity to data issues such asi skewed distributions, continuous versus discontinuous data, and imbalance of indicators or metrics (e.g. a large amount of terrestrial data versus a small amount of aquatic! data), as well as suitability for addressing different assessment questions. Utilizing available data for the Mid-Atlantic region over a total of 73 variables, testing was also done tql identify whether different integration results were similar, or whether individual methods provide unique information and should be used in concert. The results of this analysis identifies potential limitations of methods due to data structure and suggests that assessment of vulnerabilities can best be accomplished using a suite of methods that rank on condition, vulnerability (risk of future damage), and risk management feasibility.

PRESENTATION Network Design for Ozone Monitoring 04/14/2003
Holland, D M., A. Chaudhuri, AND M. Fuentes. Network Design for Ozone Monitoring. Presented at National Conference on Managing Environmental Quality Systems, New Orleans, LA, April 14-17, 2003.
Abstract: The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks from air pollution. A major criterion for modifying an existing network is the suitability of spatial predictions based on site measurements at non-monitored areas. These spatial predictions ran be used to develop better pollution control strategies for protecting human health. To accomplish this, it is important to ask what monitoring coverage is required to allow optimal, in some quantitative sense, predictions of the spatial field. We consider new approaches for network designs based on entropy criteria and modeling the underlying non-stationary covariance, structure of atmospherically driven pollutant processes. In general, entropy is defined as maximizing "information" expected about potential non-monitored locations. Sites with observations near air quality standards are given higher priority in a combined entropy-air standard design criterion. Eight-hour daily maximum ozone values observed at 513 National Air Monitoring sites are used to demonstrate several network designs.

PRESENTATION Geoelectrical Stratigraphy and Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Impacted Aquifer 04/04/2003
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, A. Endres, AND W. Sauck. Geoelectrical Stratigraphy and Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Impacted Aquifer. Presented at Joint Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, and the American Geophysical Union and European Union of Geosciences Spring 2003 meeting, Nice, France, April 4-13, 2003.
Abstract: A recently proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon impacted sites predicts anomalously high conductivities coincident with aged contaminated zones. These high conductivities are attributed to an enhancement of mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox processes. To evaluate this model, high resolution in situ vertical bulk conductivity measurements were acquired from a mature light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) contaminated site. The geoelectrical stratigraphy showed conductivity maxima coincident with the free phase LNAPL zone, and occurring within the water table fluctuation zone. This zone is inferred as an active zone of biodegradation suggesting significant microbial degradation under partially saturated conditions. A simple Archie's Law analysis reveals that large pore water saturation and/or large pore water conductivity enhancements are necessary to produce the bulk conductivity observed at the contaminated locations. These results support the conductive model and demonstrate the potential of geoelectrical investigations for assessing microbial degradation of mature LNAPL impacted soils.

PRESENTATION Microbial Community Structure in a Shallow Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer Associated With High Electrical Conductivity 04/04/2003
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, J. W. Duris, AND S. Rossbach. Microbial Community Structure in a Shallow Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer Associated With High Electrical Conductivity. Presented at Joint Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, and the American Geophysical Union and European Union of Geosciences Spring 2003 meeting, Nice, France, April 4-13, 2003.
Abstract: Little is known about the complex interactions between microbial communities and electrical properties in contaminated aquifers. In order to investigate possible connections between these parameters a study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the degradation of hydrocarbons by resident microbial communities causes a local increase in organic acid concentrations, which in tum cause an increase in native mineral weathering and a concurrent increase in the bulk electrical conductivity of soil. Microbial commmunity structure was analyzed using a 96-well most probable number (MPN) method and rDNA intergenic spacer region analysis (RISA). Microbial community structure was found to change in the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants and these changes were consistently observed in regions of high electrical conductivity. We infer from this relationship that geophysical methods for monitoring the subsurface are a promising new technology for monitoring changes in microbial community structure and simultaneous changes in geochemistry that are associated with hydrocarbon degradation.

PRESENTATION Landscape-Scale Monitoring of An Opportunist: Phragmites Australis (Cav) Steudel in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands 04/02/2003
Lopez, R D., C M. Edmonds, E. Jaworski, A C. Neale, K B. Jones, D T. Heggem, J G. Lyon, AND D Garofalo. Landscape-Scale Monitoring of An Opportunist: Phragmites Australis (Cav) Steudel in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands. Presented at International Association for Landscape Ecology, Alberta, Canada, April 2-6, 2003.
Abstract: Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented ecosystems in the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbances, primarily as a result of agricultural conversions and hydrologic changes. A substantial number of remnant LGL coastal wetlands contain plant communities that are dominated by several opportunistic plant species,including the common need Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steudel. In North America P. australis communities have become large and monospecific in many coastal wetlands, supplanting other plant taxa within the wetlands Compared to wetlands with more heterogeneous plant communities, wetlands dominated by P. australis are less biologically diverse and provide less suitable habitat for other organisms. From an LGL resource management perspective, P. australis is considered a nuisance because it is persistent, produces large amounts of biomass, propagates easily, and is very difficult to control with mechanical or chemical techniques. Semi-automated remote-sensing techniques were used to map P. australis in ten coastal wetland regions of Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Erie. User's accuracy exceeds 90% for P. australis maps that describe areas of greatest stem density and greatest percent cover. Results of this study demonstrate how a combination of airborne remote-sensing and baseline ecological field sampling may improve the accuracy of mapping wetland vegetation, one of the least accurately mapped land cover classes. Because wetland biodiversity is an important component of ecosystem integrity and wetland field mapping is expensive, dangerous, and time consuming the semi-automated techniques described could improve the cost-effectiveness of wetland monitoring in the LGL. The techniques described also have potential applications in other plant communities, ecosystems, and regions.

