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Environmental Sciences Division Publications: 1999

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Environmental Sciences Division for the year 1999, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 116 Matching Entries.

See also Environmental Sciences Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Chris Sibert - (702) 798-2234 or sibert.christopher@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Preface: Analysis of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors 12/19/1999
JonesLepp, T, L. Keith, AND L. Needham. Preface: Analysis of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. American Chemical Society Series 747: Analysis of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Agents of Subtle Change? 12/30/1999
Daughton, C G. AND T. A. Ternes. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Agents of Subtle Change? ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES 107(S6):907-938, (1999).
Abstract: During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-?g/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community. Key words: aquatic, drugs, ecologic health, ecologic risk assessment, emerging risk, pharmaceuticals, pollution, sewage.

JOURNAL Hydrophillic Polymethylmethacrylate Hollow Fibers for Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules 12/19/1999
Chen, S. AND M. L. Lee. Hydrophillic Polymethylmethacrylate Hollow Fibers for Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules. JOURNAL OF MICROCOLUMN SEPARATIONS 9(2):57-62, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Leaves as Indicators of Exposure to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds 12/19/1999
Hiatt, M H. Leaves as Indicators of Exposure to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 33:4126-4133, (1999).
Abstract: The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octanol and air equivalent to a relationship previously determined for PCBs. The rate that leaves release VOCs is dependent upon meteorological conditions and the enthalpy of phase change between air and plant. The enthalpy of phase change ( H pa ) for a compound in leaves is closely related to its enthalpy of vaporization. The BCF and H pa for a compound vary among plants but are highly correlated to each other. The change in BCF by plant (and correlated change in H pa ) is likely due to differences in the amount of octanol-equivalent matter contained in their leaves. The concentration of airborne VOCs is predicted to maximize near dawn simultaneous with natural inversion patterns. A model incorporating this phenomenon with other meteorological data, H pa, and BCF is a useful tool predicting concentrations of VOCs in leaves. Vegetation can be especially useful in capturing VOCs at the critical time that air exposures are greatest. How long a leaf might retain a compound after uptake is dependent on the compound, the leaf type, and the magnitude of the wind and temperature. During calm weather, leaves can be used as a record of these early morning exposures. However, windy conditions quickly clear leaves of their VOC content.

JOURNAL Regional Vulnerability: A Conceptual Framework 12/19/1999
Boughton, D A., E R. Smith, AND R. V. O'Neill. Regional Vulnerability: A Conceptual Framework. ECOSYSTEM HEALTH 5(4):312-320, (1999).
Abstract: Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA regions and builds on data collected for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) of the EPA. The pilot ReVA is being developed for the U.S. mid-Atlantic region to identify those ecosystems, together with the ecological goods and services they provide, that are most vulnerable to being lost in the next 20 years. The project is currently exploring different conceptual approaches to integrated assessment. In this article, we give an operational approach to estimating ecosystem vulnerability and discuss important issues arising from it. The first issue is estimating vulnerability at the regional scale as opposed to the more familiar local scale. The second issue is integrating information about different sorts of risks in order to prioritize them at the regional scale. The challenge of integration is considerable because of the possibility of synergistic (mutually reinforcing) interactions between different environmental stresses. Synergistic effects are often too poorly known to include, yet potentially too important to ignore. Vulnerability at the regional scale may provide a pragmatic, middle-road approach to this problem by highlighting and characterizing geographic areas that are expected to change the most in the future. The goal is not exact predictions, but a first-cut early warning system to identify and prioritize the risks of undesirable environmental changes over the next few decades.

JOURNAL Dispersal of Seeds as Nest Material By the Cactus Wren 12/15/1999
Milton, S. J., W. J. Dean, G. H. Kerley, M. T. Hoffman, AND W G. Whitford. Dispersal of Seeds as Nest Material By the Cactus Wren. SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 43(4):449-452, (1999).
Abstract: Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Eragrostis lehmanniana. We suggest that birds are potentially important dispersers of certain types of plants in semiarid rangelands through the use of plants with seeds as nesting material. Implications of this process from rangeland plant dynamics need to be further explored.

JOURNAL The Value of Historical Imagery 12/04/1999
Slonecker, E T., M J. Lacerte, AND D Garofalo. The Value of Historical Imagery. EARTH OBSERVATION MAGAZINE 8(6):39-41, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography of Organic Pollutants 11/30/1999
Sovocool, G W., W C. Brumley, AND J. R. Donnelly. Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography of Organic Pollutants. ELECTROPHORESIS 20(15-16 (Oct)):3297-3310, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Application of Multi-Date Landsat 5 Tm Imagery for Wetland Identification 11/28/1999
Lunetta, R S. AND M. E. Balogh. Application of Multi-Date Landsat 5 Tm Imagery for Wetland Identification. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING 65(11):1303-1310, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data (Mppsird) as a Tool for Regulatory Analyses 11/19/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data (Mppsird) as a Tool for Regulatory Analyses. JOURNAL OF AOAC INTERNATIONAL 82(6):1443-1457, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Forest Fragmentation as An Economic Indicator 10/05/1999
Wickham, J D., R. V. O'Neill, AND K B. Jones. Forest Fragmentation as An Economic Indicator. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 15:171 - 179, (1999).
Abstract: Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a surface (map) of urbanization pressure by interpolation of population from a ring of cities surrounding the region. The interpolated map showed a geographic gradient of urbanization pressure or demand for land that increased from northwest to southeast. Estimates of forest fragmentation were moderately correlated with the geographic gradient of urbanization pressure. The fragmentation-urbanization relationship was corroborated by examining land-cover change against the urbanization map. The geographic gradient in land-cover change was strongly correlated with the urbanization pressure gradient. The correspondence between geographic gradients in land-cover change and urbanization pressure suggests that forest fragmentation will occur at a greater rate in the eastern portion of the southside economic region in the future.

JOURNAL Detection of Low Dose Radiation Induced Dna Damage Using Temperature Differenntial Fluoresence Assay 10/01/1999
Rogers, K R., A. B. Apostol, S. J. Madsen, AND C. W. Spencer. Detection of Low Dose Radiation Induced Dna Damage Using Temperature Differenntial Fluoresence Assay. Analytical Chemistry 71(19):4423-4426, (1999).
Abstract: A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposures of between 0.004 and 1 Gy were measured with doses as low as 0.008 Gy yielding significant responses. The double-strand, sensitive dye PicoGreen was used as an indicator of DNA denaturation. Calibration plots indicate that fluorescence changes corresponding to amounts as low as 1 ng of double stranded DNA (10(6) copies for plasmid puc 19) are detected by this method.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), funded this research through a competitive internal grant (to K.R.). It has been subject to the EPA's peer and administrative review and has been approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA for use.

JOURNAL Measurement of Rural Sulfur Dioxide and Particle Sulfate: Analysis of Castnet Data, 1987 1996 09/30/1999
Baumgardner, R E., S. Isil, K. Fitzgerald, AND J. Bowser. Measurement of Rural Sulfur Dioxide and Particle Sulfate: Analysis of Castnet Data, 1987 1996. JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 49:1266-1279, (1999).
Abstract: The Clean Sir Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991 in response to Title IX of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, which mandated the deployment of a national ambient air monitoring network to track progress of the implementation of emission reduction programs in terms of deposition, air quality, and changes to affected ecosystems. CASTNet evolved from the National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN).CASTNet currently consists of 45 sites in the eastern United States and 28 sites in the West. Each site measures sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric acid (HNO3), particle sulfate (SO4), particle nitrate (NO3), and ozone. Nineteen sites collect precipitation samples. NDDN/CASTNet uses a uniform set of site-selection criteria which provides the data user with consistent measures to compare each site. These criteria also ensure that, to the extent possible. CASTNet sites are located away from local emission sources.

JOURNAL Livestock Activity and Chihuahuan Desert Annual-Plant Communities: Boundary Analysis of Disturbance Gradients 09/19/1999
Nash, M S., W G. Whitford, A. G. de Soyza, J. W. Van Zee, AND K. M. Havstad. Livestock Activity and Chihuahuan Desert Annual-Plant Communities: Boundary Analysis of Disturbance Gradients. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 9(3):814-823, (1999).
Abstract: The impact of domestic livestock on soil properties and perennial vegetation is greatest close to water points and generally decreases exponentially with distance from water. We hypothesized that the impact of livestock on annual-plant communities would be similar to that on perennial vegetation. We used multivariate analysis and semivariograms to locate boundaries and to determine the number and width of different annual-plant zones (referred as biotic zones) on long-term livestock disturbance gradients in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico. We estimated abundance of annuals in 0.5-m2 quadrats placed at 30-m intervals on 10 livestock disturbance gradients originating at water points. Tansy mustard, Descurainia pinnata, was abundant in severely disturbed areas and also in areas that are known to have high soil nitrogen content. Amaranthus palmeri was abundant in half of the transects in the zone nearest the water points. The relationships of annual-plant abundance and species richness with distance from water points and with perennial-plant cover were not significant (R2 < 0.1). The number of boundaries and sizes of zones varied with distance from water points, with seasons, and with duration of grazing. The first biotic zone (most severely impacted by cattle) ranged from 75 to 795 m radius for winter-spring annuals and from 165 to 1065 m radius for the summer annuals. Variability in the number and size of biotic zones along grazing gradients was spatially correlated with the frequency and intensity of disturbance, with landscape position, and with patchiness of soil features. There were fewer and larger zones of summer annuals than of winter-spring annuals. Boundary analysis of livestock disturbance gradients provided a method with replication for assessing the impact of long-term livestock grazing on annual-plant communities. Livestock create nutrient-rich patches near water points by mixing dung with soil by hoof action.

