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Ecological Exposure Research Division Publications: 2009

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Ecological Exposure Research Division for the year 2009, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 43 Matching Entries.

See also Ecological Exposure Research Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Linda Ransick - (513) 569-7395 or ransick.linda@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Annelida, Euhirudinea (Leeches) 03/01/2009
Moser, W. E., F. R. Govedich, AND D. KLEMM. Annelida, Euhirudinea (Leeches). Chapter 1, Gene E. Likens (ed.), Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, Uk, 2:116-123, (2009).
Abstract: Worldwide, there are over 600 species of leeches described which occur in freshwater, marine, estuarine, and moist-terrestrial ecosystems. Leeches are included in the Class Clitellata, Subclass Hirudinida, and Superorder Euhirudinea. Seven of the ten families of leeches occur in freshwater environments. Approximately half of the leech species are predaceous on invertebrates and the other half are blood-feeding.

JOURNAL A New Process for Organizing Assessments of Social, Economic and Environmental Outcomes: Case Study of Wildland Fire Management in the U.S.A. 12/03/2009
BRUINS, R. J., W. R. MUNNS, JR., S. J. Biotti, S. Brink, D. Cleland, L. Kapustka, D. Lee, V. Luzadis, L. F. McCarthy, N. Rana, D. B. Rideout, M. Rollins, P. Woodbury, AND M. Zupko. A New Process for Organizing Assessments of Social, Economic and Environmental Outcomes: Case Study of Wildland Fire Management in the U.S.A. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS, 6(3):469-483, (2010).
Abstract: Ecological risk assessments typically are organized using the processes of planning (a discussion among managers, stakeholders and analysis to clarify ecosystem management goals and assessment scope) and problem formulation (evaluation of existing information to generate hypotheses about adverse ecological effects, select assessment endpoints, and develop an analysis plan). These processes require modification to be applicable for integrated assessments that evaluate ecosystem management alternatives in terms of their ecological, economic and social consequences. We present eight questions that define the steps of a new process we term integrated problem formulation (IPF), and we ilustrate the use of IPF through a retrospective case study comparing two recent phases of development of the Fire Program Analysis (FPA) system, a planning and budgeting system for the management of wildland fire throughout publicly-managed lands in the United States.

JOURNAL Genetic Analysis Across Differential Spatial Scales Reveals Multiple Dispersal Mechanisms for the Invasive Hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes 12/01/2009
DARLING, J. AND N. C. Folino-Rorem. Genetic Analysis Across Differential Spatial Scales Reveals Multiple Dispersal Mechanisms for the Invasive Hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 18(23):4827-4840, (2009).
Abstract: Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic patterns associated with the spread of the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora within the North American Great Lakes basin.

JOURNAL Environmental Indicators of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Assemblage Integrity in Urbanizing Watersheds 11/01/2009
WALTERS, DAVID M., A. ROY, AND D. Leigh. Environmental Indicators of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Assemblage Integrity in Urbanizing Watersheds. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 9(6):1222-1233, (2009).
Abstract: Urbanization compromises the biotic integrity and health of streams, and indicators of integrity loss are needed to improve assessment programs and identify mechanisms of urban effects. We investigated linkages between landscapes and assemblages in 31 wadeable Piedmont streams in the Etowah River basin in northern Georgia, USA.

JOURNAL Benthic Diatom Composition in Isolated Forested Wetlands Subject to Drying: Implications for Monitoring and Assessment 11/01/2009
LANE, C. R., K. Reiss, SUSANNA J. DECELLES, AND M. T. Brown. Benthic Diatom Composition in Isolated Forested Wetlands Subject to Drying: Implications for Monitoring and Assessment. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 9(6):1121-1128, (2009).
Abstract: The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological indicator of wetland condition in isolated forested wetlands of Florida, USA, 11 wetlands were sampled twice during a six month period, once when hydrated and once when dry. Dry sites had significantly higher diatom taxa richness at genus and species levels. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and multiple response permutation process analyses resulted in no obvious or significant wet/dry grouping of abuncance data. Five of seven diatom metrics of the Florida Wetland Condition Index (FWCI) for depressional forested wetlands were significantly linearly correlated, while only one of seven metrics (a dissolved-oxygen indicator) had a significantly different mean in paired t-test analyses. The final FWCI was significantly correlated between wet and dry sites, and no difference was found in mean FWCI score between wet and dry sites, and no difference was found in mean FWCI score between wet and dry sites, suggesting that benthic diatoms can be used to monitor and assess wetland condition regardless of season or site hydrologic conditions.

JOURNAL Genetic Analysis Reveals Multiple Cryptic Invasive Species of the Hydrozoan Gene Cordylophora 10/01/2009
Folino-Rorem, N. C., J. DARLING, AND C. D. D'Ausilio. Genetic Analysis Reveals Multiple Cryptic Invasive Species of the Hydrozoan Gene Cordylophora. BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS. Springer Science+Business Media, 11(8):1869-1882, (2009).
Abstract: Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also by uncertainty surrounding the ecology, physiology, and even systematics of the invasive taxa themselves. The invasive, colonial euryhaline hydroid Cordylophora has invaded multiple regions outside of its native Ponto-Caspian range. However, extensive morphological and ecological plasticity has prevented consensus on both species-level classification within the genus and the environmental conditions conducive to establishment.