PRESENTATION A Landscape Ecology Analysis of the Great Lakes Basin 04/02/2003
Edmonds, C M., D T. Heggem, A C. Neale, B. Guidon, AND K B. Jones. A Landscape Ecology Analysis of the Great Lakes Basin. Presented at The 18th Annual Symposium of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, Alberta, Canada, April 2-6, 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the United States and Canada. The study area is comprised of watersheds which drain or historically drained into the Laurentian Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain 18 percent of the earth's fresh water and the ecosystem that surrounds the lakes is rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds, biological diversity and many human population centers. The land cover for this analysis was primarily developed by the CCRS and is based on 1990s North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) imagery and the CCRS Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) archive imagery of Canada. The analyses will use delineated watersheds and mapping units of fixed size. The analysis will feature many landscape indicators including the percentage of natural land cover (N-Index), forest fragmentation and estimates of total nitrogen stream loading throughout the basin. This poster will demonstrate the development of the data set, conversion to land cover, the delineated watershed coverages and models for developing landscape scale ecosystem indicators. Data images are given in ranked order by natural breaks and will provide the viewer with ecosystem conditional relationships throughout the entire Great Lakes Basin. Results from this basic study by EPA and CCRS are presented and future work is expected to include change detection dating back to the early 1970s.

PRESENTATION Evaluating Landscape Change and Hydrological Consequences in a Semi-Arid Environment 03/30/2003
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, C. J. Watts, D. C. Goodrich, AND D A. Mouat. Evaluating Landscape Change and Hydrological Consequences in a Semi-Arid Environment. Presented at 19th Annual Symposium of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Las Vegas, NV, March 30-April 4, 2004.
Abstract: During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote imagery, computer processing, and spatial analysis technologies have been used to better understand the distribution of natural communities and ecosystems, and the ecological processes that affect these patterns. These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape measurements that can be integrated within hydrologic models to determine long-term change and make predictive inferences about the future. This case study employs a system of land cover maps generated from a multi-date satellite imagery database which incorporates Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) imagery from the early 1970s, mid 1980s, and early 1990s and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1997 for the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico). Past and future landscape changes were examined relative to their impact on surface water conditions, e.g. sediment yield and surface runoff. Hydrological outputs were estimated for the years 1973-1997 and predicted twenty years into the future via the integration of scenario analysis with hydrological process and land use models.

PRESENTATION Design of Large-Scale Air Monitoring Networks 03/30/2003
Holland, D M. AND A. Chaudhiri. Design of Large-Scale Air Monitoring Networks. Presented at The International Biometric Society, Tampa, FL, March 30-April 2, 2003.
Abstract: The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks to air pollution. A major criterion for modifying an existing network is the suitability of spatial predictions based on site measurements at non-monitored areas. These spatial predictions can be used to develop better pollution control strategies for protecting human health To accomplish this, it is important to ask what monitoring coverage is required to allow optimal, in some quantitative sense, predictions of the spatial field. We consider new approaches for network designs based on entropy criteria and modeling the underlying nonstationary covariance structure of atmospherically driven pollutant processes. In general, entropy is defined as maximizing "information" expected about potential non-rnonitored locations. Sites with observations near air quality standards are given higher priority in a combined entropy-air standard design criterion. Eight-hour daily maximum ozone values observed at 513 National Air Monitoring sites are used to demonstrate several network designs.

PRESENTATION The Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Identifying Buried World War I Munitions at the American University, Washington, Dc 03/26/2003
Slonecker, E T. The Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Identifying Buried World War I Munitions at the American University, Washington, Dc. Presented at Brown Bag Seminar, Washington, DC, March 26, 2003.
Abstract: During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. After the end of the War in 1918, many of the weapons and chemical agents were haphazardly buried in and around the American University testing area which is now known as Spring Valley. In 1993, chemical-laden mortar shells were accidentally unearthed by a construction crew setting off a series of investigations that, to date, has cost over 40 million dollars and is still on-going. The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is supporting the on- going Superfund investigation efforts using both remote sensing and GIS technology. Both conventional and research applications of remotely sensed imagery, along with GIS database developments, are playing a critical role in the discovery and removal of chemical weapons and chemical contamination in this area. This presentation will document EPIC's use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing these weapons and contaminants from the environment.

PRESENTATION Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals the Green Pharmacy 03/19/2003
Daughton, C G. Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals the Green Pharmacy. Presented at The National Ground Water Association (NGWA) 3rd International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis, MN, March 19-21, 2003.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales.