JOURNAL Determination of Organotins in Water By Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry 09/19/1999
JonesLepp, T, K E. Varner, M R. McDaniel, AND L A. Riddick. Determination of Organotins in Water By Micro-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. APPLIED ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY 13:881-889, (1999).
Abstract: Due to the varying toxicity the species of organotins in their widespread applications, it is important for analytical methods to address their speciation. Traditional methods call for the hydrolysis and subsequent derivatization of the organotins before analysis. These methods can be time-consuming, derivatization can be incomplete and high levels of background interference produce difficulties in identification and quantification. The use is described of a non-derivation and non- hydrolysis micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry for separation and detection of the organotins.

JOURNAL Seasonal and Diurnal Activity Patterns in Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in a Vegetation Transition Region of Southeastern New Mexico 09/19/1999
Whitford, W G. Seasonal and Diurnal Activity Patterns in Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in a Vegetation Transition Region of Southeastern New Mexico. SOCIOBIOLOGY 34(3):477-491, (1999).
Abstract: The densities of active ant colonies were estimated in three habitats: creosotebush shrubland, grassland, and shinnery-oak mesquite dunes. Diurnal foraging patterns were studied at bait boards. Species richness of ant communities in this transitional region (8-12 species) was considerably lower than Chihuahuan Desert ant communities in an area with lower annual average rainfall. The numerically dominant species was Forelius pruinosus. Crematogaster spp, was subdominant in all of the habitats and exhibited relatively constant activity through-out the growing season. Harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex spp, exhibited different seasonal activity patterns in the three habitats. One species, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, was not recorded until October, when its nests were conspicuous with discarded leaf fragments around the entrances. Several species of ants feeding at bait board extended their foraging times in comparison to colonies of the same species too distant from the bait boards for foragers to reach the baits. Only one species (Pagonomymrmex apache) exhibited a high-tolerance foraging behavior, by initiating foraging at the bait boards after soil surface temperatures exceeded 40?C and other species had ceased foraging. Foraging activity of most species continued throughout the day when cloud cover reduced soil surface temperatures to 40?C during midday.

JOURNAL Effects of Habitat Characterization on the Abundance and Activity of Subterranean Termites in Arid Southeastern New Mexico 09/19/1999
Whitford, W G. Effects of Habitat Characterization on the Abundance and Activity of Subterranean Termites in Arid Southeastern New Mexico. SOCIOBIOLOGY 34(3):493-504, (1999).
Abstract: Amitermes wheeleri was the most abundant termite species in most of the habitats. Gnathamitermes tubiformans was the most abundant subterranean termite species in habitats dominated by creosotebush, Larrea tridentata. Subterranean termite abundance measured by numbers of termites extracted from baits, mass of paper removed from baits, proportion of dung pats attacked, and quantities of surface foraging galleries all indicated that subterranean termites were most abundant in mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) dune and creosotebush habitats, and least abundant in grassland and shinnery oak (Quercus harvardii) habitats. Subterranean termite abundance was not affected by soil stability, but was affected by the dominant vegetation. Subterranean termites consumed more than 80% of the ceosotebush leaf litter from litter bags between August and December. There was no evidence that termites consumed shinnery oak leaves or grass stems and leaves.

JOURNAL Effects of Repeated Drought on Soil Microarthropod Communities in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert 09/19/1999
Whitford, W G. AND H. S. Hafez. Effects of Repeated Drought on Soil Microarthropod Communities in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert. BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 28:117-120, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Cloud Chemistry in the Eastern United States, as Sampled from Three High-Elevation Sites Along the Appalachian Mountains 09/10/1999
Anderson, J. B., R E. Baumgardner, J. Bowser, AND V. A. Mohnen. Cloud Chemistry in the Eastern United States, as Sampled from Three High-Elevation Sites Along the Appalachian Mountains. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 33:5105-5114, (1999).
Abstract: Atmospheric deposition of acidic cloud water is thought to be one of the causes for the recent forest decline in industrialized areas of the world. The present paper presents results from the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro), a part of EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network, (CASTNet). We used automated cloud water collectors at three selected mountain sites (Whiteface Mt., NY; Whitetop Mt., VA; and Clingman's Dome,TN) to take hourly samples from non-precipitating clouds during temperature (non-freezing) seasons of each year from 1994 to 1997. Samples were promptly analyzed for pH, conductivity, and concentration of dissolved ions. Cloud liquid water content (LWC) and meteorological parameters were measured at each site. Mean cloud frequencies and LWC of clouds were higher at Whiteface Mt., NY, than in the Southern Appalachians. The four most prevalent ions found in cloud water samples were usually, in order of decreasing concentration: sulfate (SO42-) hydrogen (H+), ammonium (NH4+), and nitrate (NO3~). Within cloud events the concentration of these major ions tended to co-vary. Typically there was an inverse relationship between LWC of the cloud and ionic concentration of the cloud water. During the sampling season, the highest ionic concentrations were seen during mid-summer. Ionic concentration of samples from the southern sites were significantly higher than samples from Whiteface Mt., but further analysis indicates that this is a least partially due to the north-south difference in the LWC of clouds. MADPro results are shown to be comparable with previous studies of cloud chemistry in North America.

JOURNAL Robust Intervals for Some Environmental Applications 08/23/1999
Singh, A. AND J M. Nocerino. Robust Intervals for Some Environmental Applications. CHEMOMETRICS AND INTELLIGENT LABORATORY SYSTEMS 37(1):55-69, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL A Summary of Airborne Concentrations of Sulfur and Nitrogen Containing Pollutants in the Northeastern United States 08/19/1999
Sickles II, J E. A Summary of Airborne Concentrations of Sulfur and Nitrogen Containing Pollutants in the Northeastern United States. AIR WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 49:882-893, (1999).
Abstract: Airborne concentrations of SO2,SO42-,HNO3,NO3-,NH4+, and O3 were monitored over the six-year period from September 1, 1989, through August 31, 1995, at 10 largely rural Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites in the northeastern United States. Each of the sulfur- and nitrogen-containing air pollutants monitored by CASTNet displays regular, seasonal cyclical behavior and also exhibits a relatively strong high-to-low spatial concentration gradient from southwest to northeast. On average, more than 70% of the measured airborne sulfur is present as SO2, except during the summer, when the figure drops to about 50%. During the summer, the SO2 concentration is the lowest, SO42- is the highest, and the fraction of airborne sulfur present as SO42 -varies considerably with location, ranging from an average of 42% at five sites in Pennsylvania to 70% at two sites in New England. Studywide, more than 70% of the measured, oxidized, airborne nitrogen (N) is present as HNO3, except during the winter, when the figure drops to about 60%. The concentrations of gaseous SO2 and HNO3 are usually comparable but not always larger than the corresponding concentrations of measured sulfur and nitrogen aerosols. Nevertheless, the relatively faster deposition velocities for gases are sufficient to ensure that SO2 and HNO3 are usually the dominant contributors to dry sulfur and nitrogen deposition. Observed changes of 1990-1995 annual average airborne sulfur and N concentrations at 10 CASTNet sites in the Northeast are generally consistent with changes in emissions estimated to have occurred in the Northeast over the same period.

JOURNAL Spatial and Temporal Variability in Relative Abundance and Foraging Behavior of Subterranean Termites in Desertified and Relatively Intact Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystems 07/19/1999
Nash, M S., J. B. Anderson, AND W G. Whitford. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Relative Abundance and Foraging Behavior of Subterranean Termites in Desertified and Relatively Intact Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystems. Applied Soil Ecology 12:149-157, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Analysis of Volatiles and Semivolatiles By Direct Aqueous Injection 07/15/1999
Pyle, S M. AND A B. Marcus. Analysis of Volatiles and Semivolatiles By Direct Aqueous Injection. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS 76(1):17-29, (1999).
Abstract: Direct aqueous injection analysis (DAI) with gas chromatographic separation and ion trap mass spectral detection was used to analyze aqueous samples for g/L levels of 54 volatile and semivolatile compounds, and problematic non-purgeables and non-extractables. The method reduces sample handling, increases sample throughput, and avoids the use of solvents ordinarily required for solvent exchange and analyte pre-concentration which would otherwise require disposal as hazardous waste. Aqueous standards containing volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were directly injected in 0.1-uL volumes into a 0.22 mm id capillary column interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Peak shape was adequate for quantification, and method detection limits for replicate injections (n=7) ranged from 3 to 20,000 ug/L, averaging 100 ug/L. Precision (%RSD) was calculated at each level for each compound and averaged 12% at the highest level. Analysis of domestic tap water readily revealed the presence of three trihalomethanes (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, and chlorodibromomethand) at the low-ug/L level. Analysis of an aqueous sample from a hazardous waste site monitored the presence of various volatile and semivolatile compounds at mg/L levels.