JOURNAL Satellite Remote Sensing of Isolated Wetlands Using Object-Oriented Classification of Landsat-7 Data 09/01/2009
Frohn, R. C., M. Reif, C. R. LANE, AND B. C. AUTREY. Satellite Remote Sensing of Isolated Wetlands Using Object-Oriented Classification of Landsat-7 Data. WETLANDS. The Society of Wetland Scientists, McLean, VA, 29(3):931-941, (2009).
Abstract: There has been an increasing interest in characterizing and mapping isolated depressional wetlands due to a 2001 U.S. Supreme Court decision that effectively removed their protected status. Our objective was to determine the utility of satellite remote sensing to accurately map isolated wetlands. Image segmentation and object-oriented processing were applied to Landsat-7 imagery from January and October 2000 to successfully map isolated wetlands in the St. Johns River Water Management District of Alachua County, Florida. The January data yielded producer and user accuracies of 88% and 89%, respectively, for isolated wetlands larger than 0.5 acres (0.20 ha). Producer and user accuracies increased to 97% and 95%, respectively, for analyses identifying isolated wetlands larger than 2 acres (0.81 ha). The results are encouraging in light of a recent Federal Geographic Data recommendation that all wetlands 0.5 acres or larger in the lower 48 states should be mapped using 1-meter aerial photography with an accuracy of 98%. That accuracy was nearly achieved in this study using a spatial resoltuion that is 900 times coarser than recommended. Satellite remote sensing can provide an accurate, relatively inexpensive, and timely means for classifying isolated depressional wetlands on a regional or national basis.

JOURNAL Spatial and Temporal Genetic Analyses Reveal High Gene Flow Among European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations Across the Central U.S. Cornbelt 08/01/2009
Kim, K. S., M. J. BAGLEY, B. S. Coates, R. L. Hellmich, AND T. W. Sappington. Spatial and Temporal Genetic Analyses Reveal High Gene Flow Among European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations Across the Central U.S. Cornbelt. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY. Entomological Society of America, Lantham, MD, 38(4):1312-1323, (2009).
Abstract: European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 moths from each sample location and time were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Spatial analyses indicated that there is no spatial genetic structuring between European corn borer populations sampled 720 km apart at the extremes of the transects, and no pattern of genetic isolation by distance at that geographic scale. Although these results suggest high gene flow over the spatial scale tested, it is possible that populations have not had time to diverge since the central Corn Belt was invaded by this insect about 60 years ago. However, temporal analyses of genetic changes in single locations over time suggest that the rate of migration is indeed very high. The results of this study suggest that the geographic dimensions of European corn borer populations are quite large, indicating that monitoring for resistance to transgenic Bt corn at widely separated distances is justified, at least in the central Corn Belt. High gene flow further implies that resistance to Bt corn may be slow to evolve, but once it does develop it may spread geographically with such speed that mitigation strategies will have to be implemented quickly to be effective.

JOURNAL Genetic Structure of the Benthic Amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and Its Relationship to Abundance in Lake Superior 08/01/2009
Pilgrim, E. M., J. V. SCHAROLD, J. DARLING, AND JOHN R. KELLY. Genetic Structure of the Benthic Amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and Its Relationship to Abundance in Lake Superior. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada, 66(8):1318-1327, (2009).
Abstract: The freshwater amphipod Diporeia is a crucial part of the food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but has faced serious declines correlated with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), except in Lake Superior, which has seen an increase in Diporeia abundance. Speculation as to the mechanisms causing this decline has not considered the possibility of evolutionarily distinct lineages of Diporeia within the Lakes. In this study, we use COI DNA sequence data to investigate the evolutionary history of Lake Superior Diporeia relative to the other Great Lakes, and consider potential population structuring within Lake Superior based upon depth or geography. Our analyses reveal that Lake Superior Diporeia represent a distinct lineage that diverged from populations of the other lakes at least several hundred thousand years ago. F-statistics show that two localities within Lake Superior were significantly different from all other locales, but analysis of molecular variance did not find significant structure based on depth or geography. Genetic diversity within Lake Superior was not correlated with depth, although abundance was significantly negatively correlated with increasing depth.

JOURNAL Sampling Effort Needed to Estimate Condition and Species Richness in the Ohio River, USA 07/01/2009
BLOCKSOM, K. A., E. Emery, AND J. Thomas. Sampling Effort Needed to Estimate Condition and Species Richness in the Ohio River, USA. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. Springer, New York, NY, 155(1):157-167, (2009).
Abstract: The level of sampling effort required to characterize fish assemblage condition in a river for the purposes of bioassessment may be estimated via different approaches. However, the goal with any approach is to determine the minimum level of effort necessary to reach some specific level of confidence in the assessment. In the Ohio River, condition is estimated and reported primarily at the level of pools defined by lock and dam structures.

JOURNAL Can Bryophytes Be Used to Characterize Hydrologic Permanence in Forested Headwater Streams? 07/01/2009
FRITZ, K. M., J. M. Glime, J. Hrbljan, AND J. GREENWOOD. Can Bryophytes Be Used to Characterize Hydrologic Permanence in Forested Headwater Streams? ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 9(4):681-692, (2009).
Abstract: Recent court cases have questioned whether all headwater streams, particularly those that are not perennial, fall within the protective boundaries of the Clean Water Act. Rapid field-based indicators of hydrologic permanence are critically needed for jurisdictional determinations. The study objective was to determine whether characteristics of bryophyte assemblages in forested headwater streams can be useful indicators of hydrologic permanence.

