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Ecological Exposure Research Division Publications: 2002

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Ecological Exposure Research Division for the year 2002, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 44 Matching Entries.

See also Ecological Exposure Research Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Linda Ransick - (513) 569-7395 or ransick.linda@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
BOOK CHAPTER Response Patterns of Great River Fish Assemblage Metrics to Outfall Effects from Point Source Discharges 10/01/2002
Emery, E. B., F H. McCormick, AND T. P. Simon. Response Patterns of Great River Fish Assemblage Metrics to Outfall Effects from Point Source Discharges. Chapter 23, Biological Response Signatures: Indicator Patterns Using Aquatic Communities. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 481-493, (2002).
Abstract: Human disturbance alters key attributes of aquatic ecosystems such as water quality, habitat structure, hydrological regime, energy flow, and biological interactions. In great rivers, this is particularly evident because they are disproportionately degraded by habitat alteration and industrial and municipal discharges. Water quality degradation as a result of point and nonpoint source pollution further impacts the ecological integrity of large rivers such as the Ohio River. By examining patterns in the responses of fish assemblages to potential stressors associated with point source discharges, it may be possible to assess the extent to which pollution alters water quality and affects biotic integrity.
The index of biotic integrity (IBI) assesses the conditions of water bodies by direct evaluation of biological attributes. It integrates structural, ecological, trophic, and reproductive attributes of fish assemblages at multiple levels of organization. The IBI was originally developed for assessment of Midwestern warmwater streams and was modified for use in other regions and waters.

Emery and Thomas found that point source effects on biological communities of the Ohio River are limited to the immediate influence of the outfall. Typically, studies of the impacts of point source discharges to aquatic ecosystems have been limited to comparisons of the impacted area to an upstream, unimpaired reference condition. They described an approach of incrementally sampling outfalls that was intended to detect gradients of fish assemblage responses to effluents. This traveling zone (T-zone) approach was based on the computation of an IBI based on fish assemblage metrics from ten continuous 100-m segments. Data can be aggregated and metrics calculated to show incremental changes in response to the effects from point source discharges. These metrics can be evaluated individually or combined to form a multimetric index of biological integrity for the Ohio River. The purpose of this paper is to compare the responses of select metrics to three types of industrial and municipal wastewater discharges using data collected by the T-zone approach.

JOURNAL 17a-Ethynylestradiol-Induced Vitellogenin Gene Transcription Quantified in Livers of Adult Males, Larvae, and Gills of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) 10/15/2002
Lattier, D L., T V. Reddy, D A. Gordon, J M. Lazorchak, M E. Smith, D. E. Williams, B E. Wiechman, R Flick, A L. Miracle, AND G P. Toth. 17a-Ethynylestradiol-Induced Vitellogenin Gene Transcription Quantified in Livers of Adult Males, Larvae, and Gills of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas). ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 21(11):2385-2393, (2002).
Abstract: We have applied a method for quantifying relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription to assess chemically-induced gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Synthetic oligonucleotides designed for the fathead minnow vitellogenin gene transcription (Vg) product, were used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. This sensitive and rapid strategy detected vitellogenin gene transcription in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to 2 ng/L concentrations of the endocrine disrupting compound, 17a-ethynylestradiol, for 24 h. Vitellogenin transcription products were also, surprisingly, detected in gill tissue and in 48 h old post-hatch fathead minnow embryo larvae. Relative levels of vitellogenin gene induction among individuals were quantified in a single-step reaction (PCR multiplex) using 18S rRNA universal primers and Competimers concurrently with fathead minnow vitellogenin oligonucleotides. This quantitative approach will markedly enhance detection of the first cellular event of estrogenic exposure to aquatic ecosystems in both field and laboratory systems. Use of the model provides sensitivity of detection at a concentration below those which cause mortality or visible signs of stress in fish or other aquatic organisms. The model may also provide an in vivo screening method for estrogenlike endocrine- disrupting compounds.

JOURNAL Methods Development and Use of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Ecological Conditions for Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region 09/01/2002
Klemm, D J., K A. Blocksom, W T. Thoeny, F A. Fulk, A. T. Herlihy, P R. Kaufmann, AND S M. Cormier. Methods Development and Use of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Ecological Conditions for Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 78(2):169-212, (2002).
Abstract: The Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assessment (MAHA) included the sampling of macroinvertebrates from 424 wadeable stream sites to determine status and trends, biological conditions, and water quality in first through third order streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands Region (MAHR) of the United States in 1993-1995. We identified reference and impaired sites using water chemistry and habitat criteria and evaluated a set of candidate macroinvertebrate metrics using a stepwise process. This process examined several metric characteristics, including ability of metrics to discriminate reference and impaired sites, relative scope of impairment, correlations with chemical and habitat indicators of stream disturbance, redundancy with other metrics, and within-year variability. Metrics that performed well were compared with metrics currently being used by three states in the region: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Some of the metrics used by these states did not perform well when evaluated using regional data, while other metrics used by all three states in some form, specifically number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, performed well overall. Reasons for discrepancies between state and regional evaluations of metrics were explored. We also provide a set of metrics that, when used in combination, may provide a useful assessment of stream conditions in the MAHR.

JOURNAL Development and Evaluation of the Lake Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index (Lmii) for New Jersey Lakes and Reservoirs 08/01/2002
Blocksom, K A., J. P. Kurtenbach, D J. Klemm, F A. Fulk, AND S M. Cormier. Development and Evaluation of the Lake Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index (Lmii) for New Jersey Lakes and Reservoirs. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 77(3):311-333, (2002).
Abstract: In response to the recent focus by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on bioassessment of lakes, a multimetric index was developed for New Jersey lakes and reservoirs using benthic macroinvertebrates. Benthic samples were collected from reference and impaired lakes with muck and intermediate sediments in central and northern New Jersey during summer 1997. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metics and selected five for the Lake Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index (LMII): Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), percent chironomid individuals, percent collector-gatherer taxa, percent oligochaetes/leeches, and number of Diptera taxa. We scored metrics as the fraction of the best expected value (based on all sites) achieved at a site and summed them into the LMII.
Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired lakes and was strongly related to several potential stressors. Chemical and physical gradients distinguished between reference and impaired lakes, and the LMII summarized these gradients well. The LMII corresponded strongly with land use, but some lakes with more urban land use still achieved high scores. Based on a power analysis, the ability of the LMII to detect differences in condition was sensitive to the number of samples from each lake.

JOURNAL Determining the Causes of Impairments in the Little Scioto River, Ohio, USA: Part II. Characterization of Causes 06/01/2002
Cormier, S M., S B. Norton, G W. Suter, D. Altfater, AND B. Counts. Determining the Causes of Impairments in the Little Scioto River, Ohio, USA: Part II. Characterization of Causes. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 21(6):1125-1137, (2002).
Abstract: Two stream reaches in the Little Scioto River, Ohio were characterized for the causes of impairments measured at two locations. By inductive inference, six candidate causes were winnowed down to three and five candidate causes for each of the two stream reaches. Using a formal strength of evidence process, a single cause was determined. At the most upstream location, habitat alterations including fine textured substrates and low dissolved oxygen, were characterized as the probable causes for an increased percentage of anomalies of fish, decreased percentage of mayflies, and an increased percentage of tolerant macroinvertebrates. An increase in the relative weight of fish was attributed to an artificially narrow, deepened channel. Approximately two kilometers downsteam, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated sediments were identified as the cause for both fish and macroinvertebrate impairments. Causal characterization using first elimination and then a strength of evidence approach narrowed and defined the causes of ecological impairment even in this situation where there were many complex and interacting candidate causes. Applying a formal method highlighted types of data and associations that can stengthen and present a more convincing determination of the causes of impairment.