JOURNAL Arroyo Water Storage and Soil Nutrients and Their Effects on Gas-Exchanage of Shrub Species in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert 06/21/1999
Atchley, M. C., A. G. de Soyza, AND W G. Whitford. Arroyo Water Storage and Soil Nutrients and Their Effects on Gas-Exchanage of Shrub Species in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert. JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS 43:21 - 23, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Bioperdturbation By Mammals in Deserts: A Review 06/19/1999
Whitford, W G. AND R. K. Fenton. Bioperdturbation By Mammals in Deserts: A Review. JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS 41:203-230, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Environmental Monitoring Applications of (Nasa's) Earth Science Enterprise (Ese) Data and Information 06/19/1999
Mace, T H. AND K. P. Corbley. Environmental Monitoring Applications of (Nasa's) Earth Science Enterprise (Ese) Data and Information. EARTH OBSERVATION MAGAZINE 8(3):50-52, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Diversity of Arthropod Responses to Host Plant Water Stress in a Desert Ecosystem in Southern New Mexico 06/01/1999
Schowalter, T. D., D. C. Lightfood, AND W G. Whitford. Diversity of Arthropod Responses to Host Plant Water Stress in a Desert Ecosystem in Southern New Mexico. AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 142:281-290, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants 05/19/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY 13(8):673-686, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Forested Wetland Restoration: Identifying Potential Sites in Northeast Louisiana 05/19/1999
Heggem, D T., C M. Edmonds, A C. Neale, K B. Jones, AND L. Bice. Forested Wetland Restoration: Identifying Potential Sites in Northeast Louisiana. Geo Info Systems 9(3):34-39, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Environmental Auditing: An Integrated Environmental Assessment of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region 04/16/1999
Wickham, J D., K B. Jones, K. H. Riitters, R. V. O'Neill, R. D. Tankersley, E R. Smith, A C. Neale, AND D J. Chaloud. Environmental Auditing: An Integrated Environmental Assessment of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region. 24(4):553-560, (1999).
Abstract: Many of today's environmental problems are regional in scope and their effects overlap and interact. We developed a simple method to provide an integrated assessment of environmental conditions and estimate cumulative impacts across a large region, by combining data on land-cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and topography. The integrated assessment technique identified nine distinct groups of watersheds. Relative cumulative impact scores were highest around major urban centers, but there was not a simple or predictable spatial pattern overall. We also point out the potential applications of this approach that include distinguishing between areas in relatively poor versus good condition, identifying areas that may be more vulnerable to future environmental degradation, and indentifying areas for restoration.

JOURNAL How Ecosystems Respond to Stress 03/19/1999
Rapport, D. J. AND W G. Whitford. How Ecosystems Respond to Stress. BIOSCIENCE 49(3):193-203, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Artic at Risk 03/19/1999
Slonecker, E T., P Jutro, D Mangis, M. True, AND B. Orlick. Artic at Risk. EOM 3:12-17, (1999).
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

JOURNAL Retention of Sulfur Dioxide By Nylon Filters 02/24/1999
Sickles II, J E. AND L. L. Hodson. Retention of Sulfur Dioxide By Nylon Filters. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 33:2423-2426, (1999).
Abstract: Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative humidity. An appreciable portion of SO2 was unrecoverable, and this increased from 5 to 16% as the RH increased from 28 to 49%. This unrecoverable SO2 may account for previous reports of a low bias for SO2 determinations employing filter packs using nylon filters. Additional characterization of nylon filters is recommended prior to their future deployment as an integrative sampling medium for ambient air.

JOURNAL Evaluation of the Filter Pack for Long-Duration Sampling of Ambient Air 02/24/1999
Sickles II, J E., L Vorburger, AND L. L. Hodson. Evaluation of the Filter Pack for Long-Duration Sampling of Ambient Air. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 33:2187-2202, (1999).
Abstract: A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks (CASTNet and Acid-MODES) and using duplicate annular denuder systems (ADS). Precision estimates for most of the measured species are similar for weekly ADS and composited FPs. There is generally good agreement between the weekly CASTNet FP results aggregated from weekly daytime and weekly nighttime samples and those aggregated from daily 24 h Acid-MODES samples; although SO2 is the exception, and CASTNet concentrations are higher than Acid-MODES. Comparison of weekly ADS results with composited weekly FP results from CASTNet shows good agreement for SO2-4. With the exception of the two weeks where the FP exceeded the ADS, both HNO3 show good agreement. The FP often provides good estimates of HNO3, but when used to sample atmospheres that have experienced substantial photochemical reactivity, FP HNO3 determinations using nylon filters may be biased high. It is suggested that HNO2 or some other oxidized nitrogen compound can accumulate on a regional scale and may interfere with the FP determination of HNO3. FP particulate NO3 results are in fair agreement with the ADS. Since FP SO2 results are biased low by 12-20%, SO2 concentration in the CASTNet data archive should be adjusted upward. Nylon presents problems as a sampling medium in terms of SO2 recovery and specificity for HNO3. Additional comparative sampler evaluation studies are recommended at several sites over each season to permit comprehensive assessment of the concentrations of atmospheric trace constituents archived by CASTNet.

JOURNAL Transitions in Forest Fragmentation: Implications for Restoration Opportunities at Regional Scales 01/20/1999
Wickham, J D., K B. Jones, K. H. Riitters, T G. Wade, AND R. V. O'Neill. Transitions in Forest Fragmentation: Implications for Restoration Opportunities at Regional Scales. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 14:137-145, (1999).
Abstract: Where the potential natural vegetation is continuous forest (e.g., eastern US), a region can be divided into smaller units (e.g., counties, watersheds), and a graph of the proportion of forest in the largest patch versus the proportion in anthropogenic cover can be used as an index of forest fragmentation. If forests are not fragmented beyond that converted to anthropogenic cover, there would be only one patch in the unit and its proportional size would equal 1 minus the percentage of anthropogenic cover. For a set of 130 watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region, there was a transition in forest fragmentation between 15 and 20% anthropogenic cover. The potential for mitigating fragmentation by connecting two or more disjunct forest patches was low when percent anthropogenic cover was low, highest at moderate proportions of anthropogenic cover, and agin low as the proportion of anthropogenic cover increased toward 100%. This fragmentation index could be used to prioritize locations for restoration by targeting watersheds where there would be the greatest increase in the size of the largest forest patch.

PRESENTATION Mercury in Lake Mead Fish: A Summary 12/09/1999
Cizdziel, J V. Mercury in Lake Mead Fish: A Summary. Presented at Lake Mead Water Quality Forum, Las Vegas, NV, December 9, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Conducting Integrated Ecological Assessments: Developing and Demonstrating a Process Through the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (Maia) 11/16/1999
Smith, E R., K. W. Thornton, AND T B. DeMoss. Conducting Integrated Ecological Assessments: Developing and Demonstrating a Process Through the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (Maia). Presented at SETAC 20th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, November 14-18, 1999.
Abstract: The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment is a partnership between EPA Region 3, the Office of Research and Development, and other federal and state partners. The overall goal of MAIA is to improve the environment decision-making process by incorporating the best available information on the condition of resources along with an improved understanding of the relative impacts of various stressors and management actions. At the same time, MAIA has provided the opportunity to develop a process for conducting integrated ecological assessments that can be applied to any region of the United States. This has occurred through constant interaction between stakeholders, clients and researchers to develop a four-step process that includes an assessment of where we are and why we are there (retrospective) and what it means and where we are going (prospective). The first phase (levels one and two) of the integrated assessment were initially addressed through the establishment of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). This first phase of MAIA is now complete and the second phase (levels three and four) of the process is just beginning through the establishment of the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program. ReVA will complete the integrated assessment process through the evaluation of relative risk and projection of future vulnerabilities.