JOURNAL Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Fish: Developing Exposure Indicators and Predictive Models of Effects Based on Mechanism of Action 05/05/2009
ANKLEY, G. T., D. C. BENCIC, M. BREEN, T. W. COLLETTE, R. CONOLLY, N. DENSLOW, S. W. EDWARDS, D. R. EKMAN, K. M. JENSEN, J. M. LAZORCHAK, D. MARTINOVIC, D. H. MILLER, E. Perkins, E. F. Orlando, N. Garcia-Reyero, D. L. VILLENEUVE, R. WANG, AND K. Wantanabe. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Fish: Developing Exposure Indicators and Predictive Models of Effects Based on Mechanism of Action. AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 92(3):168-178, (2009).
Abstract: Knowledge of possible toxic mechanisms/modes of action (MOA) of chemicals can provide valuable insights as to appropriate methods for assessing exposure and effects, such as reducing uncertainties related to extrapolation across species, endpoints and chemical structure. However, MOA-based testing seldom has been used for assessing the ecological risk of chemicals. This is in part because past regulatory mandates have focused more on adverse effects of chemicals (reductions in survival, growth or reproduction) than the MOA through which these effects are caused. A recent departure from this involves endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), where there is a need to understand both MOA and adverse outcomes. To achieve this understanding, advances in predictive approaches are required whereby mechanistic changes caused by chemicals at the molecular level can be translated into apical responses meaningful to ecological risk assessment.

JOURNAL Development and Validation of a Daphnia Magna Four-Day Survival and Growth Test Method 05/01/2009
LAZORCHAK, J. M., MARK E. SMITH, AND H. J. HARING. Development and Validation of a Daphnia Magna Four-Day Survival and Growth Test Method. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, 28(5):1028-1034, (2009).
Abstract: Zooplankton are an important part of the aquatic ecology of all lakes and streams. As a result, numerous methods have been developed to assess the quality of waterbodies using various zooplankton species. Included in these is the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Current test methods using D. magna involve acute lethality test methods ranging from 24 to 96 h in duration and chronic test methods with durations of 21 to 28 d. Whereas the current acute and chronic test methods are useful, a need exists for a shorter-duration test method that will provide a chronic or subchronic endpoint with this species.

JOURNAL Human Mediated Transport Determines the Non-Native Distribution of a Dispersal Limited Estuarine Invertebrate 04/07/2009
DARLING, J., A. Kuenzi, AND A. M. Reitzel. Human Mediated Transport Determines the Non-Native Distribution of a Dispersal Limited Estuarine Invertebrate. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES. Inter-Research, Luhe, Germany, 380:137-146, (2009).
Abstract: Sessile invertebrates are common invaders of estuarine ecosystems. To expand their non-native ranges, these invasive taxa must contend with the geographically and ecologically discontinuous nature of estuarine habitats, in many cases without the benefit of highly dispersed larval phases. In addition, their population dynamics may reflect contributions from both sexual and asexual reproduction.

JOURNAL Mapping Isolated Wetlands in a Karst Landscape: GIS and Remote Sensing Methods 04/01/2009
Reif, M., R. C. Frohn, C. R. LANE, AND B. C. AUTREY. Mapping Isolated Wetlands in a Karst Landscape: GIS and Remote Sensing Methods. GISCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. V H Winston & Sons Incorporated, Columbia, MD, 46(2):187-211, (2009).
Abstract: Isolated wetlands occur in many areas of the United States, and although they are relatively common, they are a resource not yet thoroughly understood by the scientific community. Isolated wetlands have received increased attention recently, due to the 2001 Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County vs. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC) Supreme Court ruling, [531 U.S. 159 (2001)], which reduced federal protection of isolated wetlands under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. In the aftermath of this decision, scientists and researchers are attempting to gain a more thorough understanding of these wetland resources, their characteristics and value. Having accurate information on the ex tent of isolated wetlands is a first step toward understanding and characterizing these systems and is an integral part of identifying their function in the landscape.

JOURNAL Development of a Regional Macroinvertebrate Index for Large River Bioassessment 03/01/2009
BLOCKSOM, K. A. AND B. R. JOHNSON. Development of a Regional Macroinvertebrate Index for Large River Bioassessment. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 9(2):313-328, (2009).
Abstract: Large river bioassessment protocols lag far behind those of wadeable streams and often rely on fish assemblages of individual rivers. We developed a regional macroinvertebrate index and assessed relative condition of six large river tributaries to the upper Mississippi and Ohio rivers. In 2004 and 2005, benthic macroinvertebrates, water chemistry and habitat data were collected from randomly selected sites on each of the St. Croix, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Scioto, Wabash and Illinois rivers. We first identified the human disturbance gradient using principal components analysis (PCA) of abiotic data. From the PCA, least disturbed sites showed strong separation from stressed sites along a gradient contrasting high water clarity, canopy cover, habitat scores and plant-based substrates at one end and higher conductivity and nutrient concentrations at the other. Evaluation of 93 benthic metrics identified those with good range, responsiveness and relative scope of impairment, as well as redundancies with other metrics. The final index was composed of Ephemeroptera taxa richness, chironomid taxa richness, % chironomids taxa, Hilsenhoff's Biotic Index (HBI), swimmer taxa richness, predator taxa richness and % scraper taxa. Each of the selected metrics was scored using thresholds based on all sites, and averaging across the seven metric scores, we obtained the Non-wadeable Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Condition Index. (NMACI). The NMACI showed a strong response to disturbance using a validation dataset and was highly correlated with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination axes of benthic taxa. The cumulative distribution function of index scores for each river showed qualitative differences in condition among rivers. NMACI scores were highest for the federally protected St. Croix River and lowest for the Illinois River. Other rivers were intermediate and generally reflected the mixture of landuse types within individual basins. Use of regional reference sites, though setting a high level of expectation, provided a valuable frame of reference for the potential of large river benthic communities that will aid management and restoration efforts.