JOURNAL Predicting Levels of Stress from Biological Assessment Data: Empirical Models from the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Ohio, USA 06/01/2002
Norton, S B., S M. Cormier, M. Smith, R. C. Jones, AND M SchubauerBerigan. Predicting Levels of Stress from Biological Assessment Data: Empirical Models from the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Ohio, USA. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 21(6):1168-1175, (2002).
Abstract: Interest is increasing in using biological community data to provide information on the specific types of anthropogenic influences impacting streams. We built empirical models that predict the level of six different types of stress with fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data as explanatory variables. Significant models were found for six stressor factors: stream corridor structure; siltration; total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and iron (Fe); chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD; zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb); nitrate and nitrite (NOx) and phosphorus (P). Model R2 values were lowest for the siltation factor and highest for TSS, BOD, and Fe. Model R2 values increased when spatial relationships were incorporated into the model. The models generally performed well when applied to a random subset of the data. Performance was more mixed when models were applied to data collected from a previous time period, perhaps because of a change in the spatial structure of these systems. These models may provide a useful indication of the levels of different stresses impacting stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion of Ohio, USA. More generally, the models provide additional evidence that biological communities can serve as useful indicators of the types of anthropogenic stress impacting aquatic systems.

JOURNAL Determining Probable Causes of Ecological Impairment in the Little Scioto River, Ohio, USA: Part 1. Listing Candidate Causes and Analyzing Evidence 06/01/2002
Norton, S B., G W. Suter, S M. Cormier, B Subramanian, E.L C. Lin, D. Altfater, AND B. Counts. Determining Probable Causes of Ecological Impairment in the Little Scioto River, Ohio, USA: Part 1. Listing Candidate Causes and Analyzing Evidence. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 21(6):1112-1124, (2002).
Abstract: The Little Scioto River in north-central Ohio, USA, is considered to be biologically impaired based on the results of fish and invertebrate surveys. The causes for these impairments were evaluated by means of a formal method. Two of the impairments identified on the stream reach were characterized in detail to support the causal assessment. A list of six candidate causes was developed that included habitat alteration, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination, metals contamination, low dissolved oxygen, ammonia toxicity, and nutrient enrichment. Evidence for the causal evaluation was developed with data from the site that associated each candidate cause with the biological responses. Evidence was also developed that drew on data from other locations and laboratory studies, including comparisons of site exposures with screening values and criteria. The formal method increased the transparency of the assessment; candidate causes were clearly listed and the pathways by which they may have produced effects were shown. Analysis of the evidence maximized the utility of available data, which were collected as part of monitoring and research programs rather than to specifically support a causal assessment. This case study illustrates how the stressor identification method can be used to draw conclusions from available data about the most likely causes of impairment and to show what additional studies would be useful.

JOURNAL A Methodology for Inferring the Causes of Observed Impairments in Aquatic Ecosystems 06/01/2002
Suter, G, S B. Norton, AND S M. Cormier. A Methodology for Inferring the Causes of Observed Impairments in Aquatic Ecosystems. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 21(6):1101-1111, (2002).
Abstract: Biological surveys have become a common technique for determining whether aquatic communities have been injured. However, their results are not useful for identifying management options until the causes of apparent injuries have been identified. Techniques for determining causation have been largely informal and ad hoc. This paper presents a logical system for causal inference. It begins by analyzing the available information to generate causal evidence; available information may include spatial or temporal associations of potential cause and effect, field or laboratory experimental results, and diagnostic evidence from the affected organisms. It then uses a series of three alternative methods to infer the cause: elimination of causes, diagnostic protocols, and analysis of the strength of evidence. If the cause cannot be identified with sufficient confidence, the reality of the effects is examined, and if the effects are determined to be real, more information is obtained to reiterate the process.

JOURNAL Factors Affecting Motility Characteristics and Fertilizing Ability of Sea Lamprey Spermatozoa 01/01/2002
CIERESZKO, A., K. DABROWSKI, G. P. TOTH, S. A. CHRIST, AND J. GLOGOWSKI. Factors Affecting Motility Characteristics and Fertilizing Ability of Sea Lamprey Spermatozoa. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, 131:193-202, (2002).
Abstract: Study conducted to determine the basic motility characteristics of the spermatozoa of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus using computer-assisted motility analysis.

PRESENTATION Differential Display of Trenbolone and Dehp Induced Gene Transcript Patterns in Fathead Minnow Liver 11/18/2002
Reddy, T V., A L. Miracle, R Flick, J M. Lazorchak, D L. Lattier, G P. Toth, AND M E. Smith. Differential Display of Trenbolone and Dehp Induced Gene Transcript Patterns in Fathead Minnow Liver. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: The endocrine disruptor risk assessment process is being delayed without more robust data on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals found in the environment such as trenbolone and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Trenbolone is an androgenic compound known to reduce vitellogenin (Vtg) blood protein levels in female fathead minnows. Our preliminary results showed that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced vitellogenin gene transcription in the livers of adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales Promelas). In this study, we used fluoro differential display to investigate the global gene expression pattern in the liver of male and female fathead minnows exposed to trenbolone or DEHP. Adult (8-10 months old) male and female fathead minnows were continuously exposed to moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW) as control, and MHRW with 50 ppt trenbolone or 10 ppb of DEHP, for one week. Total liver RNA was isolated, and reverse transcribed using an anchored oligo-dT primer. The cDNAs were subsequently amplified in a PCR reaction using fluorescent TMR-labeled anchored oligo-dT primers, in conjunction with four separate arbitrary decamers. The PCR products were separated on a 5.6% polyacrylamide gel, and visualized with a fluorescent scanner. Several bands were identified that exhibited differential expression among fathead minnows exposed to trenbolone , DEHP and controls. These bands were excised from the gel, and the cDNAs were eluted into buffer, re-amplified, and sequenced using an MJ Research BaseStation sequencer. Acquired nucleotide sequences were compared to sequences in GenBank using Blastn and Blastx programs to identify fathead minnow gene homologs.

PRESENTATION A Pilot Study Comparing Two Benthic Macroinvertebrate Collection Methods for Bioassessment of Wadeable Streams 11/18/2002
Klemm, D J., P. A. Lewis, W T. Thoeny, AND F A. Fulk. A Pilot Study Comparing Two Benthic Macroinvertebrate Collection Methods for Bioassessment of Wadeable Streams. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: This study compared the results of collecting and analyzing macroinvertebrate data using a composite versus a three single sample method. It was conducted as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Indicator Development Project of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data were collected from four sites on Mill Creek, which flows through the industrial heart of Cincinnati, Ohio, and one reference site on nearby Tanners Creek in southeastern Indiana. Samples were collected from nine transects and composited. Riffle/Run and Pool/Glide samples were composited separately and processed using U.S. EPA's EMAP macroinvertebrate sampling and laboratory protocols. A single sample was collected at three randomly selected transects of the nine, but the three samples were processed in the laboratory as separate samples (not composited). Macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed using the Stream Benthos Integrity Index (SBII), consisting of 10 metrics. The data indicated that similar results were obtained using either sampling method. The SBII scores for the sites were ranked in the same order using either method, and these rankings were according to expectations based on chemical and physical conditions. It was concluded from the data that collecting and processing three random single samples from each stream reach gave similar SBII scores as the composite samples. The three single sample method also allows a measure of repeatability which gave more confidence in the results of the sampling data. The collection effort was 1/3 that required for the composite method and in this study the sorting and identification effort was also considerably reduced. It is recommended that additional studies be conducted on other gradient streams in other ecoregions to determine if the three sample method might reduce effort and expense in bioassessment studies elsewhere.