PRESENTATION Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals the Green Pharmacy 03/19/2003
Daughton, C G. Environmental Stewardship of Pharmaceuticals the Green Pharmacy. Presented at National Ground Water Association (NGWA) 3rd International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis, MN, March 19-21, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Analysis of Low-Level Pesticides from High-Elevation Lake Waters By Large Volume Injection Gcms 03/13/2003
Rosal, C G., L A. Riddick, E M. Heithmar, G M. Momplaisir, K E. Varner, P. L. Ferguson, D F. Bradford, AND N G. TallentHalsell. Analysis of Low-Level Pesticides from High-Elevation Lake Waters By Large Volume Injection Gcms. Presented at Pittsburg Conference 2003, Orlando, FL, March 13, 2003.
Abstract: This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, background of which is summarized in a poster presentation Abstract # 1220-1 1, Tuesday, March 11, 2003. Compounds of interest include organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate, synthetic pyrethroid, and sulfonic acid pesticides as well as triazine, aniline, thiocarbamate, amide, phthalate, and substituted urea herbicides. We anticipate the amounts of pesticides in our study sites to be lower than the detection limits of conventional analytical techniques (i.e., pulsed-splitless GC/MS). Our approach to achieving lower detection limits is to extract analytes from a large volume of water and analyze a substantial fraction of the extract using LVI-PTV- GC/MS. This approach should result in a I00-fold increase in the amount of pesticide reaching the detector, compared with previous studies of pesticides in the Sierra Nevada. The large- volume sampling and extraction procedures are the subject of a companion paper at this conference (Abstract # 1220-1 1). This paper describes optimal LVI-PTV-GC/MS conditions, presents analytical figures of merit of the method, and compares its performance with that of GC/MS with conventional pulsed-splitless sampling. A pulsed-splitless GC/MS method was first developed and optimized for use as the reference for the LVI-PTV-GC/MS method development and optimization. The former method is also used in the analysis of the extracts produced during the extraction method development. For the same total amount injected (10 pg), preliminary results of the LVI-PTV-GC/MS method (20-uL injection of 0.5 pg/uL pesticide standard mix) generally show analyte responses at greater than I00% higher than the responses produced by the pulsed-splitless GC/MS method ( I -uL injection of 10 pg/uL pesticide standard mix). Currently, limits of detection for the pulsed- splitless method are in the range of 0.6-15 pg/uL for the analytes of interest. These experiments were carried out on an Agilent GC 6890A and 5973N MSD with a Gerstel MPS-2 autosampler and CIS 3 injector.

PRESENTATION Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States 03/10/2003
Bradford, D F. Factors Implicated in Amphibian Population Declines in the United States. Presented at Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force, Southwestern U.S. Working Group, Tucson, AZ, March 10, 2003.
Abstract: This study identified the factors responsible for the decline of native amphibians in the U.S. The type of land use, the introduction of exotic animal species, and chemical contamination were identified as the most likely causes of decline.

PRESENTATION Analysis of Low-Level Pesticides from High-Elevation Lake Waters By Large-Volume Injection Gcms 03/09/2003
Rosal, C G., L A. Riddick, E M. Heithmar, G M. Momplaisir, K E. Varner, P. L. Ferguson, D F. Bradford, AND N G. TallentHalsell. Analysis of Low-Level Pesticides from High-Elevation Lake Waters By Large-Volume Injection Gcms. Presented at Pittsburgh Confernece on Anlytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy 2003, Orlando, FL, March 9-14, 2003.
Abstract: Pesticides are among the factors being proposed as causal agents for amphibian population declines in the Sierra Nevada range of California, USA. We hypothesize that agricultural pesticides applied in the San Joaquin Valley west of the mountains are volatilized or eroded, transported by near-surface winds, and deposited at high-elevation lakes of the Sierra Nevada in the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. We further hypothesize that the geographic pattern of pesticide deposition depends on the local air flow patterns and correlates with the extirpation of the mountain yellow-legged frog. Such a correlation would support the theory that pesticide exposure may have contributed to the disappearance of this species from some of its historic range. We intend to measure the concentrations of about 40 current-use pesticides in 60 or more lakes, to make the statistical analysis more robust. We anticipate the amounts of pesticides in our study sites to be lower than the detection limits of conventional analytical techniques. Our approach to achieving lower detection limits is to extract analytes from a large volume of water (the subject of a companion paper at this conference) and analyze a substantial fraction of the extract using large-volume injection (LVI) GCMS. This approach should result in a I 00-fold increase in the amount of pesticide reaching the detector, compared with previous studies of pesticides in the Sierra Nevada.' This paper will describe optimal LVI/GCMS conditions, present analytical figures of merit of the method, and compare its performance with that of GCMS with conventional pulsed-splitless sampling.

PRESENTATION Determination of Ultratrace Concentrations of Agricultural Pesticides in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Analysis By Gc/MS 03/09/2003
Momplaisir, G M., K E. Varner, E M. Heithmar, C G. Rosal, L A. Riddick, P. L. Ferguson, B. Gentry, D F. Bradford, AND N G. TallentHalsell. Determination of Ultratrace Concentrations of Agricultural Pesticides in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Analysis By Gc/MS. Presented at Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectrometry, Orlando, FL, March 9-14, 2003.
Abstract: A comprehensive study of the distribution of airborne agricultural contaminants in the Southern Sierra Nevada has been initiated', due to the heavy pesticide use in a neighboring area: the San Joaquin Valley of California. Approximately forty commonly used agricultural pesticides in the San Joaquin Valley are to be measured in lake water at about 60 sites in the Southern Sierra Nevada. This paper describes the development of an extraction procedure for the isolation of pesticides from large volumes of water (up to 100 L). Pesticide analytes are removed from the aqueous matrix by adsorption onto a solid phase sorbent, followed by sequential elution with organic solvents. The polymeric sorbent Nexus (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) offered more selectivity to the analytes than XAD and a silica-based material C,,. Also, when compared with the polymeric resin PPL, Nexus had a greater retention capacity. Recoveries of 80% or better were obtained for the majority of the compounds using the Nexus resin. Eight grams of sorbent were sufficient to displace the selected compounds from a I 00-L water sample with minimal loss of the most polar compound dimethoate.
The extracts were analyzed by conventional pulsed-splitless GC/MS or large-volume injection GC/MS (the subject of a companion paper at this conference). Because of the high organic contents of some lake water samples, a clean-up procedure was also developed. Preliminary data on the determination of agricultural contaminants in alpine lake waters of the Southern Sierra Nevada will be presented.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcp's) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Personal Actions 03/04/2003
Daughton, C G. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (Ppcp's) as Environmental Pollutants: Pollution from Personal Actions. Presented at U.S. EPA Region 5's Regional EPA-Tribal Environmental Conference (RETEC), Chicago, IL, March 4-6, 2003.
Abstract: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.
Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the largest unknown.