JOURNAL Larval Salamanders and Channel Geomorphology Are Indicators of Hydrologic Permanence in Forested Headwater Streams 01/01/2009
JOHNSON, B. R., K. M. FRITZ, K. A. BLOCKSOM, AND DAVID M. WALTERS. Larval Salamanders and Channel Geomorphology Are Indicators of Hydrologic Permanence in Forested Headwater Streams. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 9(1):150-159, (2009).
Abstract: Regulatory agencies need rapid indicators of hydrologic permanence for jurisdictional determinations of headwater streams. Our study objective was to assess the utility of larval salamander presence and assemblage structure and habitat variables for determining stream permanence across a large geographic area. We sampled four core forests (61 sites in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio) in spring (April-May) and summer (August-September) over a two-year period. Sites in each forest were selected to cover a gradient of permanence, from perennial to ephemeral. Salamanders were collected by both benthic core sampling and timed visual search on each site visit. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify indicators of seasonal permanence at core sites that were then tested using data collected from six satellite forests (52 sites) located nationwide. Southern two-lined salamanders, Curycea cirrigera, were numerically dominant and were the only sepcies included in CART models. Salamander diversity declined with distance from the Appalachians and strong longitudinal changes in assemblage composition were evident within streams. Abundance of E. cirrigera was positively correlated with watershed area, whereas dusky salamanders, Desmognathus spp., and spring salamanders, Gyrinophilus porphyriticus, comprised a greater proportion of salamander communities at intermittent sites within their range. Spring and summer CART models incorporated E. cirrigera abundance and measures of channel geomorphology to accurately classify approximately 80% of core sites as either ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial. When applied to validation data from national satellite forests, correct classification rates were >85% for intermittent and ephemeral sites, but were only 20% for perennial sites. These findings suggest that larval plethodontid salamanders and habitat variables can be valuable predictors of headwater stream hydroperiod, but indicators are largely limited to the regional scale.

PRESENTATION Historical and Contemporary Demography of United States Populations of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) 12/14/2009
OSWALD, K., U. STOLZ, AND M. BAGLEY. Historical and Contemporary Demography of United States Populations of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera). Presented at Entomology Society of America, Indianapolis, IN, December 13 - 16, 2009.
Abstract: Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) was sampled across much of its U.S. range for population genetic analyses. We assayed sequence variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) locus and allelic variation at eleven microsatellite loci. Variation at the COI locus revealed that WCR has undergone two demographic and spatial population expansions, one within the Southwest followed by another across the Midwest. Additionally, evidence for gene surfing associated with these expansions was found. Estimates of contemporary gene flow based upon variation at microsatellite loci revealed high migration rates among sampling locations, whereas estimates of local effective population sites were low. These data highlight the indirect evolutionary genetic consequences of large scale habitat transformation and have important ramifications for insect resistance management (IRM) programs.

PRESENTATION Effect of Eutrophication on Mercury Accumulation and Distribution in Stream Ecosystems 11/20/2009
Mehling, M., A. Gevertz, C. Hammerschmidt, D. RAIKOW, DAVID M WALTERS, AND J. Oris. Effect of Eutrophication on Mercury Accumulation and Distribution in Stream Ecosystems. Presented at SETAC, New Orleans, LA, November 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation at SETAC, November, 2009.

PRESENTATION Induction of Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Adult Male Fathead Minnows for Select Edcs in 48-Hour Exposures 11/20/2009
REDDY, T. V., M. E. Smith, J. M. LAZORCHAK, D. L. LATTIER, A. D. BIALES, D. C. BENCIC, AND R. W. FLICK. Induction of Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Adult Male Fathead Minnows for Select Edcs in 48-Hour Exposures. Presented at SETAC, New Orleans, LA, November 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been shown to be present in surface waters, sediments and sludge, and are known to induce vitellogenin gene liver transcripts in male fathead minnows. The purpose of our study was to establish the lowest concentrations of estrogenic chemicals necessary to induce vitellogenin gene expression in male fathead minnow liver during 48 hour laboratory continuous addition or daily renewal exposure using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

PRESENTATION Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) Analysis of Pcb126 Induced Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish 11/20/2009
WAITS, E. R. Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) Analysis of Pcb126 Induced Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish. Presented at SETAC, New Orleans, LA, November 19 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: Polychlorinated dioxins and biphenyls are potent developmental toxicants which persist in the environment and pose risk to ecological and human health. Variation in susceptibility to this class of compounds has been demonstrated within and among several piscine, avian and mammalian species. Despite the remarkable evolutionary conservation in developmental toxicity, the exact mechanisms leading to the toxicity are unknown. In the post-genomic era, this natural variation can be leveraged to elucidate the molecular basis of the respective developmental toxicity. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) with divergent genetic backgrounds were screened for susceptibility to developmental toxicity of a prototypical dioxin-like compound, PCB126.