PRESENTATION Landscape Influences on in-Stream Biotic Integrity: Use of Macroinvertebrate Metrics to Identify Landscape Stressors in Headwater Catchments 11/18/2002
Daniel, F B., M. B. Griffith, J M. Lazorchak, AND M E. Troyer. Landscape Influences on in-Stream Biotic Integrity: Use of Macroinvertebrate Metrics to Identify Landscape Stressors in Headwater Catchments. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: The biotic integrity of streams is profoundly influenced by quantitative and qualitative features in the landscape of the surrounding catchment. In this study, aquatic macroinvertebrate metrics (e.g., relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and/or Plecoptera taxa, or the relative abundance of non-insects, oligochaetes, tolerant, intolerant, or facultative taxa, and Hilsenhoff's Biotic Index, etc.) were measured over three successive seasons (1999-2001) in 35 headwater streams (sub-watersheds) located in the Little Miami River (Ohio) watershed. These sub-watersheds are spread across three Omernik Level IV ecoregions (Darby Plains, Loamy, High Lime Till Plains and Pre-Wisconsin Drift Plains) and they exhibit variations in the landscape features of their catchments including land cover (e.g., 23-91% row crop agriculture), geophysical (e.g., drainage density 1.1-3.6 km-1), and soil types (e.g., 27-36% soil clay content). Using stepwise multi-regression, relationships between measures of in-stream measures (as dependent variables) and various classes of landscape features (as independent variables), were examined at three spatial scales: the sample reach, the riparian corridor, and the entire catchment. The goal of this effort was to generate models for various in-stream stressor gradients (e.g., substrate embeddedness, canopy cover, and nutrient loads), based on landscape measures. In turn, these stressors influence in-stream water quality and biotic integrity. Accordingly, in these sub-watersheds, several of the macroinvertebrate metrics exhibited significant correlations with the stressor, substrate embeddedness (percent fines and sand). In addition, the landscape features measured at the catchment scale were more significantly correlated to embeddedness than the anaolgous features measured at the riparian corridor scale.

PRESENTATION Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to Di(2-Ethylhexyl)PHTHALATE 11/18/2002
Reddy, T V., J M. Lazorchak, D L. Lattier, G P. Toth, AND M E. Smith. Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to Di(2-Ethylhexyl)PHTHALATE. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used extensively in the plastics industry. DEHP has been shown to be ubiquitous in the environment and has been detected in ground and surface waters, sediment sludge and at several Superfund sites. Previous studies using rats suggested that dietary administration of DEHP resulted in adverse testicular effects in male rats. These effects were observed to be reversible after DEHP withdrawal. DEHP administration has also been shown to reduce serum testosterone levels in rats and mice, suggesting that DEHP may be a potential endocrine disruptor. The potential of DEHP to act as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor has not been characterized. Therefore, we investigated the estrogenic potential of DEHP by measuring liver vitellogenin gene expression in adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (8-10 months old) following exposure to DEHP in the laboratory at environmentally relevant levels (10 ppb) for 4 or 7 days. Liver RNA was isolated and vitellogenin gene mRNA transcripts were measured using a quantitative "real time" reverse transcription / polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) approach. Our results show a time dependent increase of vitellogenin gene expression following DEHP exposure.

PRESENTATION Stable Genetic Structure of Central Stoneroller Populations in a Polluted Urban Stream 11/18/2002
Waits, E R., M J. Bagley, J M. Lazorchak, AND F H. McCormick. Stable Genetic Structure of Central Stoneroller Populations in a Polluted Urban Stream. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: Mill Creek, which runs through Cincinnati, Ohio, is one of the most severely polluted urban streams in the United States. The creek is threatened by streamside landfills and toxic waste sites along the streams banks (including five designated superfund sites), industrial and residential sewage entering the waterway from 164 combined sewer overflows, and contaminated sediments originating from industrial discharge. We hypothesized that fish populations that are severely impacted by highly disturbed systems such as Mill Creek should demonstrate large shifts in allele frequencies (high genetic drift) due to small, unstable population sizes. Ten highly variable microsatellite loci were examined in temporally and geographically separated central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum) populations residing in contaminated (lower watershed) and relatively uncontaminated (upper watershed) sections of Mill Creek, as well as in an unimpacted stream in a nearby watershed. In contrast to expectations, no significant fluctuations in allele frequencies were encountered between samples collected in 1994/95 and 2001, approximately two generations apart (temporal analysis of molecular variance, p>0.08). Although allele frequencies within sites did not vary with time, allele frequencies did vary significantly between sites. A spatial analysis of molecular variance indicated that 1.4% of allele frequency variance was due to differences among sites (P<0.0001), while just 0.9% was due to differences among sites within Mill Creek (p=0.024). Allele frequency differentiation within Mill Creek appeared related to geographic distance between sites. The implications of these findings for assessment of the condition of fish populations residing in contaminated habitats and for designing effective genetic monitoring programs will be discussed.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Genetic Damage Indicators in Fish in Laboratory, Mesocosm and Watershed Studies 11/18/2002
Meier, J R., L W. Chang, S E. Franson, F B. Daniel, G P. Toth, J M. Lazorchak, AND P A. Wernsing. Assessment of Genetic Damage Indicators in Fish in Laboratory, Mesocosm and Watershed Studies. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 18-22, 2002.
Abstract: The micronucleus (MN) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) ("Comet") techniques for measuring DNA damage are being evaluated for their potential use as indicators of exposure of fish populations. Laboratory studies employed acute exposures of bluegill sunfish to five model genotoxic agents. Field mesocosm studies used caged common carp exposed to alachlor, atrazine, or benzo(a)pyrene for durations up to 60 days. The same genetic damage indicators were included in an integrated evaluation of biological, chemical, and physical stream parameters in two midwestern watersheds, one predominantly agricultural and the other urban dominated. For the watershed assessments, the target fish species selected were sunfish sp., white suckers, central stonerollers, and creek chubs. The tail length, tail moment and % tail DNA parameters were included in the SCG analysis; the percentage polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and the frequency of MN were used in the MN analysis. The laboratory studies indicated an optimal sampling time of 6-8 days for MN and 1 day for SCG. The mesocosm exposures to pesticides indicated significant SCG responses by day 1 and peak responses by day 4. The watershed studies showed significant variation among sites for both the comet and % PCE parameters. Multivariate statistical analyses are aimed at relating these parameters to the range of conditions (water chemistry, land cover, biotic assemblages, pesticide concentrations) observed in these streams. MN frequencies were extremely low in all species of the stream-collected fish, suggesting this may not be a sufficiently sensitive indicator for field assessments. These results demonstrate the utility of conducting studies at different scales to help in the development and interpretation of genetic damage indicators for assessing ecological exposure.