Beginning in the late 1990's, the Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) at NERL-Las Vegas became involved in several international activities involving PPCPs. This initial work has now evolved into a lead role at EPA. ECB's work is captured on the Agency's PPCPs web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma), which is the only comprehensive site in the world devoted to this topic. The web site serves as a central point of access and major public outreach tool for a wide array of materials and information.

ECB's role serves in part to catalyze research, and to foster collaborative efforts. In the span of the last 4 years, what had originally been a predominantly European-led effort, now involves researchers from other federal agencies (esp. CDC, FDA USDA, and USGS), other countries (e.g., Health Canada), and universities (e.g., EPA STAR grants targeted to PPCPs).

PRESENTATION Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons 02/22/2003
Werkema, D, E. Atekwana, E. A. Atekwana, S. Rossbach, AND W. Sauck. Laboratory and Field Results Linking High Conductivities to the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Presented at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Colorado Springs, CO, February 22-26, 2004.
Abstract: The results of a l6-month field and l6-month meso-scale laboratory investigation of unconsolidated sandy environments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons that are undergoing natural biodegradation is presented. The purpose was to understand the processes responsible for causing the higher electrical conductivities observed at petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The results show that high conductivity, high microbial population numbers, shifts in microbial community dynamics, and elevated geochemical parameters all occur within the contaminated zone. Both investigations show that the highest conductivities occur within and slightly above the free-phase layer, not within the water saturated zone. Further analysis demonstrates highly elevated pore water conductivities within this conductive zone (~2-4 times background conductivity) as well as the maximum populations of oil degrading bacteria. The upper saturated zone reveals elevated concentrations of calcium and other ions suggesting enhanced mineral dissolution. These results suggest that the mechanism for the higher conductivity is directly or indirectly related to the microbial metabolism of the hydrocarbon and the resulting geochemical alterations within the contaminated zone. This study demonstrates the potential of geoelectrical investigations for assessing microbial degradation of hydrocarbon impacted sediments and the importance of meso-scale experiments for the interpretation of field data.

PRESENTATION The Challenge of Acquiring Alpine Large Volume Lake Water Samples for Ultra Trace Level Analysis 01/21/2003
Varner, K E., G M. Momplaisir, N G. TallentHalsell, D F. Bradford, P. L. Ferguson, L A. Riddick, C G. Rosal, AND E M. Heithmar. The Challenge of Acquiring Alpine Large Volume Lake Water Samples for Ultra Trace Level Analysis. Presented at On-Site 11th International Conference, Phoenix, AZ, January 21-24, 2003.
Abstract: The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas, Nevada is interested in the emerging field technology of in-situ extraction of contaminants from surface water. A current research project involves ultra-trace level determination of agricultural pesticides from alpine lakes. The airborne transport of these chemicals from nearby agricultural land may be an important pathway for chemical stressors into the southern Sierra Nevada. Large-volume alpine lake water samples, of up to I 00 liters, are collected and adsorbed on resin columns in the field. The analytes are then eluted and analyzed in the laboratory. The uniqueness of high volume sampling utilizing resin will be highlighted. The results of this Sierra Nevada Contaminant Research Project will contribute to the understanding of airborne transport of chemicals and of population declines of amphibians, as well as produce new analytical measurement tools that can be used to assess and protect pristine environments.

PUBLISHED REPORT Guidance for Obtaining Representative Analytical Laboratory Subsamples from Particulate Laboratory Samples 12/02/2003
Gerlach, R. W. AND J M. Nocerino. Guidance for Obtaining Representative Analytical Laboratory Subsamples from Particulate Laboratory Samples. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/027 (NTIS PB2004-101514), 2003.
Abstract: An ongoing research program has been established to experimentally verify the application of the Gy theory to environmental samples, which serves as a supporting basis for -the material presented in this guidance. Research results from studies performed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have confirmed that the application of the Gy sampling theory to environmental heterogeneous particulate materials is the appropriate state- of-the-science approach for obtaining representative laboratory subsamples. This document provides general guidelines for obtaining representative subsamples for the laboratory analysis of particulate materials using the "correct" sampling practices and the "correct" sampling devices based on Gy theory. Besides providing background and theory, this document gives guidance on: sampling and comminution tools, sample characterization and assessment, developing a sampling plan using a general sampling strategy, and reporting recommendations. Considerations are given to: the constitution and the degree of heterogeneity of the material being sampled, the methods used for sample collection (including what proper tools to use), what it is that the sample is supposed to represent, the mass (sample support) of the sample needed to be representative, and the bounds of what "representative" actually means. A glossary and a comprehensive bibliography have been provided, which should be consulted for more details.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report, Lead in Dust Wipe Measurement Technology, Niton Llc, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer, Xlt-700 10/28/2003
Bayne, C. K., R. A. Jenkins, AND E N. Koglin. Environmental Technology Verification Report, Lead in Dust Wipe Measurement Technology, Niton Llc, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer, Xlt-700. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/087 (NTIS PB2004-100305), 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the E TV Program is to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies. E TV seeks to achieve this goal by providing high-quality , peer-reviewed data on technology perfofl1lance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies.
E TV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative technologies by developing test plans that are responsive to the needs of stakeholders, conducting field or laboratory tests (as appropriate), collecting and analyzing data, and preparing peer-reviewed reports. All evaluations are conducted in accordance with rigorous quality, assurance (QA) protocols to ensure that data of known and adequate quality are generated and that the results are defensible.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report, Groundwater Sampling Technologies, Geoprobe Inc, Mechanical Bladder Pump Model Mp470 10/28/2003
Einfeld, W. AND E N. Koglin. Environmental Technology Verification Report, Groundwater Sampling Technologies, Geoprobe Inc, Mechanical Bladder Pump Model Mp470. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/086 (NTIS PB2004-100983), 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the E TV Program is to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies. E TV seeks to achieve this goal by providing high-quality , peer-reviewed data on technology perfofl1lance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies.
E TV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative technologies by developing test plans that are responsive to the needs of stakeholders, conducting field or laboratory tests (as appropriate), collecting and analyzing data, and preparing peer-reviewed reports. All evaluations are conducted in accordance with rigorous quality, assurance (QA) protocols to ensure that data of known and adequate quality are generated and that the results are defensible.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report, Groundwater Sampling Technologies, Geoprobe Inc., Pneumatic Bladder Pump Gw 1400 Series 10/08/2003
Einfeld, W. AND E N. Koglin. Environmental Technology Verification Report, Groundwater Sampling Technologies, Geoprobe Inc., Pneumatic Bladder Pump Gw 1400 Series. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/085 (NTIS PB2004-100359), 2003.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the E TV Program is to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies. E TV seeks to achieve this goal by providing high-quality , peer-reviewed data on technology perfofl1lance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies.
E TV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative technologies by developing test plans that are responsive to the needs of stakeholders, conducting field or laboratory tests (as appropriate), collecting and analyzing data, and preparing peer-reviewed reports. All evaluations are conducted in accordance with rigorous quality, assurance (QA) protocols to ensure that data of known and adequate quality are generated and that the results are defensible.