PRESENTATION A Dissection of Biological Pathways Underlying Transcriptional Responses to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Zebrafish 11/19/2009
WANG, R., D. C. BENCIC, D. VILLENEUVE, AND G. T. ANKLEY. A Dissection of Biological Pathways Underlying Transcriptional Responses to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Zebrafish. Presented at SETAC, New Orleans, LA, November 15 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Genome-wide gene expression profiling under a variety of perturbations is a powerful tool to explore the dynamics of fish responses to exposures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Using Agilent zebrafish two-color genome microarryas, we profiled zebrafish responses under 58 treatment conditions comprised of combinations of multiple test concentrations of 10 EDCs with differing mechanisms/modes of action, four tissue types, and three exposure durations, using a total of 290 microarrays.

PRESENTATION Using Riparian Spiders as Sentinels of PCB Export and Risk at Contaminated Sediment Sites 11/19/2009
Walters, D. M., M. MILLS, K. M. FRITZ, AND D. RAIKOW. Using Riparian Spiders as Sentinels of PCB Export and Risk at Contaminated Sediment Sites. Presented at SETAC , New Orleans, LA, November 14 - 23, 2009.
Abstract: We investigated aquatic insect utilization and PCB exposure among riparian spiders at Lake Hartwell, a superfund site near Clemson, SC.

PRESENTATION Hydrolytic Activity and Metabolism of Sediment and Epilithon in Streams Draining Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, U.S.A. 10/22/2009
FRITZ, K. M., B. R. JOHNSON, AND R. Price. Hydrolytic Activity and Metabolism of Sediment and Epilithon in Streams Draining Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, U.S.A. Presented at Southeastern Water Pollution Biologists Association 2009 Annual Meeting, Frankfort, KY, October 20 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Regulations require that potential impacts to stream functions must be considered when determining the compensatory mitigation necessary for replacing aquatic resources unavoidably lost or adversely affected by permitted mining activities. However, assessments of MTR/VF have only included structural measures. We measured sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity seasonally in ten streams. Sediment metabolism and hydrolytic activity were significantly higher in forested streams than in mined streams across all seasons. Epilithic metabolism was significantly higher in forested streams than in mined streams in October, but did not vary in February, April or July. Metabolism and hydrolytic activity were strongly correlated. The percent cover of fine sediments was negatively correlated with epilithic metabolsim and hydrolytic activity, where as the total upstream channel length was positively correlated with sediment metabolism and hydrolytic activity. All measures were negatively related to specific conductance. These results suggest that MTR/VF have negative effects on stream function by truncating stream networks, altering water chemistry, and increasing sedimentation. Combining functional measures with traditionally used structural measures will provide a more complete assessment of ecosystem integrity.

PRESENTATION Introduction to Environmental Benefits and Implications of Nanotechnology 09/17/2009
POYNTON, H. Introduction to Environmental Benefits and Implications of Nanotechnology. Presented at Ohio Valley Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Nanotechnology Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, September 17, 2009.
Abstract: Nanotechnology involves the use of materials and components between 1 - 100 nm in at least one dimension. The small size of nanoparticles and the ability to custom synthesize these particles from the bottom up produces novel chemical entities with unique physical and chemical properties.

PRESENTATION Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Assess Environmental Risk Factors Threatening Rare Redeye Bass (Micropterus Coosae) in the Southeastern United States 08/31/2009
OSWALD, K., J. Quattro, AND M. BAGLEY. Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Assess Environmental Risk Factors Threatening Rare Redeye Bass (Micropterus Coosae) in the Southeastern United States. Presented at American Fisheries Society, Nashville, TN, August 30 - September 03, 2009.
Abstract: Habitat destruction, pollution, species introductions, and drainage alterations are frequently cited as the principal anthropogenic stressors responsible for wide-scale imperilment of the freshwater ichthyofauna of the southeastern United States. Quantification and assessment of the relative contribution and influence of each is vital information for conservation and management plans whose goals include species recovery and long-term persistence. Redeye bass (Micropterus coosae), a rare southeastern U.S. endemic, is restricted to only six drainages within the region, and one Atlantic Slope population has been recently designated as imperiled. Further, population genetic studies have identified multiple Evolutionarily Significant and Management Units distributed within and among these drainages. We have used geographic information system (GIS) data and analyses to preliminarily assess the individual and cumulative risks from exposures to various anthropogenic environmental stressors upon these genetically unique populations. We present initial results from our analyses and evaluate the future utility of this combined conservation genetic and GIS-based approach to aid in efforts to conserve redeye bass.

PRESENTATION Ecological Consequences of Elevated Total Dissolved Solids Associated With Fossil Fuel Extraction in the United States 08/12/2009
FRITZ, K. M., B. R. JOHNSON, M. PASSMORE, AND G. POND. Ecological Consequences of Elevated Total Dissolved Solids Associated With Fossil Fuel Extraction in the United States. Presented at Thomas More College Ohio River Field Station Summer Seminar Series, California, KY, August 12, 2009.
Abstract: Fossil fuel burning is considered a major contributor to global climate change. The outlook for production and consumption of fossil fuels int he US indicates continued growth to support growing energy demands. For example, coal-generated electricity is projected ot increase from 49% in 2006 to 55% in 2030 and fossil fuels are expected to generate 70% of the US electricity (down only 1% from 2006). Technology and policy addressing global climate change emphasize reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, these avenues do not substantially reduce dependence upon fossil fuels and therefore do not address water quality degradation directly associated with fossil fuel extraction. Water extracted to recover onshore gas and oil (produced water) or that leaches through mine spoil often contains high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS or specific conductance). Where such water flows into natural waterbodies there is a potential for degraded water quality. A recent method of coal mining, mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) has dramatically increased in the Central appalachians. MTR/VF begins with blastng and excavating vegetation, soil and layers of sedimentary rock (i.e., overburden) to recover the underlying coal. The overburden is deposited into adjacent valleys, creating valley fills. At least 1200 stream kilometers have been permanently buried under approximately 6700 valley fills.