PRESENTATION P513 a Rapid Approach for Diagnosing Ceriodaphnia Dubia Reproductive Failure 11/17/2002
Lazorchak, J M., M E. Smith, M Bennett, H Haring, M. W. Tucker, P. L. Andrews, AND H. J. Allen. P513 a Rapid Approach for Diagnosing Ceriodaphnia Dubia Reproductive Failure. Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT, November 17-21, 2002.
Abstract: Sources of failure in C. dubia culture and testing can be difficult to determine without outside assistance. Investigation of these failures can be time consuming. In the current study, USEPA Region 7 laboratory suffered a drop in reproduction in the C. dubia cultures, with weekly averages less than the required 15 young/female minimum. Repeated attempts to restart the cultures with animals from an outside source failed. USEPA, NERL, Cincinnati, OH agreed to participate in an inter-lab study to determine the cause of the culture failure. Preliminary analysis of the culture failure pointed to a problem related to the food or water being used by Region 7. Specifically, the cereal leaves Region 7 used to prepare Yeast/Cereal Leaves/Trout Chow (YCT) were outdated. Region 7 supplied NERL with culture water, YCT and algae. NERL supplied Region 7 with culture water, YCT and algae, along with animals from a successful culture. Eight experimental combinations of food and water were developed, such that the performance of each individual component could be determined. After a 7-day culture period, it was determined that the culture failure in Region 7 was due to the YCT. C. dubia reproduction in the eight cultures (four in each laboratory) that used Region 7 HCT ranged from 4.2 young/female to 17.8 young/female. Reproduction in the eight cultures that used NERL YCT ranged from17.4 young/female to 30.9 young/female. Region 7 replaced cereal leaves with fresh alfalfa and digested trout chow with digested flake food in the preparation of YCT. Subsequent success of the Region 7 cultures (weekly averages in excess of 20 young/female) confirmed that the problem was resolved. Systematic round-robin testing is an effective tool that can rapidly diagnose and resolve problems related to C. dubia culturing.

PRESENTATION Determining the Causes of Biological Impairment 11/06/2002
Cormier, S M. Determining the Causes of Biological Impairment. Presented at Northwest Biological Assessment Workgroup 13th Annual Meeting, Long Beach, WA, November 6, 2002.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Riverine Assessment Using Macroinvertebrates: All Methods Are Not Created Equal 10/07/2002
Blocksom, K A. AND J E. Flotemersch. Riverine Assessment Using Macroinvertebrates: All Methods Are Not Created Equal. Presented at Biological Advisory Committee Meeting, Washington, DC, October 7-10, 2002.
Abstract: In 1999, we compared six benthic macroinvertebrate field sampling methods for nonwadeable streams based on those developed for three major programs (EMAP-SW, NAWQA, and Ohio EPA), at each of sixty sites across four tributaries to the Ohio River. Water chemistry samples and physical habitat measurements were also collected at each site to assess relationships with macroinvertebrate metrics. Sites were divided into two groups: those heavily influenced by navigational lock and dam structures built to support commercial traffic or for creation of reservoirs (restricted flow, or RF) and those free-flowing or having lowhead dams that store rather than regulate waters (run-of-the-river, or ROR). The ROR and RF sites differed markedly in thalweg depth and substrate composition, as well as macroinvertebrate composition. Regardless of the type of site, drift nets performed poorly and often could not be deployed due to inadequate flow. Metrics based on the passive Hester-Dendy artificial substrate samplers differed greatly from the active sampling methods (i.e., D-frame and kick net sampling) for ROR sites. However, metric values differed little among active sampling methods at these sites. At RF sites, there was little variation in metric values among methods. Despite similarities in metric values, the metrics having significant correlations with abiotic variables varied among methods and between ROR and RF sites. These results emphasize that methods are not interchangeable, and the ability to detect certain stressors depends on the method of sampling.

PRESENTATION Standardized Assessment Method (Sam) for Riverine Macroinvertebrates 10/07/2002
Flotemersch, J E., K A. Blocksom, J J. Hutchens, B C. Autrey, AND D J. Klemm. Standardized Assessment Method (Sam) for Riverine Macroinvertebrates. Presented at Biological Advisory Committee Meeting, Washington, DC, October 7-10, 2002.
Abstract: During the summer of 2001, twelve sites were sampled for macroinvertebrates, six each on the Great Miami and Kentucky Rivers. Sites were chosen in each river from those sampled in the 1999 methods comparison study to reflect a disturbance gradient. At each site, a total distance equal to 40 times the mean wetted width was sampled at specific intervals. Timed kick net and dip/pick samples were combined into a single sample for each transect and bank. All samples were sorted up to a maximum of 2000 organisms. Using Monte Carlo simulation, samples from successively longer distances across both banks were combined, and 100-, 200-, and 300-organism sub-samples were randomly selected. This process was repeated 100 times per sub-sample size, and the mean metric value for each site was plotted against distance sampled. Total taxa richness and Ephemeroptera richness increased and separation of sites improved with increasing sub-sample size. Percent Ephemeroptera curves were unaffected by sub-sample size. Metric values usually reached an asymptote within a distance of 500 m. Future testing of this method over a 500-m reach in other rivers and evaluating relationships with habitat and chemistry is planned.

PRESENTATION Geographic and Environmental Correlates or Regional Population Genetic Structure in the Central Stoneroller (Campostoma Anomalum) 07/03/2002
Bagley, M J., S A. Christ, S E. Franson, A. C. Leonard, AND G P. Toth. Geographic and Environmental Correlates or Regional Population Genetic Structure in the Central Stoneroller (Campostoma Anomalum). Presented at American Society of Icthyologists and Herpetologists, Kansas City, MO, July 3-8, 2002.
Abstract: Environmental factors that impact population sizes, migration rates, mutation rates or selective forces can leave lasting genetic imprints on patterns of intraspecific genetic variation. This suggests that measures of genetic diversity may be useful indicators of the condition of natural ecosystems. We examined the distribution of RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) fragments in Campostoma anomalum (central stoneroller) populations in relation to several measures of environmental condition to test this hypothesis. Genetic differentiation among 58 stoneroller populations in streams from the Eastern Cornbelt Plains Ecoregion (Midwestern USA) was very high. Genetic distances were strongly correlated with the straight-line distance between sites, suggesting conformity with an isolation-by-distance model. Average genetic similarity within populations (S{-w}) differed greatly among all populations and was strongly associated with individual watersheds. This suggested a strong historical component to differences in genetic diversity within populations. Neither a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) nor the qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI) was significantly correlated with S{-w}. However, S{-w} was significantly correlated with both total species richness (r=-0.37) and sensitive species richness (r=-0.35), even when the data was corrected for spatial autocorrelation.

PRESENTATION Genetic Structure of Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) Populations in Coal Mining-Impacted Areas of the Eastern United States, as Determined By Mtdna Sequencing and Aflp Analysis 07/03/2002
Christ, S A., M J. Bagley, E R. Waits, AND G P. Toth. Genetic Structure of Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) Populations in Coal Mining-Impacted Areas of the Eastern United States, as Determined By Mtdna Sequencing and Aflp Analysis. Presented at American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Kansas City, MO, July 3-8, 2002.
Abstract: Analysis of intraspecific patterns in genetic diversity of stream fishes provides a potentially powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA patterns (109 amplified fragment length polymorphisms; AFLP) of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) populations from ten sites located in coal mining regions of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The ten sites differed dramatically in measured conductivity (range: 153-3590 uS), but less so in pH (range: 6.61-8.31), total dissolved aluminum (range: 5-184 ug/L), and in a measure of invertebrate diversity (Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, range: 3.9-5.7). Sequence analysis of 164 individuals revealed 27 Cytochrome B haplotypes, that were highly structured by geographic locale. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 61% of haplotypic variation could be attributed to differences in DNA sequence among sites. Similar analysis of AFLP polymorphisms among 174 individuals indicated that 11% of nuclear DNA variation was due to differences among sites. Despite large genetic differences among populations, overall genetic diversity within populations did not differ significantly. Thus, no evidence was found for a strong link between genetic diversity within populations and several measures of environmental quality.