PRESENTATION Community Growth Model: Neuse River Basin, North Carolina 11/14/1999
Matheny, R W. AND K Endres. Community Growth Model: Neuse River Basin, North Carolina. Presented at Sustaining Global Environmental Integrity Conference of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, November 14-18, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Measuring Change in the San Pedro Riparian Ecosystem: A Comparison of Two Methods 11/07/1999
Edmonds, C M., W G. Kepner, D T. Heggem, AND L. Bice. Measuring Change in the San Pedro Riparian Ecosystem: A Comparison of Two Methods. Presented at Divided Waters - Common Ground Binational Conference on the Upper San Pedro Basin of Sonora and Arizona, Bisbee, AZ, November 7-10, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION A Data Browser for the San Pedro River Watershed 11/07/1999
Heggem, D T., W G. Kepner, C M. Edmonds, E. J. Evanson, AND L. Bice. A Data Browser for the San Pedro River Watershed. Presented at Divided Waters - Common Ground Binational Conference on the Upper San Pedro Basin of Sonora and Arizona, Bisbee, AZ, November 7-10, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Introduction to Attla (Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessmental: An Arcview Extension 11/07/1999
Ebert, D W., T G. Wade, J. Harrison, AND D. Yankee. Introduction to Attla (Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessmental: An Arcview Extension. Presented at Divided Water - Common Ground: Cooperative Research and Management of Bi-National Resources in the Upper San Pedro Basin of Sonora and Arizona, Bisbee, AZ, November 7-11, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Changing Watershed: Using a 25 Year History of Landscape Change as a Guide to the Future 11/07/1999
Kepner, W G., C. J. Watts, C M. Edmonds, G. Luna, H. A. Richter, R. Blanchard, W. Childress, AND S. Stone. The Changing Watershed: Using a 25 Year History of Landscape Change as a Guide to the Future. Presented at Divided Waters - Common Ground Binational Conference on the Upper San Pedro Basin of Sonora and Arizona, Bisbee, AZ, November 7-10, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Forensic Monitoring: Fingerprinting of Waste Laboratories 10/26/1999
Plumb, R. H. Forensic Monitoring: Fingerprinting of Waste Laboratories. Presented at Eleventh Tie Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, October 26-28, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Southwestern Riparian Sustainability Along a Lower Colorado River Impoundment 10/22/1999
TallentHalsell, N G. AND L. M. Walker. Southwestern Riparian Sustainability Along a Lower Colorado River Impoundment. Presented at EPA Las Vegas Research Expo, Las Vegas, NV, October 22, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Ant and Bird Species Assemblages as Indicators of Ecological Integrity in Great Basin Rangelands 10/14/1999
Bradford, D F., M S. Nash, W G. Whitford, A C. Neale, AND D T. Heggem. Ant and Bird Species Assemblages as Indicators of Ecological Integrity in Great Basin Rangelands. Presented at Great Basin Biological Research Conference, Reno, NV, October 14-16, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Agent 00bees: Spies in Your Backyard 10/10/1999
Rosal, C G. Agent 00bees: Spies in Your Backyard. Presented at EPA-LV Research Expo, Las Vegas, NV, October 10, 1998.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Relationship of Arthropod Species Richness to Summer Rainfall in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland 10/07/1999
Forbes, G. S. AND W G. Whitford. Relationship of Arthropod Species Richness to Summer Rainfall in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland. Presented at Symposium on Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region, Alpine, TX, October 7, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Dibutyltin Measured in Brain Tissue Listing U-Liquid Chromatography Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry 10/06/1999
Varner, K E., T L. Jones, AND A. Mitchell. Dibutyltin Measured in Brain Tissue Listing U-Liquid Chromatography Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry. Presented at 1999 Pacific Conference on Chemistry and Spectroscopy/35th ACS Western Regional Meeting, Ontario, CA, October 6-8, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Retrospective Landscape Analysis: An Approach for Determining Alternative Futures in An American Semi-Arid Bioregion 09/22/1999
Kepner, W G., C. J. Watts, C M. Edmonds, R. D. van Remortel, AND M. E. Hamilton. Retrospective Landscape Analysis: An Approach for Determining Alternative Futures in An American Semi-Arid Bioregion. Presented at Landscape Futures Symposium, Amidale, Australia, September 22-25, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION The Changing Watershed: A 25-Year History of Land Cover Change in the San Pedro River, An American Semi-Arid Bioregion 09/22/1999
Kepner, W G., C. J. Watts, C M. Edmonds, R. VanRemortel, AND M. E. Hamilton. The Changing Watershed: A 25-Year History of Land Cover Change in the San Pedro River, An American Semi-Arid Bioregion. Presented at Landscape Futures Symposium, Armidale, Australia, September 22-25, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION GIS Work Group: An Overview (Includes GIS-QA and Auditing GIS Database Systems) 09/22/1999
Brilis, G M. GIS Work Group: An Overview (Includes GIS-QA and Auditing GIS Database Systems). Presented at Environmental Problem Solving with GIS National Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 22-24, 1999.
Abstract: In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR); the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA); the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS); the Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation (OPPE); the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER); the Office of Water (OW); the Office of Information Resources Management/Enterprise Information Management Division (OIRM/EIMD); the Environmental Sciences Division of the National Exposure Research Laboratory at Las Vegas; and the Office of Information Resources Management/Enterprise Technology Services Division (OIRM/ETSD).
The EPA GIS Strategic Plan is a product of the EPA GIS Workgroup. It builds upon the plan produced by the GIS Regional Workgroup in April 1993 that was the first attempt to chart a course for the development of the Agency's GIS activities. This new Strategic Plan defines the mission of GIS programs throughout the EPA, and articulates the strategic vision of the EPA GIS Workgroup. It identifies the short and long-term goals, objectives, and activities necessary to accomplish the mission defined by the strategic vision.

PRESENTATION Conceptual Model for Patterns and Processes of Riparian Woodlands for Landscape Indicator Development 09/19/1999
TallentHalsell, N G. Conceptual Model for Patterns and Processes of Riparian Woodlands for Landscape Indicator Development. Presented at International Congress on Ecosystem Health (Managing Ecosystem Health), Sacramento, CA, September 19, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Pattern Correlates of Stream Condition and Implications for Assessing Alternative Future Scenarios for Watershed Management: An Example from the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region 09/17/1999
Jones, K B., A C. Neale, M S. Nash, J D. Wickham, T G. Wade, K. H. Riitters, R. V. O'Neill, AND R. D. van Remortel. Landscape Pattern Correlates of Stream Condition and Implications for Assessing Alternative Future Scenarios for Watershed Management: An Example from the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region. Presented at Landscape Futures Symposium, Armidale, Australia, September 17-25, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION GIS-QA Auditing GIS Database Systems 09/07/1999
Brilis, G M. GIS-QA Auditing GIS Database Systems. Presented at EPA GIS Work Group, Denver, CO, September 7, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Environmental Immunochemistry 08/22/1999
Van Emon, J M. Environmental Immunochemistry. Presented at American Chemical Society Meeting, New Orleans, LA, August 22-26, 1999.
Abstract: Environmental immunochemical methods are responding to the changing needs of regulatory and monitoring programs and are meeting new analytical challenges as they arise. Immunoassays are being developed for screening multiple organophosphorous (OP) pesticides (0,0-diethyl thionates/thionothiolates) in agricultural and home environments. Methods for soil and food analysis are being optimized for nonoccupational exposure studies. An ELISA to detect chlorpyrifos in track-in dirt and house dust is being applied to real-world samples. Samples are sonicated with 5% methanol in a phosphate buffer. A detection level of <10 ng/niL can be achieved. A similar approach was used to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil. Samples were analyzed for PCBs by both GC/ECD and ELISA methods. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 was obtained for 41 soil samples. Chemically modified electrodes are being evaluated for on-line monitoring of PCBs and OPs.

PRESENTATION Multistage Characterization of Riparian Patches in the Arid Southwest 08/19/1999
TallentHalsell, N G., E T. Slonecker, C M. Edmonds, AND T L. Roach. Multistage Characterization of Riparian Patches in the Arid Southwest. Presented at Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, Spokane, WA, August 19, 1999.
Abstract: Some ecologically critical riparian ecosystems in the and Southwest are spatially and temporally discontinuous making their location and/or condition difficult to distinguish when studying the desert landscape. When conditions permit, riparian patches in the desert are distinct because they are more densely vegetated than the surrounding arid uplands. Discrete patches of green found on satellite imagery are often determined to be riparian ecosystems. However the presence or absence of these patches depends on what scale the landscape is being analyzed. Landsat Multispectral Scanner (60 m x 60 m resolution), Landsat Thematic Mapper (30 m x 30 m resolution) and airborne video data were analyzed in conjunction with ground observations to determine classification and characterization accuracy. A number of patch and landscape attributed were also analyzed. Error matrices (riparian patch omission and commission) were prepared which were then compared to ground observations. We concluded that many of the measures were sensitive to sensor resolution such as the number of riparian patches and percentage of water in the landscape decrease as grain size increases and that the decrease in resolution caused by pixel aggregation introduced more error. Such errors may influence the reliability of models of riparian response to hydrological alterations and livestock grazing being developed from such large-scale data.