PRESENTATION Creating a User Friendly GIS Tool to Define Functional Process Zones 07/15/2009
D'Amico, E., B. S. Williams, J. H. Thorpe, AND J. E. FLOTEMERSCH. Creating a User Friendly GIS Tool to Define Functional Process Zones. Presented at ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 13 - 17, 2009.
Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop methods and indicators that are useful for evaluating the condition of aquatic communities, for assessing the restoration of aquatic communities in response to mitigation and best management practices, and for determining the exposure of aquatic communities to different classes of stressors (i.e., pesticides, sedimentation, habitat alteration).

PRESENTATION Identification, Characterization and Functional Assessments of Isolated Wetlands of the Former Soviet Union 07/14/2009
LANE, C. R., B. C. AUTREY, AND E. Gordov. Identification, Characterization and Functional Assessments of Isolated Wetlands of the Former Soviet Union. Presented at NEEPSI Annual Conference, Krasnoyarsk, RUSSIA, July 13 - 17, 2009.
Abstract: Poster presentation at NEEPSI annual conference, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, July 13-17, 2009.

PRESENTATION Using a Novel Flood Prediction Model and GIS Automation to Measure the Valley and Channel Morphology of Large River Networks 07/14/2009
Williams, B. S., J. H. Kastens, J. H. Thorp, E. D'Amico, AND J. E. FLOTEMERSCH. Using a Novel Flood Prediction Model and GIS Automation to Measure the Valley and Channel Morphology of Large River Networks. Presented at ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 13 - 17, 2009.
Abstract: Traditional methods for measuring river valley and channel morphology require intensive ground-based surveys which are often expensive, time consuming, and logistically difficult to implement. The number of surveys required to assess the hydrogeomorphic structure of large river networks makes robust sampling both cost- and manpower-prohibitive. We developed a series of accurate, low-cost geographic information systems-based alternatives that enable a single technician to assess the valley and channel characteristics of vast river networks using free, readily available data sources. A combination of GIS automation and novel modeling approaches enabled the rapid assessment of valley morphology and channel morphology for on-going hydrogeomorphic assessments of the Kansas, Kanawaha and Delaware River catchments.

PRESENTATION Variance in Water Chemistry Parameters in Isolated Wetlands of Florida, USA, and Relationships With Macroinvertebrate and Diatom Community Structure 06/23/2009
LANE, C. R. Variance in Water Chemistry Parameters in Isolated Wetlands of Florida, USA, and Relationships With Macroinvertebrate and Diatom Community Structure. Presented at Society of Wetland Scientists Annual Meeting, Madison, WI, June 22 - 26, 2009.
Abstract: Eighty small isolated wetlands throughout Florida were sampled in 2005 to explore within-site variability of water chemistry parameters and relate water chemistry to macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure. Three samples or measures of water were collected within each site, separated by at least 10m. Marsh sites were located in either agricultural or reference settings and forested sites were located in either agricultural, urban, or reference settings. Analyses of physical parameters demonstrated high within-site variability, with average coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 2% to 48%. Nutrient parameter CVs were 14% for nitrate-nitrite - N, 19% for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 25% for total phosphorus and 27% for ammonia. Tests of median values for each wetland type and landscape setting revealed significant differences for most parameters, although specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were not significantly different between forested wetland classes, and nitrate-nitrite - N was not significant for between-landscape settings for either marshes or forested systems. Ordination of the data demonstrated that despite the variability of the datasets, site water chemistry separated into mostly discrete classes. Analyses into relationships between water chemistry data and macroinvertebrate and diatom data will help to elucidate the importance of particular variables to community structure and allow macroinvertebate and diatom indices of biological integrity to be tested.

PRESENTATION Legacy Contamination of Streams: Forgotten but Not Gone 06/22/2009
RAIKOW, D., DAVID M. WALTERS, K. M. FRITZ, AND M. MILLS. Legacy Contamination of Streams: Forgotten but Not Gone. Presented at Powdermill Nature Reserve, Rector, PA, June 22, 2009.
Abstract: Oral presentation at the Powdermill Nature Reserve, Rector, PA, June 22, 2009

PRESENTATION A Proposal: Incorporating Odonates Into Stream Bioassessments Using Dna Barcodes 06/20/2009
PILGRIM, E. A Proposal: Incorporating Odonates Into Stream Bioassessments Using Dna Barcodes. Presented at Dragonfly Society of the Americas Annual Meeting, Sullivan, MO, June 19 - 21, 2009.
Abstract: Bioassessment/biomonitoring uses the species found in an ecosystem as a way to measure the health of that ecosystem. Current methods rely mainly on mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies as indicators for streams and rivers. Odonate larvae are also collected during sampling for bioassessment but are not part of any bioassessment metric, possibly due to the difficulty of identifying larvae to species. Recent advances using DNA barcoding for identifying odonate larvae to species could be utilized to incororate odonate species into biomonitoring programs.