PUBLISHED REPORT San Pedro Watershed Database 09/24/2003
Kepner, W G., D J. Semmens, D T. Heggem, E. J. Evanson, C M. Edmonds, S. N. Scott, AND D W. Ebert. San Pedro Watershed Database. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-03/008 (NTIS Rejected), 2003.
Abstract: The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ ARS) scientists have been working as part of the multi-agency Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) research consortium dedicated to the study of global change within the Upper San Pedro Watershed. The spatial coverages and the supporting information (metadata) have been organized relative to their geographical availability. The coverages are available for download and the metadata include important information relative to acquisition, location, processing level, file size and format, and any relevant comments. The intent of the San Pedro Data Browser is to provide spatial data in a user-friendly and accessible on-line format to other researchers, public agencies, resource managers, non- governmental organizations, decision-makers, and user groups. This product provides for long term record keeping (archiving) and easy access to an exceptional assemblage of spatial data for this internationally significant watershed.

PUBLISHED REPORT A Landscape Atlas of Ecological Vulnerability: Arkansas' White River Watershed and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley 09/03/2003
Lopez, R D., D T. Heggem, C M. Edmonds, K B. Jones, L. Bice, M. E. Hamilton, E. Evanston, C L. Cross, D W. Ebert, AND B. Keeler. A Landscape Atlas of Ecological Vulnerability: Arkansas' White River Watershed and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/057 (NTIS PB2003-107275), 2003.
Abstract: In July, 2000 the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development was requested to collaborate in a U.S. EPA Region 6 'Regional Applied Research Effort' (RARE). The primary goal of this RARE is to utilize current science and technology to improve the ecological vulnerability assessment capabilities of stakeholders in the vicinity of Arkansas' White River, in fulfillment of the ecological research goals (Lopez and Heggem, 2001). This project is presented within the larger geographical context of the Lower Mississippi River and specifically builds upon prior landscape analyses of the Louisiana Tensas River (Heggem et al., 1999). This atlas is a synopsis of results to date.

PUBLISHED REPORT National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference, By Laws, and Standards 05/05/2003
Autry, L. National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference, By Laws, and Standards. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/049 (NTIS PB2003-107268), 2003.
Abstract: NELAC is the result of a joint effort by EPA, other federal agencies, the States, and the private sector that began in 1990 when EPA's Environmental Monitoring Management Council (EMMC) established an internal work group to consider the feasibility and advisability of a national environmental laboratory accreditation program. The work group concluded that EPA should consult with representatives of all stakeholders, by establishing a federal advisory committee. As a result, the Committee on National Accreditation of Environmental Laboratories (CNAEL) was chartered in 1991 under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. In its final report to EMMC, CNAEL recommended that a national program for environmental laboratory accreditation be established. In response to the CNAEL recommendations, EPA and State representatives formed the State/EPA Focus Group that developed a proposed framework for NELAC, modeled after the National Conference on Weights and Measures. The Focus Group prepared a draft Constitution, Bylaws and standards, which were published in the Federal Register in December 1994. NELAC was established on February 16,1995 by State and federal officials with the adoption of an interim Constitution and Bylaws. NELAC was established as a standards-setting body to support a National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP). The goal of NELAP is to foster cooperation among the current accreditation activities of different States or other governmental agencies. NELAP seeks to unify the existing State and federal agency standards, at minimum cost to the States, federal agencies and accredited laboratories.