PRESENTATION Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of Northern and Southern California: Initial Results 08/19/1999
Pedersen, J. A., C. J. Lin, D. Chiang, T G. Wade, AND D T. Heggem. Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of Northern and Southern California: Initial Results. Presented at Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Spokane, WA, August 19, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of the Colorado Plateau, Southern Rockies & Upper Missouri River 08/19/1999
Hermann, K A., A R. Selle, J. M. Vigar, T G. Wade, AND D T. Heggem. Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of the Colorado Plateau, Southern Rockies & Upper Missouri River. Presented at Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Spokane, WA, August 19, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of Oregon 08/19/1999
Augustine, S., Y. Zhong, T G. Wade, D T. Heggem, AND K B. Jones. Indicator Quantification for Landscape-Level Aquatic Ecological Vulnerability Assessment in Selected Areas of Oregon. Presented at Ecological Society of America Annual Conference, Spokane, WA, August 19, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Soil Quality Recovery in Previously Farmed Fields Seeded to Perennial Warm Season Native Grass 08/19/1999
Mehaffey, M H., K. Kindscher, AND V. Smith. Soil Quality Recovery in Previously Farmed Fields Seeded to Perennial Warm Season Native Grass. Presented at Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Spokane, WA, August 19, 1999.
Abstract: A study of twelve Conservation Reserve Program sites in northeastern Kansas was conducted to determine native grass species and selected soil textures influence on soil quality recovery. Plant productivity, plant carbon and nitrogen concentrations, total soil nitrogen and carbon, and soil pH were used to assess recovery. The variables of concern were initial seeding time (1987 to 1990 = older sites and 199 1 to 1 994= younger sites) and soil texture (silt loam vs. silty clay loam). Soil quality changes taking place in the study sites revolved around increases and decreases in the relative biomass of a limited number of species, namely the seeded perennial grasses and annuals already present in the soil seed bank. Biomass increases were greater for shoots than roots resulting in lower root to shoot ratios in older sites. Above ground biomass averaged C:N ratios of I 00 - Soil samples indicated little improvement in carbon, both younger and older sites averaged around 185 g m-'. Soil pH was only slightly lower in the older sites (5.7 vs 5.8). Soil C:N ratio was greater in the older sites, however, the increase was the result of lower total soil nitrogen (10.5 vs. 13.5 g m-' ), rather than an increase in carbon storage. Overall, little soil quality improvements are being generated during the IO year contract period of the Conservation
Reserve Program. If recovery and retention of more soil resources is to be an attainable goal, new implementation and management procedures need to be considered for species composition and soil texture selection criteria.

PRESENTATION Analysis of Landscape and Water Quality in the New York Catskill Delaware Watershed (1973-1998) 08/16/1999
Mehaffey, M H., T G. Wade, M S. Nash, AND C M. Edmonds. Analysis of Landscape and Water Quality in the New York Catskill Delaware Watershed (1973-1998). Presented at International Congress on Ecosystem Health, Sacramento, CA, August 15-20, 1999.
Abstract: The primary goal of this study is to improve risk assessment through the development of methods and tools for characterization of landscape and water resource change. Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and water quality in the Catskill-Delaware basins will improve understanding of environmental risk and help maintain New York City's drinking water supply system. Currently the city is trying to decrease the threat to its quality of water through 'the development and implementation of a long-range watershed protection program. Under the agreement, the State Department of Environmental Conservation issued a permit to acquire land through outright purchase and conservation easement. Landscape indicators believed to impact drinking water quality were calculated for all sub-basins in the Delaware/Catskill watershed using land cover derived from 1989/1991 landsat TM imagery. All available water quality data was collected for streams and reservoirs in the Catskill-Delaware basins from 1986-1994. The main source for chemical and physical water quality parameters was the EPA's storage and retrieval data base (STORET). The New York State Department of Conservation supplied a separate database containing benthic measurements from 1986 to 1997. Correlations were conducted at the scale of the sub-basin between landscape indicators and water quality parameters There were negative correlations between forest and the water quality parameters chloride, pH, silica, and nitrate nitrogen. Urban and crop land use patterns, particularly on steep slopes and within the riparian area, had weak positive correlations with chloride and nitrate nitrogen, while pasture tended to be more strongly related to pH and silica levels. A step-wise regression analysis was conducted on 25 sampling stations for which the proportion of forest, urban, pasture and crops had been calculated 100 and 500 meter upstream of the site. The interactions between landscape indicators were found to be more important in predicting water quality than any single land use type. These results suggest that maintaining the quality of New York Cities' water supply will require the evaluation of multiple landscape indicators in order to target areas in need of protection or restoration.

PRESENTATION Landscape Indicators for Pesticides in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams 08/15/1999
Pitchford, A M. Landscape Indicators for Pesticides in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams. Presented at Managing for Ecosystem Health, Sacramento, CA, August 15, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Regional Vulnerability Assessment: A Conceptual Approach 08/15/1999
Smith, E R. Regional Vulnerability Assessment: A Conceptual Approach. Presented at International Ecosystem Health Congress, Sacramento, CA, August 15-20, 1999.
Abstract: EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompanying socioeconomic growth in a region and which ecosystems are most vulnerable?"' REVA builds on the environmental monitoring base developed by the Environmental and Assessment Program (EMAP), and incorporates the latest developments in remote sensing landscape ecology, multimedia modeling, and ecological risk assessment. REVA also re'.@es on socioeconomic research to develop internally consistent scenarios against which to compare risks from future population growth and concomitant changes in land use and pollutant generation. The research is being conducted in concert with EPA Region 3 as part of the.Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA), This resulting methodology will be a critical aid to state and local governments and regional planning bodies in developing efficient and effective strategies for community-based environmental protection.

PRESENTATION Analysis of Landscape and Water Quality in the New York Catskill-Delaware Watershed 08/15/1999
Mehaffey, M H., T G. Wade, M S. Nash, AND C M. Edmonds. Analysis of Landscape and Water Quality in the New York Catskill-Delaware Watershed. Presented at International Congress on Ecosystem Health, Sacramento, CA, August 15-20, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Ecology Assessment of the Tensas River Basin, Mississippi River Delta Region, and Gulf of Mexico 08/15/1999
Heggem, D T., A C. Neale, C M. Edmonds, L. Bice, AND K B. Jones. Landscape Ecology Assessment of the Tensas River Basin, Mississippi River Delta Region, and Gulf of Mexico. Presented at Managing for Ecosystem Health, Sacramento, CA, August 15-20, 1999.
Abstract: A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection assessment. With these methods, we were able to look at land use practices over thepast twenty years in the Tensas River Basin of Louisiana. A simple land use classificationwas applied to multispectral scanner (MSS) data from 1972 and 199 1. The landscape analysis methods described in this paper will show how to use these methods to assess the impact of human land use practices that are being implemented to improve environmental quality.Landscape assessment methods can be used as a simple,timely,cost effective approach for monitoring, targeting, and modeling ecosystem health in watersheds. Although this study was conducted in the southeast, the methods described in this paper may be applicable to western landscapes.

PRESENTATION Introduction to Attila (Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments): An Arcview Extension 07/25/1999
Ebert, D W., T G. Wade, AND D. Yankee. Introduction to Attila (Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments): An Arcview Extension. Presented at 1999 International Society for Conservation GIS Conference, Idllywild, CA, July 25-26, 1999.
Abstract: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become a powerful tool in the field of landscape ecology. A common application of GIS is the generation of landscape indicators, which are quantitative measurements of the status or potential health of an area (e.g. ecological region, watershed or county). The generation of these indicators can be a complex, lengthy undertaking, requiring substantial GIS expertise. The Landscape Ecology Branch in cooperation with U.S. EPA Region 4 and TVA are developing a user friendly interface to facilitate this process. The Landscape Analysis Tools Extension is an easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape indicators. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape indicators to a wide range of users, regardless of their GIS knowledge level.
Four groups of indicators are included in the extension: landscape characteristics, human stresses, physical characteristics, and riparian characteristics. Each group has a dialog to accept user input on which indicators to calculate and what input data to use. Once indicator values have been created, the extension has three types of output display available. The first displays areas ranked by individual indicator values, the second ranks areas by an index made up of two or more indicators, and the third displays a bar chart of selected areas and indicators.

PRESENTATION Method 8261: Using Surrogates to Measure Matrix Effects and Correct Analytical Results 07/18/1999
Hiatt, M H. Method 8261: Using Surrogates to Measure Matrix Effects and Correct Analytical Results. Presented at Waste Testing and Quality Assurance Conference, Arlington, VA, July 18-22, 1999.
Abstract: Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated.
Application of vacuum distillation: The use of vacuum distillation as a tool to extract analytes from a sample requires a protocol. This protocol describes conditions of its use and an evaluation of results. Two methods of operation have been devised for inclusion in RCRA's methods manual, SW-846. The first method (5032) describes the conditions to extract volatile organic compounds and analyze the extract according to a determination method, such as method 8260. Method 8261 combines methods 5032 with a determination routine that allows for a wider suite of analytes with quality controls consistent with vacuum distillation. Method 8261 combines the vacuum distillation preparation procedure with a determinative procedure. The resulting method provides results that are more advantageous of vacuum distillation technology.