PRESENTATION Estimating Ecosystem Service Changes as a Precursor to Modeling 05/31/2009
BRUINS, R. J., W. E. FOSTER, P. B. WOODBURY, F. B. DANIEL, AND S. E. FRANSON. Estimating Ecosystem Service Changes as a Precursor to Modeling. Presented at U.S. Society for Ecological Economics, Washington, DC, May 31 - June 04, 2009.
Abstract: EPA's Future Midwestern Landscapes Study will project changes in ecosystem services (ES) for alternative future policy scenarios in the Midwestern U.S. Doing so for detailed landscapes over large spatial scales will require serial application of economic and ecological models. We will first estimate agricultural (land use and land management) and energy-system (biofuel production and use) responses to policies, followed by modeling of ecological impacts via changes in air, water and habitat quality or quantity. These modeled impacts must then be used to construct ecological production functions or (in most cases) simple indices of human welfare change. To inform these planned computational procedures, we first estimate all expected ES changes. We use concept mapping to first describe and document the elements and linkages in the Midwest ecosystem, from global drivers and national policies to ecosystem services. For status quo ("Biofuel Targets") and conservation-focused ("Multiple Services") policies, we then construct integrated conceptual models of ecological-economic networks of influence, and we use information from the literature or best professional judgment to estimate direction and magnitude of ES changes. We then use these general conceptual models to derive a set of scenario-specific comparative models and then, from those comparisons, develop a set of testable hypotheses to inform the modeling portion of the study.

PRESENTATION A Sediment Toxicity Evaluation of the Upper Mississippi River System 05/19/2009
BLOCKSOM, K. A., J. M. LAZORCHAK, H. Haring, M. E. Smith, M. Wratschko, B. Armstrong, T. R. ANGRADI, AND D. W. BOLGRIEN. A Sediment Toxicity Evaluation of the Upper Mississippi River System. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Grand Rapids, MI, May 18 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation at the 57th Annual North American Benthological Society Meeting, Grand Rapids, MI, May 21, 2009.

PRESENTATION Sediment and Epilithon Metabolism and Hydrolytic Activity in Streams Affected By Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, U.S.A. 05/18/2009
FRITZ, K. M., B. R. JOHNSON, AND R. Price. Sediment and Epilithon Metabolism and Hydrolytic Activity in Streams Affected By Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, U.S.A. Presented at North American Benthological Society, 57 Annual Meeting, Grand Rapids, MI, May 17 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, assessments of MTR/VF have only included structural measures. We measured sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity (fluorescein diacetate) seasonally in ten streams to determine the feasibility of these functional measurements. Sediment metabolism and hydrolytic activity were significantly higher in forested streams than in mined streams across all seasons. Epilithic metabolism was significantly higher in forested streams than in mined streams in October, but did not vary in February, April or July. Metabolism and hydrolytic activity were strongly correlated. The percent cover of fine sediments was negatively correlated with epilithic metabolism and hydrolytic activity, whereas the total upstream channel length was positively correlated with sediment metabolism and hydrolytic activity. All measures were negatively related to specific conductance. These results suggest that MTR/VF have negative effects on stream function by truncating stream networks, altering water chemistry, and increasing sedimentation. Combining functional measures with traditionally used structural measures will provide a more complete assessment of ecosystem integrity.

PRESENTATION Estimating Benthic Secondary Production from Aquatic Insect Emergence in Streams Affected By Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, USA 05/18/2009
JOHNSON, B. R., K. M. FRITZ, AND R. Price. Estimating Benthic Secondary Production from Aquatic Insect Emergence in Streams Affected By Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, West Virginia, USA. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Grand Rapids, MI, May 17 - 22, 2009.
Abstract: Mountaintop removal and valley filling is a coal mining method that results in burial of headwater streams. As a result of recent litigation, rapid methods for measuring ecosystem functions are needced for more appropriate permittingand mitigation stra tegies.

PRESENTATION Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Exposure, Effects and Risks to Humans and Ecosystems: What We Think We Know 05/15/2009
LAZORCHAK, J. M., M. KOSTICH, A. BATT, E. L. QUINLAN, D. C. BENCIC, AND S. GLASSMEYER. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Exposure, Effects and Risks to Humans and Ecosystems: What We Think We Know. Presented at Indiana Environmental Health Summit, Indianapolis, IN, May 15, 2009.
Abstract: Presentation at the Indiana Environmental Health Summit, May 15, 2009

PRESENTATION Assessment of Exposure of Fish to Emerging Contaminants in the Eagle Creek Watershed 02/11/2009
BENCIC, D. C., A. ALWAN, J. DORKIN, A. D. BIALES, R. W. FLICK, A. BATT, L. Tedesco, AND J. M. LAZORCHAK. Assessment of Exposure of Fish to Emerging Contaminants in the Eagle Creek Watershed. Presented at SWIMS Conference, Chicago, IL, February 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: The Eagle Creek Watershed (ECW) encompasses 162 square miles in central Indiana upstream of the Eagle Creek Reservoir, a public drinking water source for the city of Indianapolis. The dominant land-cover is agriculture, although some portions are undergoing urbanization, with three majro wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and numerous chemical plants and animal feedlot operations in the watershed. Water quality monitoring data collected over the last 20 years indicate that both the reservoir and much of the watershed have not met their designated use criteria. Local organizations such as the Eagle Creek Watershed Alliance have made significant advances in identifying and implementing solutions to problems within the watershed. However, despite the extensivechemical sam;ling, the problems that have been identified to date do not fully explain the fair to poor fish and benthic community assessments. Therefore, it was hypothesized that previously undetected/undetermined emerging contaminants frompoint and/or nonpoint sources may be significant contributors to the poor water quality and reduced fish and benthic community assessments of the watershed.