PRESENTATION Use of Macroinvertebrate Metrics to Differentiate Between the Effects of Decreased Canopy and Increased Embeddedness in Streams in Draining Agricultural Catchments 05/28/2002
Griffith, M. B., F B. Daniel, AND J M. Lazorchak. Use of Macroinvertebrate Metrics to Differentiate Between the Effects of Decreased Canopy and Increased Embeddedness in Streams in Draining Agricultural Catchments. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: Reduced canopy as a result of lost riparian vegetation and increased substrate embeddedness as a result of greater inputs of the fine sediments are two environmental stressor gradients that often covary in streams draining agricultural catchments. An understanding of relationships between these stressors and different macroinvertebrate metrics is needed to select metrics used to diagnose the relative importance of these stressors affecting stream biotic integrity. We used multiple regression to assess relationships between canopy cover, embeddedness, and macroinvertebrate metrics at 35 sites on tributaries of the Little Miami River. The small catchments in this basin are characterized by variable land cover by row crop agriculture (23-91%), and the basin includes two Level IV ecoregions (Loamy, High Lime Till Plains and Pre-Wisconsinan Drift Plains) that vary in land slope and soil characteristics. We identified macroinvertebrate metrics that specifically varied in relation to embeddedness: number of relative abundance of EPT taxa, of Ephemeroptera taxa or of Trichoptera taxa, relative abundance of noninsects, of oligochaetes and leeches, of tolerant or facultative taxa, and Hilsenhoff's Biotic Index. The relationship for some metrics varied with ecoregion. No tested metrics correlated well with canopy cover. In this region, substrate embeddedness appears more important in affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages.

PRESENTATION Assessing the Impact of Environmental Stressors on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Ohio 05/28/2002
Majumder, S., F A. Fulk, AND S M. Cormier. Assessing the Impact of Environmental Stressors on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Ohio. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: Macroinvertebrate indicators are used as assessment endpoints for surface water quality monitoring in Ohio. The purpose of this study is to explain and predict the impact of environmental stressors on macroinvertebrate communities as measured by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency's Invertebrate Community Index (ICI). First, the impact of each stressor on macroinvertebrate communities was identified. Among water chemistry variables, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus and pH were found to have the greatest impact. Physical conditions that had the greatest impact were riffles, pools and the degree of channelization. Second, statistical models were developed to predict the probability of criterion attainment for the ICI and its metrics as a function of the environmental stressors and the interaction between them. The statistical modeling was done using a variant of the logistic regression procedure. The results indicate that by using data for the entire state, scores for the ICI and its metrics can be predicted correctly at 60-65% of the sites. These results can potentially be used for identification of sites with high risks of macroinvertebrate community degradation, and for "threshold" development of stressors. The statistical models are currently being cross-validated for further use and detailed focus on smaller areas.

PRESENTATION The Influence of Physical Factors on Comparative Performance of Sampling Methods in Large Rivers 05/28/2002
Blocksom, K A. AND J E. Flotemersch. The Influence of Physical Factors on Comparative Performance of Sampling Methods in Large Rivers. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: In 1999, we compared five existing benthic macroinvertebrate sampling methods used in boatable rivers. Each sampling protocol was performed at each of 60 sites distributed among four rivers in the Ohio River drainage basin. Initial comparison of methods using key macroinvertebrate metrics suggested that certain methods provided similar results and were more likely to capture a larger proportion of the taxa at a site than other methods. However, several macroinvertebrate metrics (e.g., number of taxa, percent chironomids) showed relationships with physical characteristics of sites, and these trends sometimes varied among sampling methods. To control for the influence of depth and other physical characteristics before we compared sampling methods, we ran Principal Components Analysis on physical characteristics of sites. Results indicated that the first principal component, accounting for 43% of variation, was strongly related to reach depth. When sites were classified into two groups based on this depth-related principal component, there were obvious differences in some metric distributions (e.g., number of Diptera taxa). However, general patterns of differences among methods were not strongly affected by depth. Thus, this analysis demonstrated that depth did not affect the initial comparison of methods, despite its interaction with certain metrics.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages from Intermittent and Perennial Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region 05/28/2002
Klemm, D J., K A. Blocksom, J J. Hutchens, F A. Fulk, W T. Thoeny, AND E S. Grimmett. Comparison of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages from Intermittent and Perennial Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected using a kick net from 21 intermittent and 245 perennial sites in first-order streams to evaluate the relationship between assemblage structure and hydrologic permanence. Samples were divided into riffle and pool habitats, as well as spring high flow (1993-1995) and summer low flow (1996-1998) sampling periods. Metrics were used to compare different stream habitats and different sampling periods of intermittent and perennial streams. The Total Number of Taxa was lower in intermittent streams mainly duirng spring sampling, but EPT Taxa Richness was lower in intermittent streams only in pools during spring. Intermittent sites had fewer Collector-Filterer Taxa than perennial sites for pools during summer sampling and for riffles during spring sampling. Percent Dominant 5 Taxa for intermittent sites was lower than for perennial sites in all habitats during summer, but higher in riffles during spring. The modified HBI was lower in intermittent sites in riffles, regardless of sampling period. Percent Chironomid Individuals metric was lower in intermittent sites during both spring and summer, but only in pools. Results show that hydrologic permanence affects the macroinvertebrate assemblage, but that these effects vary by season and stream habitat.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Laboratory Subsampling Methods of Benthic Samples from Boatable Rivers Using Actual and Simulated Count Data 05/28/2002
Flotemersch, J E. AND K A. Blocksom. Comparison of Laboratory Subsampling Methods of Benthic Samples from Boatable Rivers Using Actual and Simulated Count Data. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: We examined the effects of using a fixed-count subsample of 300 organisms on metric values using macroinvertebrate samples collected with 3 field sampling methods at 12 boatable river sites. For each sample, we used metrics to compare an initial fixed-count subsample of approximately 300 organisms and a "full" count of up to 2000 organisms. Metrics based on proportions were very similar between the initial 300 count and the "full' count, but taxa richness differed between the two counts. The proportion of "full" count taxa represented in the initial 300 count (68% on average) was significantly positively correlated (r-0.965, p<0.001) with the proprotion of total individuals sorted. Computer simulations of subsampling using the "full" count data indicated that at fixed counts of 100, 200, 300 and 500 organisms, an average of 49, 57, 64, and 69% of taxa in the "full" count, respectively, were represented. The proportion of taxa represented was negatively correlated with the number of taxa and the percent individuals in the dominant taxon in the "full" count, regardless of fixed-count size. Finally, although taxa richness metric values were shifted from one subsample size to another, the separation of impaired and relatively unimpaired sites was usually unaffected.