PRESENTATION Evaluation of a Vacuum Distiller for Performing Method 8261 Analyses 07/18/1999
Hiatt, M H. Evaluation of a Vacuum Distiller for Performing Method 8261 Analyses. Presented at Waste Testing and Quality Assurance Conference, Arlington, VA, July 18-22, 1999.
Abstract: Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. Application of vacuum distillation: The use of vacuum distillation as a tool to extract analytes from a sample requires a protocol. This protocol describes conditions of its use and an evaluation of results. Two methods of operation havebeen devised for inclusion in RCRA's methods manual, SW-846. The first method (5032) describes the conditions to extract volatile organic compounds and analyze the extract according to a determination method, such as method 8260. Method 8261 combines methods 5032 with a determination routine that allows for a wider suite of analytes with quality controls consistent with vacuum distillation. Method 8261 combines the vacuum distillation preparation procedure with a determinative procedure. The resulting method provides results that are more advantageous of vacuum distillation technology.

PRESENTATION Mercury Concentrations in Muscle of Gamefish from Lake Mead 07/08/1999
Cizdziel, J V., E M. Heithmar, AND T A. Hinners. Mercury Concentrations in Muscle of Gamefish from Lake Mead. Presented at Las Vegas Water Quality Forum, Las Vegas, NV, July 8, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Habitat Patch Isolation and Occupancy By the Red-Spotted Toad (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Landscape 06/25/1999
Bradford, D F. Habitat Patch Isolation and Occupancy By the Red-Spotted Toad (Bufo Punctatus) in a Naturally Fragmented Landscape. Presented at American Society of Ichthyologists & Herpetologists, Pennslyvania, PA, June 25-30, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Phylogeography of the Widely Distributed, Desert-Adapted Toad (Bufo Punctatus) 06/25/1999
Jaeger, J R., B. R. Riddle, AND D F. Bradford. Phylogeography of the Widely Distributed, Desert-Adapted Toad (Bufo Punctatus). Presented at American Society of Ichthyologist & Herpetologists, Penn State, PA, June 25-30, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants 06/13/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants. Presented at American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 47th Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, June 13-17, 1999.
Abstract: Widely applicable mass calibrants, including perfluorokerosene, are available for gas-phase introduction of analytes ionized by electron impact (EI) prior to analysis using high resolution mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, no all-purpose calibrants are available for recently developed liquid sample introduction techniques that use electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). ESI and APCI generally provide less sensitivity than EI ionization and a portion of the weaker total signal must arise from calibrant ions. Solvent conditions must be found that provide ions from both the calibrant and analytes, or an alternative flow to the ionization region must be provided for the calibrant solution. However, even without mass calibrants, relative abundances of ions, the presence of multiple mass peak profiles from an analyte at a single nominal mass, and exact mass differences between ions are determinable. These data alone were used to establish elemental compositions of several compounds. Seven solutions, each containing a different standard with a concentration of 10 ng/uL in 1:1 methanol: water with 1% acetic acid, were infused at 2 to 8 uL/min into an ESI source without addition of mass calibrants. Infusion was required to provide a lock mass for the lowest mass ion monitored in each Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recoding Data (MPPSIRD) experiment. The elemental compositions of the protonated molecular ion and fragment ions from each standard were determined. This approach could be useful for identifying compounds in chromatographic fractions.

PRESENTATION Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants 06/13/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Determination of Elemental Compositions By High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Without Mass Calibrants. Presented at 47th American Society for Mass Spectrometry Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, June 13-17, 1999.
Abstract: The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) is investigating the possibility that pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are entering rivers and lakes via sewage treatment effluent. A recent review indicated that some of these compounds are present and have been found in rivers. Compounds developed to induce physiological responses in animals could be endocrine disruptors or have other effects on the biota of the receiving waters. Identification of previously undetected compounds is necessary before their aquatic effects can be evaluated. The ESD hopes to identify any such compounds that might be entering Lake Mead (Las Vegas metropolitan area) in treated sewage discharge.

PRESENTATION Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data (Mppsird) and a Profile Generation Model (Pgm): Conceptually Simple and Analytically Powerful 06/12/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data (Mppsird) and a Profile Generation Model (Pgm): Conceptually Simple and Analytically Powerful. Presented at 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Dallas, TX, June 12-17, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources 06/07/1999
Grange, A H. AND G W. Sovocool. A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources. Presented at National Ground Water Association Emerging Issues Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 7-8, 1999.
Abstract: A New High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Technique for Identifying Pharmaceuticals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water Sources
Andrew H. Grange and G. Wayne Sovocool U.S.EPA, ORD, NERL, ESD, ECB, P.O. Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV 891933478

Mass spectra libraries do not encompass all compounds found in water from reservoirs, rivers, or wells. For trace-level compounds in complex sample extracts, low-quality low resolution mass spectra often yield poor library matches, which can lead to erroneous tentative identifications. Mass Peak Profiling from Selected Ion Recording Data (MPPSIRD) and a
Profile Generation Model (PGM) provide unique elemental compositions for ions with masses
up to 600 amu that contain C, H, 0, N, P, or S atoms. This knowledge greatly aids in identifying compounds for which no, or poor, library matches are found and can provide confirmatory evidence for good library matches. The utility of MPPSIRD and the PGM for compound identification will be illustrated for a tentatively identified pharmaceutical that was shown
instead to be a surface wetting agent used in non-ionic detergent formulations and for a series of high molecular weight brominated compounds produced by chlorination of water that contained bromide ion from a well near an animal feed lot.

PRESENTATION Development of Landscape Indicators for Use in Regional Ecological Risk Assessments 05/24/1999
Jones, K B. AND M H. Mehaffey. Development of Landscape Indicators for Use in Regional Ecological Risk Assessments. Presented at 1999 Community Involvement Conference, Kansas City, KS, May 24-28, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Analysis of Landscape Conditions in the Catskill, Delaware, Las Vegas, San Pedro, Tensas Watersheds 05/24/1999
Mehaffey, M H., W G. Kepner, AND D T. Heggem. Analysis of Landscape Conditions in the Catskill, Delaware, Las Vegas, San Pedro, Tensas Watersheds. Presented at 1999 Community Involvement Conference, Kansas City, KS, May 24-28, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Performance Verification of Sediment Sampling Technologies 05/19/1999
Anderson, B., W. Young, S N. Billets, AND B A. Schumacher. Performance Verification of Sediment Sampling Technologies.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Riparian Characterization Using Sub-Pixel Analysis of Landsat Tm Imagery for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment 05/19/1999
Williams, D J., D. A. White, AND A. Englemann. Riparian Characterization Using Sub-Pixel Analysis of Landsat Tm Imagery for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment. Presented at American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing Annual Conference, Portland, OR, May 19, 1999.
Abstract: Landuse/land cover and riparian corridor characterization for 7 major watersheds in western Ohio was accomplished using sub-pixel analysis and traditional classification techniques. Areas representing forest, woodland, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation were delineated using a global positioning system (GPS). Vegetation type and percent dominance was quantified for use in the sub- pixel classification procedure. Two LandsatThematic Mapper (TM) imagery dates, late spring/early summer and midsummer, were used in the classification methodology to determined riparian vegetation composition, abundance, and spatial distribution. Riparian fragmentation indices were derived from the classification products for use in statistical model development in an ecological risk assessment, Landuse/land cover in arm adjacent to the riparian corridors (i.e. upland regions) were determined using a combination of unsupervised classification and spectral indices. Agricultural intensity as defined by NRCS runoff curve numbers, nutrient loads, and annual soil Joss using USLE was determined from the classified images. The ecological risk assessment (ECORISK) model uses the derived riparian patch metrics and agricultural intensity values with ancillary data, such as GIS calculated watershed infrastructure to predict in-stream aquatic biological integrity, The ECORISK model's unique use of sub-pixel analysis with traditional image classification methods is being explored for use in other ecoregions.