PRESENTATION Ord Research and Results Using Biological End Points to Detect Exposures to Contaminants of Emerging Concern 02/11/2009
LAZORCHAK, J. M., D. C. BENCIC, A. D. BIALES, M. KOSTICH, A. BATT, E. L. QUINLAN, H. Poynton, MARK E. SMITH, H. J. HARING, K. Hammer, AND B. Armstrong. Ord Research and Results Using Biological End Points to Detect Exposures to Contaminants of Emerging Concern. Presented at SWIMS Conference, Chicago, IL, February 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: For the past nine years the Ecological Exposure Research Division (EERD) has been developing methods for the assessment of EDCs and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). These methods include genomic techniques for detecting the presence and potential exposure to human pharmaceutical estrogenic compounds such as ethynyl estradiol and veterinary pharmaceutical androgenic compounds used in beef feedlots such as trenbolone, bacterial and algal endpoints to detect antibiotics such as tetracycline and antimicrobial personal care products such as triclosan. In addition, EERD is also working on methods for assessing the detection and exposure of invertebrates to nanomaterials such as Nano Ag and ZnO using Daphnia magna and Hyalella azteca microarrays.

PRESENTATION National Rivers and Streams Assessment: Fish Tissue Contaminants 02/10/2009
BLOCKSOM, K. A., A. BATT, J. M. LAZORCHAK, L. I. OSEMWENGIE, A. DELINSKY, A. B. LINDSTROM, M. STRYNAR, M. MILLS, S. Nakayama, T. M. JICHA, M. Vazquez, AND D. W. BOLGRIEN. National Rivers and Streams Assessment: Fish Tissue Contaminants. Presented at SWIMS Conference, Chicago, IL, February 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: Overview of the National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), a statistical survey of flowing waters in the U.S. Survey is designed to: assess the condition of the nation's rivers and streams; help build state and tribal capacity for monitoring and assessment; promote collaboration across jurisdictional boundaries; establish a baseline to evaluate progress; and evaluate changes in condition since the 2004 Wadeable Streams Assessment.

PRESENTATION Fish Tissue Contamination in the Mid-Continental Great Rivers of the United States 02/10/2009
BLOCKSOM, K. A., J. M. LAZORCHAK, DAVID M. WALTERS, T. M. JICHA, T. R. ANGRADI, AND D. W. BOLGRIEN. Fish Tissue Contamination in the Mid-Continental Great Rivers of the United States. Presented at SWIMS Conference, Chicago, IL, February 09 - 11, 2009.
Abstract: The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) was designed to provide a broad-scale assessment of each river. Fish tissue contamination was measured to estimate human and wildlife exposure risks to persistent organic pollutants through fish consumption. The emerging contaminants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured as a baseline for future studies. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PBDEs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were detectedin most fish tissue samples. Dieldrin and PCBs at tissue concentrations above human screening values (SVs) for cancer risk occurred 27-54% and 16-98%, respectively, of the great rivers (by length). Chlordane exceeded wildlife risk values for kingfishers in 11-96% of river km, to the greatest extent in the Ohio River. PBDE concentrations were highest in large fish in the Missouri and Ohio rivers. The extent of these persistent compounds in the three great rivers indicates widespread contaminationn of fish with exposure risk implications for humans and wildlife in the central United States.

PRESENTATION Monitoring Dredging Effectiveness Using Biological and Chemical Markers of Exposure in Brown Bullheads and Benthic Macroinvertebrates 02/03/2009
MEIER, J. R., P. Baumann, J. M. LAZORCHAK, P. A. WERNSING, AND M. MILLS. Monitoring Dredging Effectiveness Using Biological and Chemical Markers of Exposure in Brown Bullheads and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Presented at 5th International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, Jacksonville, FL, February 02 - 05, 2009.
Abstract: Sediments in portions of the Ashtabula River in Northeastern, Ohio are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the river has been designated by the International Joint Commission as a Great Lakes Area of Concern (www.epa.gov/glnpo/aoc). Approximately 550,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediments were removed through remedial dredging. The primary objective for this field investigation was to evaluate surrogate and biological indicators in the biota and ecosystem in order to characterize contaminant exposure before, during, and following dredging. This was done by measuring PCB and PAH accumulation in whole fish tissue (brown bullheads) and in benthic macroinvertebrates, assessing changes in DNA damage in liver and blood, and scoring external and histopathological lesions (including tumors) in the fish. Biomarker levels in indigenous fish were compared to those collected at a reference site, Conneaut Creek. Like the Ashtabula, the Conneaut receives both agricultural runoff and pollutants from ship traffic, but does not receive contaminants from industrial sources. DNA damage was measured using the Comet assay in brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected by electrofishing. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates by deployment at three locations in the dredge area as well as at an upstream reference site. The dredging activities have been completed and the post-dredging characterization is currently underway. Results thus far show higher levels of DNA damage in both blood and liver of brown bullheads collected from the Ashtabula R. compared to Conneaut Cr.. An increase in DNA damage was seen in fish collected during dredging compared to pre-dredging suggesting an increase in exposure to contaminants during the dredging operations. Post-dredging samples have been collected and are being evaluated. When completed, the indicators used in this study can be used by regulatory agencies, remedial project managers, and dredging practitioners to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of environmentally-prudent remediation techniques for contaminated sediment sites around the country.

 

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