PUBLISHED REPORT The US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: A Research Strategy for 2001-2006 04/02/2003
Smith, E R., R. V. O'Neill, J D. Wickham, K B. Jones, L. E. Jackson, V Kilaru, AND R J. Reuter. The US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program: A Research Strategy for 2001-2006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-01/008 (NTIS PB2003-102734), 2003.
Abstract: The goal of ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program is to develop all approach to quantifying regional ecological vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted and prioritized. ReVA's focus is, to develop a set of methods that are applicable to the range of data available in regions (e.g., physiography, land use/cover change, change in climate, air pollution, non-indigenous species (NIS), the distribution and condition of resources, and others) and provide information to facilitate decision-making at the regional, watershed, and local scale, Information will be integrated to allow an assessment of the cumulative risks associated with multiple stressors on multiple resources, to identify the specific geographic areas of concern, and to evaluate the particular stressors that offer the greatest sources of vulnerability. The application of the tools developed by REVA should allow decision-makers to put environmental issues in perspective and will provide the spatial context necessasry to improve decision making at the watershed and community level. ReVA's pilot study is focusing on the.Mid-Atlantic, region as put of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) (a federal, stage and local partnership led by EPA Region 3). In future years, REVA will move to other regions of the US,

As we have learned through ORD's ten-year involvement with The MAIA, a comprehensive integrated regional assessment involves many steps and incorporates data and research that focus on understanding ecosystem processes at a variety of scales. As MAIA has evolved, five distinct iterative steps to improving environmental decision - making have emerged: 1) monitoring to establish states and trends, 2) association analysts to suggest probable cause where degradation is observed, 3). prioritization of the role of individual stressors as they affect cumulative impacts and risk of future: environmental degradation, 4) analysis of the trade-offs associated with future policy decisions, and 5) development of strategies to restore areas and reduce risk. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment program (EMAP) is developing approaches to address steps one and two; REVA is developing approaches to address steps three and four. Approaches to address step 5 will be developed in a new research program that is under development.

Based on E" and other monitoring data, MAIA has identified 5 groups of stressors that are implicated in the, decline of ecological condition across the region. 1) land use change and population growth, 2) resource extraction, 3) pollution and pollutants, 4) non-indigenous invasive species, and 5) cumulative impacts from combinations of multiple stressors. Assessment of the risk associated with these stressors requires a regional approach that incorporates forecasts of anticipated distributions of these stressors. Similarly, evaluation of the potential impacts to regional resources requires analysis of the, sustainability of goods, services, and other benefits they provide. REVA will develop exposure models that estimate current and future distributions of the 4 stressor groups as they relate to endpoints such as native biodiversity, resource productivity, and clean drinking water, ReVa will assess risk associated with these individual stressors as well as their potential cumulative effects, REVA will quantify effects associated with land use change and illustrate trade-offs associated with alternative policy decisions through future scenarios analysis,

PUBLISHED REPORT EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Southern Rockies Pilot Study Area Data and Product Browser 03/25/2003
Heggem, D T., D W. Ebert, T G. Wade, K A. Hermann, T. Selle, E. Evenson, AND L. Bice. EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Southern Rockies Pilot Study Area Data and Product Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/024, 2003.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessment of the condition of aquatic resources in the 14 western states in EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10 (shown below). This browser is a demonstration of a versatile communication device for our landscape ecological assessment products, reports, assessments, data studies, and analysis tools. Human stresses on the natural resources of the United States are intense. These pressures have resulted in many unintended changes in our ecosystems -- loss of biodiversity, increases in the number of endangered species (e.g. salmon), habitat degradation, and increases in contamination and pollution. Major public and private efforts have gone into controlling pollution, and protecting and restoring natural resources and the ecosystems they depend on. Corrective actions have, and will continue to have, an impact upon how we all lead our lives.
We react to the problems that are most visible and thus receive the greatest amount of publicity. To make the most of our environmental efforts, we need to understand and assess the status and trends in the condition of our ecological resources and the stressors affecting these systems. It is not at all clear that we are currently targeting financial resources and/or lifestyle changes on problems or at locations where they will have the most effect.
The landscape component of the Western Pilot Study provides information that has multiple management implications. Regional Landscape products will be provided to assess the spatial distribution of landscape stressors on aquatic ecosystems across each region. This will assist regional managers in understanding how landscape conditions contribute to varying aquatic resource conditions. As such, the products also will contribute to formulation of specific management actions for different geographic locations within each region. The first step in providing regional products will be to test and demonstrate landscape assessment methodologies on sub-regional areas of high importance to each Region. This browser concentrates on the Region 8 pilot area in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado.
Southern Rockies Pilot Study Area. The Western EMAP Southern Rockies Pilot Study Area (SRPSA) is contained completely within the State of Colorado and encompasses a significant and contiguous tract of land in the mountainous portions of the Front Range, South Central, and Southwestern regions of the state. The SRPSA is approximately 56,553 km2 (21,835 mi2 ) in areal extent and is somewhat triangular in shape.


PUBLISHED REPORT EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Northern California Data Browser 03/25/2003
Heggem, D T., D W. Ebert, T G. Wade, E. Evenson, AND L. Bice. EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Northern California Data Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/027, 2003.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessment of the condition of aquatic resources in the 14 western states in EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10. This browser is a demonstration of a versatile communication device for our landscape ecological assessment products, reports, assessments, data studies, and analysis tools. Human stresses on the natural resources of the United States are intense. These pressures have resulted in many unintended changes in our ecosystems -- loss of biodiversity, increases in the number of endangered species (e.g. salmon), habitat degradation, and increases in contamination and pollution. Major public and private efforts have gone into controlling pollution, and protecting and restoring natural resources and the ecosystems they depend on. Corrective actions have, and will continue to have, an impact upon how we all lead our lives. We react to the problems that are most visible and thus receive the greatest amount of publicity.