PRESENTATION Assessing the Hydrogeologic Classification System in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Streams Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates 05/28/2002
Hutchens, J J., K A. Blocksom, D J. Klemm, S. W. Ator, J. M. Denver, A M. Pitchford, AND M H. Mehaffey. Assessing the Hydrogeologic Classification System in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Streams Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Presented at North American Benthological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, May 28-June 1, 2002.
Abstract: Assessing classification systems that describe natural variation across regions is an important first step for developing indicators. We evaluated a hydrogeologic framework for first order streams in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain as part of the LIPS-MACS (Landscape Indicators for Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams) project being conducted jointly by USEPA and USGS. A network of 174 sites was chosen across seven hydrogeologic regions usng a stratified random sampling approach with unequal selection probabilities so that sites corresponded to a developed (i.e., agriculture and urban) land use gradient within each region. We examined whether macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in 33 reference streams corresponded to variation described by the regions. Assemblage structure did not match well with the hydrogeologic system based on ordination using non-metric multidimensional scaling. Furthermore, assemblage structure did not significantly differ (p=0.513) among regions using a multi-response permutation procedure, although two regions were excluded due to low sample size. Instead, ordination and cluster analysis revealed three groupings that appeared to be tied to physical habitat and chemical buffering capacity. Although more reference sites in some regions would increase our confidence, these results suggest that macroinvertebrate indicators can be developed for first order Coastal Plain streams without stratification by hydrogeologic region.

PRESENTATION Relationships Between Exceedences of Metals Criteria and Community Metrics in Mining Impacted Streams 05/07/2002
Lazorchak, J M., M. B. Griffith, AND A. T. Herlihy. Relationships Between Exceedences of Metals Criteria and Community Metrics in Mining Impacted Streams. Presented at Hardrock Mining Conference, Westminster, CO, May 7-9, 2002.
Abstract: To use bioassessments to diagnose specific environmental stressor gradients in streams, a better understanding is needed of the relationships between community metrics and ambient criteria. However, this relationship is not necessarily simple, because metrics generally assess measurement endpoints at the community level of biological organization, while ambient criteria are based on measurement endpoints at the individual level. For metals, the relationship is further complicated, because their bioavailability and toxicity are related to other chemical variables. Currently, freshwater water quality criteria for many metals are related to hardness. In 1993 and 1994, USEPA conducted a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) survey of 105 second to fourth order streams in the Southern Rockies Ecoregion of Colorado. This ecoregion contains about 95% of the mineralized portion of the Rocky Mountains, and mine of metals over the past centruy has resulted in stream contamination from both active and inactive mining sites. The surveys collected fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages, physical habitat, and sediment and water chemistry and toxicity. We characterized streams as metals-contaminated based on exceedence of hardness-corrected metals criteria for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc and on water column toxicity tests (48-hour Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia survival). Then, macroinvertebrate and fish metrics were compared among contaminated and uncontaminated sites to determine those metrics most sensitive to metal contamination. These survey data provide a framework for assessing diagnostic community metrics for specific environmental stressors.

PRESENTATION Toxicity Approaches to Assessing Mining Impacts and Mine Waste Treatment Effectiveness 05/07/2002
Lazorchak, J M., M E. Smith, E R. Bates, AND R C. Wilmoth. Toxicity Approaches to Assessing Mining Impacts and Mine Waste Treatment Effectiveness. Presented at Hardrock Mining Conference, Westminster, CO, May 7-9, 2002.
Abstract: The USEPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory and National Risk Management Research Laboratory have been evaluating the impact of mining sites on receiving streams and the effectiveness of waste treatment technologies in removing toxicity for the past six years. The effectiveness of site assessments and minewaste treatment technologies in reducing toxicity was assessed using toxicity tests on the Summitville mine site, Clear Creek and North Fork of Clear Creek, Burleigh Tunnel and Big Five Tunnel in Colorado and Calliope Mine, Crystal Mine, Lily Orphan Boy Mine, Peerless Mine and Sure Thing Mine in Montana. Water samples were collected from the stream sites or mining sites and shipped to the USEPA Aquatic Research Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. A series of acute aquatic toxicity tests with Pimephales promelas, the fathead minnow, and Ceriodaphnia dubia, a freshwater invertebrate, were conducted on these samples. In addition to these tests, a 7-day growth test using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was conducted on Summittville minewaste samples. The purpose of these tests was to establish the level of toxicity for the discharge from the different mine sites and to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment processes used at these sites. The results from the tests on the effluents from treatment technologies used at the Sure Thing and Lily Orphan Boy mine sites indicate that there is a significant reduction in toxicity. For the Sure Thing Mine treated effluent, C. dubia survival LC50 value was increased by 670 fold and the No Observable Acute Effect Level (NOAEL) by 640 fold. The P. promelas LC50 value was increased by 24 fold and the NOAEL value by 20 fold. For the Lily Orphan Boy treated effluent the C. dubia LC50 value increased by 160 fold and the NOAEL by 320 fold. The P. promelas LC50 value increased by 21 fold and the NOAEL by 40 fold. For the Summittville Mine Treatment System, treated mine discharge samples displayed reduced toxicity of approximately 7-8 fold for C. dubia, 10 fold for rainbow trout, and about 5 fold for the fathead minnow as compared to untreated mine waste. However, in order to remove all the acute toxicity from the mine discharge, the concentration of metals from both treatments have to be reduced by a 1000 fold for C. dubia survival, or a 100 or 50 fold for rainbow trout, and fathead minnow survival, respectively.

PRESENTATION Comparative Performance of Six Different Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling Methods for Riverine Ecosystems 05/07/2002
Blocksom, K A. AND J E. Flotemersch. Comparative Performance of Six Different Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling Methods for Riverine Ecosystems. Presented at EMAP Symposium, Kansas City, MO, May 7-9, 2002.
Abstract: At each of 60 sites, we collected benthic macroinvertebrates using six different protocols (including the EMAP methods for non-wadeable rivers) and physical habitat data using the USEPA-EMAP-SW protocols for non-wadeable rivers. We used PCA with physical habitat data and DCA with benthic macroinvertebrate data, each resulting in a separation of sites into two groups based on mean site depth. For a set of selected metrics, we compared values among methods within depth groups. In addition, relationships between measured stressors and selected macroinvertebrate metrics were compared among sampling methods. The correlation between stressors and metrics was not consistent among methods or between depth groups. Based on these results, selection of an appropriate method should depend on many factors, including physical characteristics of the site (depth), study objectives, and time constraints.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Large River Sampling Method Using Diatom Metrics 05/07/2002
Flotemersch, J E., K A. Blocksom, AND S DeCelles. Comparison of Large River Sampling Method Using Diatom Metrics. Presented at EMAP Symposium, Kansas City, MO, May 7-9, 2002.
Abstract: We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg depth of >4 m (deep sites) or < 4 m (shallow sites). Three of the methods targeted periphyton and one phytoplankton. Among the periphyton methods, two were quantitative (one targeted specific habitats and the other was systematically random), and one was a qualitative multi-habitat method. The phytoplankton method was composed of a single composited depth and width integrated sample. We examined diatom richness and composition metrics, most of which are included or proposed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky for use in the Diatom Bioassessment Index. All methods collected sufficient numbers of diatom taxa, but metic sensitivity to stressors varied by site dept and collection method. The phytoplankton method collected smaller percentages of eutraphentic and motile diatoms than other methods, but had higher correlations for stressors. This was true especially for water chemistry related stressors. Periphyton data had a mixed response, but overall performed better at the shallower sites, especially for riparian-based stressors. However, the ability of metrics to detect stressors was not consistent among the three periphyton methods tested. At shallow sites, the quantitative targeted-habitat periphyton method collected significantly fewer diatoms than the other periphyton methods, but it was significantly correlated with more stressors.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Large River Macroinvertebrates: How Far Is Enough? 05/07/2002
Flotemersch, J E., J J. Hutchens, K A. Blocksom, D J. Klemm, AND B C. Autrey. Assessment of Large River Macroinvertebrates: How Far Is Enough? Presented at EMAP Symposium, Kansas City, MO, May 7-9, 2002.
Abstract: During the summer of 2001, twelve sites were sampled for macroinvertebrates, six each on the Great Miami and Kentucky Rivers. Sites were chosen to reflect a disturbance gradient in each river using sites sampled in a 1999 methods comparison study. Our sampling protocol improves the quality and repeatability of large river sampling methods for benthic macroinvertebrates by combining the strengths of two existng methods. At each site, a total distance equal to 40 times the mean wetted width was sampled at specific intervals. Timed kick net and dip/pick samples were combined into a single sample for each transect and bank. The relationship between sampling distance with bioassessment metrics and species composition, as well as variability among transects and between banks, will be analyzed to determine the most efficient sampling distance and design for these rivers. In addition to benthic macroinvertebrates, we collected data for physical habitat, water chemistry and sediment. Using these data, we will explore relationships between macroinvertebrates and key abiotic factors to understand the role that habitat and chemistry play in structuring benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in large rivers.