PRESENTATION Thermal Infrared Analysis of Circulation Patterns in Lake Superior Using Multi-Temporal Avhrr Data 05/05/1999
Jarnagin, S T. AND W. C. Kerfoot. Thermal Infrared Analysis of Circulation Patterns in Lake Superior Using Multi-Temporal Avhrr Data. Presented at International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, MI, May 5, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Quantitation of Natural and Synthetic Sex Steroids in Surface Waters from Sewage Effluent By Gc-MS 04/25/1999
McDaniel, M R., W C. Brumley, AND T JonesLepp. Quantitation of Natural and Synthetic Sex Steroids in Surface Waters from Sewage Effluent By Gc-MS. Presented at SETAC Conference, Concord, CA, April 25-27, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Science, QA, and the Law: An Update on Case Law 04/16/1999
Brilis, G M. Science, QA, and the Law: An Update on Case Law. Presented at 18th National Conference on Managing Quality systems for Environmental Programs, Cincinnati, OH, April 12-16, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Introduction to the Landscape Analysis Tools Arcview Extension 04/12/1999
Ebert, D W., T G. Wade, J. Harrison, AND D. Yankee. Introduction to the Landscape Analysis Tools Arcview Extension. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium on Western Ecology Systems, San Francisco, CA, April 12-16, 1999.
Abstract: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become a powerful tool in the field of landscape ecology. A common application of GIS is the generation of landscape indicators, which are quantitative measurements of the status or potential health of an area (e.g. watershed or county). The generation of these indicators can be a complex, lengthy undertaking, requiring substantial GIS expertise. The Landscape Ecology Branch in cooperation with U.S. EPA Region 4 and TVA are developing a front end to facilitate this process. The Landscape Analysis Tools Extension is an easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape indicators. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape indicators to a wide range of users, regardless of their GIS knowledge level. Four groups of indicators are included in the extension: landscape characteristics, human stresses, physical characteristics, and riparian characteristics. Each group has a dialog to accept user input on which indicators to calculate and what input data to use. Once indicator values have been created, the extension has three types of output display available. The first displays areas ranked by individual indicator values, the second ranks areas by an index made up of two or more indicators, and the third displays a bar chart of selected areas and indicators.

PRESENTATION Admissibility Considerations of Electronic Records 04/12/1999
Brilis, G M. Admissibility Considerations of Electronic Records. Presented at 18th Annual Conference on Managing Quality Systems for Environmental Programs, Cincinnati, OH, April 12-16, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Anova and Kriging in Detecting Ant Responses to Environmental Stressors 04/12/1999
Nash, M S., G T. Flatman, AND W G. Whitford. Comparison of Anova and Kriging in Detecting Ant Responses to Environmental Stressors. Presented at Southwestern EMAP Symposium, San Francisco, CA, April 12-16, 1999.
Abstract: In an ecosystems, ants effect ecosystem functions such as water infiltration, soil nutrient distribution and composition of the soil seed bank. Ants have also been used as indicators of ecosystems health. In a study, we hypothesized that some ant species would respond to changes in vegetation characteristics by relocating their colonies, or by modifying their foraging behavior. We examined responses of ant species to environmental stressors (shrub removal and short-term intense seasonal grazing by domestic livestock) over four years period by comparing results from Analysis of Variance and kriging. The study site was located on the Jornada Experimental Range, Las Cruces, NM. Eighteen 0.5 ha plots were arranged in two rows of nine plots that were blocked along the long axis. Ants were sampled by pitfall traps arranged in 7 x 7 trap arrays with 9.14 in spacing between traps on each of the 0.5 ha plots. ANOVA results indicated that abundance of ants was significantly different among years as a result of large differences in rainfall and temperature. Three species, Conomyrma spp., Pogonomyrmex spp. and Forelius spp. did not respond significantly to shrub removal, but they responded significantly to grazing shrub removal interactions. The habitat structure changes resulting from shrub removal were hypothesized to have a larger effect on the structure and activity of the ant community than grazing by cattle.
Kriging maps demonstrated that spatial analysis can be used to detect changes on behavior of species that respond to environmental stressors. These patterns m be used in developing indicators of exposure to environmental stress.

PRESENTATION An Overview of EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) Program 04/06/1999
Smith, E R. An Overview of EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (Reva) Program. Presented at Envrionmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium, San Francisco, CA, April 6-8, 1999.
Abstract: Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is a, approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by ORD. The pilot assessment will be done for the Mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for EMAP. ReVA is being developed to identify those ecosystems most vulnerable to being lost in the next 5 to 50 Years and to elucidate which stressors cause the greatest risk to ecosystem goods and services. The goal here, is not exact predictions, but a first-cut early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes We should expect over the next few decades. As such ReVA represents a new risk paradigm for EPA that will require innovative approaches to combine existing knowledge, focus new research, and synthesize rarely types of information into a meaningful assessment designed to inform environmental decision-makers about future environmental risk.
To develop the regional assessment will involve four interacting functions. First, data on stessors and effects from many Sources must be placed into the spatial context and synthesized using the capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Second, a core research component must fill critical gaps in our ability to apply the data at the landscape and regional scale and to understandhow socio-economic drivers affect environmental conditions. Third, an assessment compartment must keep the Project grounded in the real world by actually applying the data and risk assessment techniques to specific regions. Finally, the data and analytical tools must be transferred into the hands of regional managers. This final step is critical to assuring that the results of the research can be applied to continuing regional assessments.

PRESENTATION Mass Selective Analysis of Natural and Pharmaceutically-Derived Estrogens in Surface Waters Receiving Sewage Effluent 04/06/1999
McDaniel, M R., W C. Brumley, AND T JonesLepp. Mass Selective Analysis of Natural and Pharmaceutically-Derived Estrogens in Surface Waters Receiving Sewage Effluent. Presented at Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Symposium, San Francisco, CA, April 6-8, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Imaging Spectroscopy for Determining Rangeland Stressors to Western Watersheds 04/04/1999
Williams, D J. AND W G. Kepner. Imaging Spectroscopy for Determining Rangeland Stressors to Western Watersheds. Presented at EMAP Symposium on Western Ecological Systems, San Francisco, CA, April 4-8, 1999.
Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in eleven western states using advanced remote sensing systems. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspemal) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that makes vegetation and soil discrimination possible. This study will use hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as NASA's Airborne Visible-InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), a system capable of 5 to 20 meter spatial resolution. Airborne and satellite remote sensing will provide vegetation mapping at the species level, soil types and characteristics, and landscape information such as erosional features. Vegetation community structure, spatial distribution, and health can then be determined and combined with climatic data to classify rangeland condition and identify disturbed regions.
Accurate determination of rangeland vegetation and soils is required to establish reliable landscape indicators. An important relationship is the vegetative composition for the extremes of rangeland condition to the function and water quality of the surrounding watershed. Soil attributes such as organic matter content, salinity, moisture, mineralogy, and physical condition influence and are influenced by vegetation cover. The water quality of the watershed is directly impacted by these rangeland variables. Imaging spectroscopy allows for landscape scale assessmentand monitoring of stressors to water resources in the west.

Potential research with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey will correlate remote sensing data with ground measurements. The long-term goal of this work is to develop a methodology using current technologies for use with the forthcoming hyperspectral satellites due in the next 2 to 3 years.

PRESENTATION Dibutlytin Measured in Brain Tissue Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry 03/26/1999
Varner, K E., T L. Jones, AND F. MonnetTschudi. Dibutlytin Measured in Brain Tissue Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry. Presented at ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 26-31, 2000.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Landscape Change of the Las Vegas Valley, 1972 to 1998 02/25/1999
Edmonds, C M., D T. Heggem, AND P Cuartas. Landscape Change of the Las Vegas Valley, 1972 to 1998. Presented at Mojave Desert Science Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, February 25-26, 1999.
Abstract: Las Vegas has become one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The cities population has doubled from 1980 to 1994 and in 1995 Las Vegas has surpassed the one million mark. The population of Las Vegas is currently growing at a rate of 7 percent annually. At this rate, the number of people will double again in ten years. Future growth may be limited by the availability of water. Water allocation and resource management will be a subject of great concern. Water usage and water quality can be linked to the landscape changes which occur in a region. It is possible to measure landscape change over a large area and determine the trends in ecological and hydrological condition. The Landsat imagery shown on this poster reflects the land use change in the Las Vegas Valley between 1972 and 1998.