To make the most of our environmental efforts, we need to understand and assess the status and trends in the condition of our ecological resources and the stressors affecting these systems. It is not at all clear that we are currently targeting financial resources and/or lifestyle changes on problems or at locations where they will have the most effect.The landscape component of the Western Pilot Study provides information that has multiple management implications. Regional Landscape products will be provided to assess the spatial distribution of landscape stressors on aquatic ecosystems across each region. This will assist regional managers in understanding how landscape conditions contribute to varying aquatic resource conditions. As such, the products also will contribute to formulation of specific management actions for different geographic locations within each region. The first step in providing regional products will be to test and demonstrate landscape assessment methodologies on sub-regional areas of high importance to each Region. This browser concentrates on the Region 9 Northern California pilot area. Northern California Pilot Study Area. The Western EMAP Northern California Pilot Study Area (NCPSA) is a contiguous tract of land located in the mountainous and coastal areas of the northwestern portion of the State of California and southernmost Oregon along all but the easternmost extent of the California-Oregon border. The NCPSA occupies approximately 67,104 km2 (25,909 mi2 ) in land area and is somewhat triangular in shape.


PUBLISHED REPORT EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Oregon Data and Product Browser 03/25/2003
Heggem, D T., D W. Ebert, T G. Wade, S. Augustine, A. D. Weiss, E. Evenson, AND L. Bice. EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Oregon Data and Product Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/025, 2003.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a study in the western United States (EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10) that will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessment of the condition of ecological systems.Human pressures on the natural resources of the United States are intense. These pressures have resulted in many unintended changes in our ecosystems -- loss of biodiversity, increases in the number of endangered species (e.g. salmon), habitat degradation, and increases in contamination and pollution. Major public and private efforts have gone into controlling pollution, and protecting and restoring natural resources and the ecosystems they depend on. Corrective actions have and will continue to have an impact upon how we all lead our lives. We react to the problems that are most visible and thus receive the greatest amount of publicity. To make the most of our environmental efforts, we need to understand and assess the status and trends in the condition of our ecological resources and the stressors affecting these systems. It is not at all clear that we are currently targeting financial resources and/or lifestyle changes on problems or at locations where they will have the most effect.
To move toward an improved monitoring approach EPA has begun the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). EMAP is a research program that is used to develop the tools necessary to monitor and assess the status and trends of ecological systems. EMAP had its beginnings assessing the effects of acid deposition on large geographical areas of the U.S. during the 1980s. Out of that work came the concept of probability-based monitoring and the need for regional-scale assessments. EMAP's goal is to develop the scientific understanding for translating environmental monitoring data from multiple spatial and temporal scales into assessments of ecological condition.

The landscape component of the Western Pilot study provides information that has multiple management implications. Regional Landscape Atlases and Landscape Data Browsers will be provided to assess the spatial distribution of landscape stressors on aquatic ecosystems across each region. This will assist regional managers in understanding how landscape conditions contribute to varying aquatic resource conditions. As such, the atlases also will contribute to formulation of specific management actions for different geographic locations within each region. The first step in providing regional atlases will be to test and demonstrate landscape assessment methodologies on sub-regional areas of high importance to each Region.
State of Oregon Study Area. The State of Oregon is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west and the states of Nevada and California on the south, Washington on the north, and Idaho on the east. The study area includes all of Oregon and those portions of watersheds in Oregon which extend into each of the four states bordering it. In most cases, these "boundary watersheds" radiate out from Oregon less than 40 km (25 mi.) into its neighboring states; although, a few watersheds do reach considerably further into Nevada and Idaho.


PUBLISHED REPORT EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area Data and Product Browser 03/25/2003
Heggem, D T., D W. Ebert, T G. Wade, S. Augustine, A. D. Weiss, E. Evenson, AND L. Bice. EMAP Western United States Landscape Characterization Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area Data and Product Browser. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/023, 2003.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessment of the condition of aquatic resources in the 14 western states in EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10 (shown below). This browser is a demonstration of a versatile communication device for our landscape ecological assessment products, reports, assessments, data studies, and analysis tools. Human stresses on the natural resources of the United States are intense. These pressures have resulted in many unintended changes in our ecosystems -- loss of biodiversity, increases in the number of endangered species (e.g. salmon), habitat degradation, and increases in contamination and pollution. Major public and private efforts have gone into controlling pollution, and protecting and restoring natural resources and the ecosystems they depend on. Corrective actions have, and will continue to have, an impact upon how we all lead our lives.
We react to the problems that are most visible and thus receive the greatest amount of publicity. To make the most of our environmental efforts, we need to understand and assess the status and trends in the condition of our ecological resources and the stressors affecting these systems. It is not at all clear that we are currently targeting financial resources and/or lifestyle changes on problems or at locations where they will have the most effect. The landscape component of the Western Pilot Study provides information that has multiple management implications. Regional Landscape products will be provided to assess the spatial distribution of landscape stressors on aquatic ecosystems across each region. This will assist regional managers in understanding how landscape conditions contribute to varying aquatic resource conditions. As such, the products also will contribute to formulation of specific management actions for different geographic locations within each region. The first step in providing regional products will be to test and demonstrate landscape assessment methodologies on sub-regional areas of high importance to each Region.