PRESENTATION Sediment Analysis Landscape Indicators for Pesticides Study for Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams (Lips-Macs) 04/29/2002
Wesselman, R, D F. Bender, R E. Loebker, L E. Feige, C W. Moench, J W. O'Dell, G M. Ahlers, P E. Grimmett, AND J J. Hutchens. Sediment Analysis Landscape Indicators for Pesticides Study for Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams (Lips-Macs). Presented at Science Forum 2002, Washington, DC, April 29-May 1, 2002.
Abstract: Nonpoint-source pollution, including pesticides and toxics, is the largest threat facing aquatic resources today. Understanding how pesticides applied to agricultural fields and suburban lawns reach and influence stream water quality is the focus of the Landscape Indicators for Pesticides Study for Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams (LIPS-MACS), being conducted jointly by USEPA and USGS. A network of 174 small streams was designed to encompass a gradient of hydrology, geology, and land use. The Environmental Contaminant Characterization Branch in NERL is analyzing 191 sediment samples collected during baseflow conditions for six trace metals and 70 organic compounds (30 chlorinated pesticides, 21 PCBs and 19 nitrogen/phosphorous compounds). The data will be used to guide management plans for pesticide usage and will serve as the basis for landscape-indicator models that will be used to protect ecological water quality and drinking water quality.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Estrogenic Activity in Effluents from Sewage Treatment Plants in the United States 04/18/2002
Toth, G P., J M. Lazorchak, D L. Lattier, R C. Brenner, J. Allen, AND S. Hopkins. Assessment of Estrogenic Activity in Effluents from Sewage Treatment Plants in the United States. Presented at American Water Works Association Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, April 18-20, 2002.
Abstract: Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) either caged on site or exposed statically in the laboratory to shipped water. Both of these studies have revealed spatial gradients of estrogenic actiivty relative to the outlet of the sewage treatment process. Presently, as part of EPA/ORD EDC Program joint research, ecologists, molecular biologists and water treatment engineers are collaborating on a systematic evaluation of the efficacy of various sewage treatment approaches to remove at least two classes of EDCs, those with estrogenic and cytochrome P450IA1-inducing activity. More extensive research is planned which will introduce the use of DNA microarrays to simultaneously assess the bioavailability of several chemical stressors including those with endocrine disrupting activity.

PRESENTATION Anatomy, Life History and Distribution of the Parasitic Leech Oligobdella Biannulata (Moore, 1900) (Euhirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) 04/10/2002
Moser, W. E., R. W. Van Devender, AND D J. Klemm. Anatomy, Life History and Distribution of the Parasitic Leech Oligobdella Biannulata (Moore, 1900) (Euhirudinea: Glossiphoniidae). Presented at Association of Southeastern Biologists, Boone, NC, April 10-13, 2002.
Abstract: Oligobdella biannulata (Moore, 1900) is a rare, endemic species originally described from a mountain stream near Blowing Rock, North Carolina. Specimens of this species were collected seasonally from fall 1999 to winter 2001 with four new county records in North Carolina (Avery, Caldwell, Haywood and Mitchell Counties) and a new state record from Tennessee (Sevier County). Leeches were collected free-living in the summer and on their hosts (Desmognathine salamanders) in the fall/winter. Oligobdella biannulata is a translucent, olive-green species with scattered brown chromatophores in the cephalic and anal regions. The adult leech is 5-8 mm in length and has an ovate-lanceolate body shape, 2-annulate body somite, large caudal sucker, single confluent pair of eyes, five pairs of testisacs and seven pairs of crop caeca. Olligobdella biannulata seems to have a 2-year life span, reaching sexual maturity in under one year. Adults leave their hosts sometime in the spring and breed. An adult lays 15-25 bright yellow, yolky eggs and broods them underneath its ventral surface. After 9-12 days, the eggs hatch. After approximately 50 days, the hatchlings and adult search for a blood meal. When a Desmognathine salamander host is found, the adult attaches, hatchlings leave the adult, and attach singly or in clusters on the limbs or around the eyes, and blood-feed. Two year old leeches drop off and die, while first year adults and hatchlings stay attached, over-winter on hosts, and reproduce in the spring.

PRESENTATION Biological Index Development Methods: Basic Concepts 03/31/2002
Cormier, S M. Biological Index Development Methods: Basic Concepts. Presented at National Biological Assessment and Criteria Workshop, Coeur d'Alene, ID, March 31-April 4, 2003.
Abstract: There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field.

PRESENTATION Sampling Large Rivers for Algae, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish 03/28/2002
Flotemersch, J E. Sampling Large Rivers for Algae, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Water Pollution Biology Workshop, Berkeley Springs, WV, March 28-29, 2002.
Abstract: Multiple projects are currently underway to increase our understanding of the effects of different sampling methods and designs used for the biological assessment and monitoring of large (boatable) rivers. Studies include methods used to assess fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, algae, and physical habitat. A brief overview of the early results for sampling fish and benthic macroinvertebrates will be presented and in more detail during the poster session. Other ongoing large river research being conducted will also be discussed.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Large River Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages 03/28/2002
Flotemersch, J E., J J. Hutchens, K A. Blocksom, B C. Autrey, AND D J. Klemm. Assessment of Large River Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Water Pollution Biology Workshop, Berkeley Springs, WV, March 28-29, 2002.
Abstract: During the summer of 2001, twelve sites were sampled for macroinvertebrates, six each on the Great Miami and Kentucky Rivers. Sites were chosen in each river from those sampled in the 1999 methods comparison study to reflect a disturbance gradient. At each site, a total distance equal to 40 times the mean wetted width was sampled at specific intervals. Timed kick net and dip/pick samples were combined into a single sample for each transect and bank. The relationship of distance sampled with metrics and species composition, as well as variability among transects and between banks, will be analyzed to determine the most efficient sampling design for these rivers.