PRESENTATION Testing the Egg Ratio: Pelagic Vs Sedimentary Records of Secondary Production of Bythotrephes Cederstroemi in An Inland Lake 02/01/1999
Jarnagin, S T., B. K. Swan, AND W. C. Kerfoot. Testing the Egg Ratio: Pelagic Vs Sedimentary Records of Secondary Production of Bythotrephes Cederstroemi in An Inland Lake. Presented at 1999 Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Sante Fe, New Mexico, February 01-05, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Mid-Atlantic Stressor Profile Atlas 12/21/1999
Lunetta, R S., R Araujo, S L. Bird, L A. Burns, O R. Bullock, D. E. Carpenter, R. F. Carsel, K Endres, B H. Hill, K B. Jones, D J. Luecken, AND R G. Zepp. Mid-Atlantic Stressor Profile Atlas. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/C-99/003 (NTIS PB2002-101930), 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Some Practical Aspects of Sample Size and Power Computations for Estimating the Mean of Positively Skewed Distributions in Environmental Applications 12/18/1999
Singh, A. K., A. Singh, AND M. Engelhardt. Some Practical Aspects of Sample Size and Power Computations for Estimating the Mean of Positively Skewed Distributions in Environmental Applications. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-99/006, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report, Environmental Decision Support Software, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Arcview GIS Version 3.1 Using Arcview Spatial Analyst and Arcview 3D Analyst Extensions 12/14/1999
Sullivan, T., A. Q. Armstrong, A. B. Dindal, R. A. Jenkins, AND E N. Koglin. Environmental Technology Verification Report, Environmental Decision Support Software, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Arcview GIS Version 3.1 Using Arcview Spatial Analyst and Arcview 3D Analyst Extensions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/094, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report; Environmental Decision Support Software; Environmental Software Sitepro Version 2.0" 12/12/1999
Sullivan, T., A. Q. Armstrong, A. B. Dindal, R. A. Jenkins, J. Osleeb, AND E N. Koglin. Environmental Technology Verification Report; Environmental Decision Support Software; Environmental Software Sitepro Version 2.0". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/093, 1999.
Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environmental protection by substantially accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies. ETC seeks to achieve this goal by providing high-quality, peer-reviewed data on technology performance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies.
The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Pilot SCMT), one of 12 technology areas under ETV, is administered by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management program, NERL selected a team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform the verification of environmental decision support software. This verification statement provides a summary of the test results of a demonstration of Environmental Software's SitePro environmental decision support software product.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1994 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1994. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/072, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1998 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1998. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/076, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1996 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1996. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/074, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1997 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1997. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/075, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1995 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1995. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/073, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1993 07/22/1999
Pia, S. Results from EPA's Drinking Water Radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies for Calendar Year 1993. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/071, 1999.
Abstract: Notice of termination of EPA's radiochemistry performance evaluation program was announced in the Federal Register on June 12, 1997 (62:113). Therefore, as of March 1999, all technical assistance available from the radiochemistry component at the EPA in Las Vegas, NV, is terminated.
The following report contains in chronological order the results for radiochemistry studies for the period indicated. The results are organized by radiochemistry study title and date and under each title a summary report. The summary report contains the laboratory code for each participant, the triplicate results submitted by each participant, the average of the submitted results, and summary statistics. Introducing each report is a discussion of the statistics and the scoring criterion.

We are providing this report to assist organizations interested in an historical account of radiochemistry Performance Evaluation Studies. Mention of trade names, corporate names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA.

PUBLISHED REPORT Ecological Assessment of the Louisiana Tensas River Basin 06/19/1999
Heggem, D T., A C. Neale, C M. Edmonds, L. Bice, R. VanRemortel, AND K B. Jones. Ecological Assessment of the Louisiana Tensas River Basin. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/016, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Federal Facilities Issue Paper: Field Sampling and Selecting on-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Water 05/24/1999
Crockett, A. B., H. D. Craig, AND T. F. Jenkins. Federal Facilities Issue Paper: Field Sampling and Selecting on-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Water. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/S-99/002 (NTIS PB2001-100480), 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Characterization of Mine Leachates and the Development of a Groundwater Monitoring Strategy for Mine Sites 05/19/1999
Plumb, R. H. Characterization of Mine Leachates and the Development of a Groundwater Monitoring Strategy for Mine Sites. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/007, 1999.
Abstract: The total number of mining sites, both active and inactive, in the United States has been estimated to be as high as 82,000. Approximately 80 percent of the current mining activity in this country is associated with the recovery of gold and copper. The quantity of mine wastes produced in the United States is enormous. When the Resource Conservation, and Recovery Act program was initiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the emphasis was placed on developing approaches to classifying wastes, at that time, seventeen industries including mining were originally exempted from RCRA monitoring requirements because the wastes were generated in large quantity and were considered to have low toxicity. Subsequently, the Agency determined that most mining waste may pose an unacceptable environmental risk if they are not properly managed. This decision raised the issue of how to properly monitor the environmental effects of mine waste disposal: (1) the composition and environmental behavior of mine waste leachates is poorly understood; (2) the problem of how to effectively sample the large areas covered by tailings ponds, that may range in size from hundreds to thousands of acres, has never been addressed, and (3) the parameters that should be monitored in ground water and surface water adjacent to mine waste disposal sites to detect fugitive mine waste leachate have not been selected and evaluated. In order to address these points, a research project was initiated to identify appropriate parameters to reliably monitor mine waste leachates. The approach that was used during this study was to access, compile, and analyze reports and data that have been submitted to state regulatory agencies as part of routine, on-going monitoring programs at mining facilities throughout the southwestern United States. This effort focused on cyanide heap leaching facilities in Nevada and copper mines in Arizona. This effort focused on routine regulatory monitoring data, which was previously used to characterize ground water contamination in the vicinity of waste disposal sites. was selected for several reasons. It is anticipated that these results will provide the improved technical guidance necessary to establish effective monitoring programs at mining sites.

PUBLISHED REPORT Gross Alpha-Beta in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the November 13, 1998 Data 04/19/1999
Pia, S. Gross Alpha-Beta in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the November 13, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/034, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Blind-a Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the October 20, 1998 Data 03/19/1999
Pia, S. Blind-a Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the October 20, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/018, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Blind-B Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the October 20, 1998 Data 03/19/1999
Pia, S. Blind-B Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the October 20, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/019, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Gamma in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the November 6, 1999 Data 03/19/1999
Pia, S. Gamma in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the November 6, 1999 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/020, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Pesticide Exposure and Health Effects in Young Children Part 1: Pesticide Data 03/01/1999
Akland, G G. AND B A. Schumacher. Pesticide Exposure and Health Effects in Young Children Part 1: Pesticide Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/SR-99/008 (NTIS PB99-127912), 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Uranium-Radium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the September 18, 1998 Data 01/19/1999
Pia, S. Uranium-Radium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the September 18, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/180, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Tritium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the August 7, 1998 Data 01/19/1999
Pia, S. Tritium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the August 7, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/177, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Strontium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the July 17, 1998 Data 01/19/1999
Pia, S. Strontium in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the July 17, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/178, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Environmental Technology Verification Report: Immunoassay Kit, Envirologix, Inc., PCB in Soil Tube Assay 01/19/1999
Dindal, A. B., C. K. Bayne, AND R. A. Jenkins. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Immunoassay Kit, Envirologix, Inc., PCB in Soil Tube Assay. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/173 (NTIS PB2001-101553), 1999.
Abstract: In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCB's in soils and solvent extracts. The fundamental objective of this demonstration were(1) to obtain technology performance information using environmental and quality control samples, (2) to determine how comparable the developer field analytical results were with conventional reference laboratory results, and (3) to report on the logistical operation of the technology. The demonstration design was subjected to extensive review and comment by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (ORNL); EPA Regional Offices; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the technology developers.
The demonstration study was conducted at ORNL under two sets of environmental conditions. The reference laboratory method used to evaluate the comparability of data was EPA SW-846 Method 8081. In September 1998, EnvirLogix's PCB in Soil Tube Assay was evaluated. The ETVR presents information regarding the performance of EnviroLogix's PCB in Soil Tube Assay. Separate ETVRs have been published for the other technologies demonstrated. The demonstration found that the PCB in Soil Tube Assay was simple to operate in the field, requiring about an hour for initial setup and preparation for sample analysis. The test kit had no false positive results (i.e., a result in which the technology detects PCBs in the sample above the detection limit when there actually are no PCBs present), and 4% of the soil sample results were false negatives (i.e., the technology indicates that there are no PCBs present in the sample, when there actually are). For extract samples, the test kit had no false positive or false negative results.

PUBLISHED REPORT Gross Alpha-Beta in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the July 24, 1998 Data 01/19/1999
Pia, S. Gross Alpha-Beta in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the July 24, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/179, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT Iodine in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the September 11, 1998 Data 01/19/1999
Pia, S. Iodine in Water Performance Evaluation Study: A Statistical Evaluation of the September 11, 1998 Data. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-98/176, 1999.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PUBLISHED REPORT A Landscape Analysis of New York City's Water Supply (1973-1998) 01/12/1999
Mehaffey, M H., T G. Wade, M S. Nash, AND C M. Edmonds. A Landscape Analysis of New York City's Water Supply (1973-1998). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/102 (NTIS PB2002-101768), 1999.
Abstract: Currently the city of New York is trying to save taxpayers the cost of a billion dollar filtration system by protecting water quality through implementing a long-range watershed protection program. The goals of this study are 1) improvements in environmental risk assessment and 2) target watersheds and sub-watersheds influencing water quality in New York City's water supply system. In this study, land use imagery will be acquired or generated for four dates, ranging from 1973 to 1998. In order to better determine landscape change over a 25 year time span further evaluation of the multi-date and multi-resolution data sets will be conducted using pared Landsat TM and MSS imagery for one of four selected image dates. Physical, chemical and biological water data will be collected from various database sources for the 70's 80's and 90's for streams and reservoirs.
The main sources for the water quality parameters will be the NYCDEP, NYSDEC, USGS and EPA's EMAP and storage and retrieval analyses to examine yearly and seasonal change in water quality and 2) stepwise regression, correlations and cluster analysis to find associations and relationships between land-use with water quality parameters. From these analyses an expanded knowledge of the impacts of landscape proportion on water quality will be gained, and a set of landscape metrics important to surface water quality conditions will be calculated. This study is consistent with the goals and objective of improved understanding of environmental risk, ecosystem research, assessment and restoration, as articulate by the 10 year strategic plan for the landscape science program (LEB Strategic Plan).

 

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