PUBLISHED REPORT Multivariate Analyses (Cononical Correlation and Partial Least Square, Pls) to Model and Assess the Association of Landscape Metrics to Surface Water Chemical and Biological Properties Using Savannah River Basin Data. 01/21/2003
Nash, M S. AND D J. Chaloud. Multivariate Analyses (Cononical Correlation and Partial Least Square, Pls) to Model and Assess the Association of Landscape Metrics to Surface Water Chemical and Biological Properties Using Savannah River Basin Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/091 (NTIS PB2003-106619), 2003.
Abstract: Many multivariate methods are used in describing and predicting relation; each has its unique usage of categorical and non-categorical data. In multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), many response variables (y's) are related to many independent variables that are categorical (classes, levels). For example, relating nitrogen, phosphorous and fecal coliform to presence/absence of urban development, farm, soil types, geological formations, etc, (nitrogen + phosphorous + fecal coliform = type of farm, urban development, geology, soil, ...). In analysis of variance (ANOVA), a dependent (response) variable is related to many independent variables that are categorical. For example, determining the response of an ant species to grazing level (severe, medium, low) in an area (ant abundance = grazing levels). In multiple discriminant analysis the dependent variable (Y) is categorical (groups or classes) and related to the independent variables (x's). For example, presence/absence of amphibians in an area relates to many environmental variables (pres/abs = percent bedrock substrate cover + water depth + percent vegetation cover + ...). In multiple regression the dependent variable (Y) is related to many independent variables (x's). For example nitrogen loading relates to landscape metrics such as percent forest, percent crops, percent of wetiand, percent of urban development. In canonical correlation, two sets of variables are related and these variables may or may not be categorical. So it is a generalized multivariate statistical technique in respect to that described above, and is directly related to principal components-type factor analytic models. In canonical analysis method, a number of composite associations between sets of multiple dependent and independent variables are performed. Consequently, a number of independent canonical functions that maximize the correlation between the linear composites of sets of dependent and independent variables are developed. The main goal of the canonical correlation analysis is to develop these linear composites (canonical variate), derive a set of weights for each variate, thereby explaining the nature of relationships that exist between the sets of response and predictor variables that is measured by the relative contribution of each variable to the canonical functions (relationships) that exist. The results of applying canonical correlation is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two sets of multiple variables. This measure is expressed as a canonical correlation coefficient (r) between the two sets.

PUBLISHED REPORT Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Development and Application of the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa) Tool 01/17/2003
Miller, S. N., D J. Semmens, R. C. Miller, M. Hernandez, P. Miler, D. C. Goodrich, W G. Kepner, AND D W. Ebert. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Development and Application of the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (Agwa) Tool. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-02/046 (NTIS PB2003-103047), 2003.
Abstract: Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving from simple, local-scale problems toward complex, spatially explicit regional ones. Such problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales. The extensive data requirements and the difficult task of building input parameter files, however, have long represented an obstacle to the timely and cost-effective use of such complex models by resource managers.
The USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, has developed a GIS tool to facilitate this process. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the framework within which spatially-distributed data are collected and used to prepare model input files and evaluate model results.

AGWA uses widely available standardized spatial datasets that can be obtained via the internet. The data are used to develop input parameter files for two watershed runoff and erosion models: KINEROS and SWAT.

SUMMARY An Ecological and Habitat Vulnerability Assessment of Arkansas White River Basin 10/16/2003
Lopez, R D. AND D T. Heggem. An Ecological and Habitat Vulnerability Assessment of Arkansas White River Basin. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/J-03/002, 2003.
Abstract: This study is an important first step toward a determination of how such landscape alterations are correlated with changes in the hydrologic, chemical, and biological characteristics of the White River Basin and how the influences of potential alterations may affect change in the future water quality and the biological integrity of the ecosystem. Quantifying these relationships could improve the decision-making processes for future land use planning in the White River and the Mississippi River watershed. Recent detailed studies of the landscape in and around the remnant bottomland hardwood wetlands of the Cache River (Figure 1) show that the relationships between landscape change and wetland function in the region are complex and require a thorough understanding of impact history (Kress et al. 1996), water quality (DeLaune et al. 1996, Dortch 1996, Kleiss 1996), hydrology (Long and Nestler 1996, Walton et al. 1996a, Walton et al. 1996b, Wilber et al. 1996), and habitat characteristics (Kilgor and Baker 1996, Smith 1996, Wakeley and Roberts 1996). The White River, a major tributary to the Mississippi River, has not undergone a comprehensive assessment of this kind. A fundamental assessment of the landscape historic resource rarity, and ecological functions of the White River Basin is necessary to continue the efforts to better understand how the remaining bottornland hardwood wetlands, and other inter-linked ecosystems, of the Mississippi River Valley are impacted by future development. This need is urgent because approximately 70% of Arkansas' wetlands have been converted to other land cover types since the late nineteenth century (Dahl 1990), a loss of approximately 2.8 million hectares (Figure 3), and over 400 thousand acres of this loss occurred in the mid-twentieth century (Shaw and Fredine, 1956).
One of the land cover changes that predominates in this region of the United States is the conversion of forest to agricultural areas (Heggem et al., 1999). Conversely, in recent years some human-use areas (e.g., agricultural land) have been restored to their former 'natural' cover types (e.g., forest) through the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wetland Reserve Program (WRP). Information about the WRP can be found at the Internet web site: http://www.wl.fb- net.org/. Both types of land cover change will be assessed in this study. The observed relationships between land cover change and the status of ecosystems of the region will then be used to determine how: (a) future change in vegetation cover may impact habitat suitability of the basin; (b) future change in vegetation cover may impact water quality of rivers, lakes, and wetlands; and (c) river and wetland hydrology and vegetation change are related. These relationships will be used to predict potential habitat and water quality/quantity conditions of the future. Thus, the potential future scenarios can be used to assess the vulnerability of the ecosystems to future land cover change and land use change in the region.


 

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