PRESENTATION The Effect of Varying Electrofishing Designs and Distances on Metric Scores in Large Rivers 03/28/2002
Flotemersch, J E. AND K A. Blocksom. The Effect of Varying Electrofishing Designs and Distances on Metric Scores in Large Rivers. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Water Pollution Biology Workshop, Berkeley Springs, WV, March 28-29, 2002.
Abstract: To study the effects of electrofishing design and distance on metric scores, we electrofished almost 180 km across four rivers of the Ohio River basin and collected data on more than 28,000 fish. We compared three electrofishing designs using four fish assemblage composition metrics, three richness metrics, and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE). Sites were first separated into deep (> 4 m) and shallow (< 4 m) groups based on principle component analysis of physical habitat data. None of the percentage metrics varied significantly among the designs. However, values for most richness metrics were significantly higher for designs sampling a larger distance. To better understand these changes, we plotted the percent change in each metric with electrofishing distances. A sharp decline and leveling off of richness values occurred after electrofishing along a single bank at approximately 1000 m in shallow sites. At deep sites, metric values leveled off at approximately 1200 m but were erratic; this was likely the result of the diel movements of fish. We used the same eight metrics to compare a 1000-m single-bank design with a 500-m paired-bank design. CPUE was statistically higher for the paired-bank design for both depth groups. At shallow sites, the difference in number of taxa was marginally significant, with the single-bank design collecting one additional species. We concluded that a 500-m paired-bank design is effective and efficient for characterizing fish assemblages at the shallow sites. At deep sites, night electrofishing may be required to produce satisfactory data. If night electrofishing is not feasible, we suggest increasing the electrofishing distance at these sites to a 1000-m paired-banks design or a 2000-m single-bank design and the cautious use of metrics based on fish prone to diel movements. These results apply for these size rivers in this region, but could likely be applied elsewhere in the absence of similar research.

PRESENTATION Comparison of Large River Sampling Methods on Algal Metrics 03/28/2002
Flotemersch, J E., K A. Blocksom, AND S DeCelles. Comparison of Large River Sampling Methods on Algal Metrics. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Water Pollution Biology Workshop, Berkeley Springs, WV, March 28-29, 2002.
Abstract: We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg depth of > 4 m (deep sites) or < 4 m (shallow sites). Three of the methods targeted periphyton and one phytoplankton. Among the periphyton methods, two were quantitative (one targeted specific habitats and the other was systematically random), and one was a qualitative multi-habitat method. The phytoplankton method was composed of a single composited depth and width integrated sample. We examined diatom richness and composition metrics, most of which are included or proposed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky for use in the Diatom Bioassessment Index. All methods collected sufficient numbers of diatom taxa, but metric sensitivity to stressors varied by site depth and collection method. The phytoplankton method collected smaller percentages of eutraphentic and motile diatoms than other methods, but had higher correlations for stressors. This was true especially for water chemistry related stressors. Periphyton data had a mixed response, but overall performed better at the shallower sites, especially for riparian-based stressors. However, the ability of metrics to detect stressors was not consistent among the three periphyton methods tested. At shallow sites, the quantitative targeted-habitat periphyton method collected significantly fewer diatoms than the other periphyton methods, but it was significantly correlated with more stressors.

PRESENTATION Development of Microarrays as a Tool for Discovering Environmental Exposure Indicators 03/17/2002
Miracle, A L., D L. Lattier, R Flick, G P. Toth, AND D. Versteeg. Development of Microarrays as a Tool for Discovering Environmental Exposure Indicators. Presented at Society of Toxicology, Nashville, TN, March 17-21, 2002.
Abstract: Toxicogenomics includes research to identify differential gene expression in laboratory and field animals exposed to toxicants, and ultimately, to link the earliest indicators of exposure to adverse effects in organisms and populations. The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory has teamed with industry scientists at Procter and Gamble to develop a multiple aquatic stressor diagnostic exposure module using fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) cDNAs in a microarray platform. A two-pronged approach has been developed to examine specific gene expression and to identify stressor-specific patterns of expression over a portion of the expressed genome through the use of subtractive libraries. In order to start synthesis of a fathead minnow-specific gene chip for array analysis, homologs of specific genes were identified in P. promelas using degenerate PCR primers based on conserved homology across mammalian and non-mammalian taxa. Categories of genes include DNA repair genes, receptor and non-receptor kinase genes, transcription factors, and genes involved in apoptotic cascades such as caspases. Initially, single exposure-specific microarrays were employed using total cDNA and subtractive cDNA clones to identify gene patterns for single-exposure analysis. Multiple exposures will be assessed at the microarray level to gain a better understanding of relative bioavailability of environmental stressors present in mixtures. Thus, the use of microarray technology to examine gene expression promises to be a powerful tool in understanding the impact of environmental exposures.

PRESENTATION A Comparison of Six Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling Methods in Four Large Rivers 03/15/2002
Blocksom, K A. AND J E. Flotemersch. A Comparison of Six Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling Methods in Four Large Rivers. Presented at New England Association of Environmental Biologists, Newport, RI, March 13-15, 2002.
Abstract: In 1999, a study was conducted to compare six macroinvertebrate sampling methods in four large (boatable) rivers that drain into the Ohio River. Two methods each were adapted from existing methods used by the USEPA, USGS and Ohio EPA. Drift nets were unable to collect a sufficient number of organisms and this sampling method was dropped from further analysis. Hester-Dendy samplers tended to collect fewer taxa overall and fewer Diptera taxa than kick net and dip/pick methods. Although the kick net and dip/pick methods collected similar numbers of taxa, similarity index values indicate that they were not collecting the same taxa. In fact, no single method collected more than about half of the total number of taxa collected at a site, regardless of the level of taxonomic identification. Both species composition and certain metrics were related strongly to mean reach depth, although the reason for this relationship is unclear.

PRESENTATION Assessment of Large River Macroinvertebrate Assemblages 03/13/2002
Flotemersch, J E., J J. Hutchens, K A. Blocksom, D J. Klemm, AND B C. Autrey. Assessment of Large River Macroinvertebrate Assemblages. Presented at New England Association of Environmental Biologists, Newport, RI, March 13-15, 2002.
Abstract: During the summer of 2001, twelve sites were sampled for macroinvertebrates, six each on the Great Miami and Kentucky Rivers. Sites were chosen in each river from those sampled in the 1999 methods comparison study to reflect a disturbance gradient. At each site, a total distance equal to 40 times the mean wetted width was sampled at specific intervals. Timed kick net and dip/pick samples were combined into a single sample for each transect and bank. The relationship of distance sampled with metrics and species composition, as well as variability among transects and between banks, will be analyzed to determine the most efficient sampling design for these rivers.

PRESENTATION Coupling Hyperspectral Remote Sensing With Field Spectrometry to Monitor Inland Water Quality Parameters 03/05/2002
Shafique, N A., F A. Fulk, S M. Cormier, AND B C. Autrey. Coupling Hyperspectral Remote Sensing With Field Spectrometry to Monitor Inland Water Quality Parameters. Presented at AVIRIS Earth Science and Applications Workshop, Pasadena, CA, March 5-8, 2002.
Abstract: Visible to near-infrared, airborne hyperspectral data were successfully used to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus from the Great Miami River, Ohio. During the summer of 1999, spectral data were collected with a hand-held field spectroradiometer and airborne hyperspectral sensors. Approximately 80 km of the Great Miami River were acquired during a flyover with a Compact Airborne Spectrogrpahic Imager to cover the river and urban/industrial influences around the city of Dayton, Ohio. Instream measurements of water quality data such as turbidity levels, dissolved oxygen concentrations, and Secchi-disk depth were taken on the same day as the flyover. Similarly, water samples were collected for laboratory measurements of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus concentrations in the river. Correlations between water quality parameters and one or a combination of wavebands from the field spectrometry dataset were determined. Based on the selected wavebands, semi-empirical models have been developed for chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus. With the help of these models, maps of the spatial distribution of these water quality parameters were created from the hyperspectral images of the river. These maps could aid in the development and implementation of total maximum daily load regulations of certain water quality parameters, and identify possible causes of algal blooms in surface waters.

 

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