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Atmospheric Modeling Division Publications: 2006

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This page lists publication titles, citations and abstracts produced by NERL's Atmospheric Modeling Division for the year 2006, organized by Publication Type. Your search has returned 105 Matching Entries.

See also Atmospheric Modeling Division citations with abstracts: 1999,  2000,  2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007,  2008,  2009

Technical Information Manager: Liz Hope - (919) 541-2785 or hope.elizabeth@epa.gov

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Presented/Published
JOURNAL Performance and Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Predictions By the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality Forecast System During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study 10/01/2006
YU, S., R. MATHUR, D. KANG, K. L. SCHERE, B. K. EDER, AND J. E. PLEIM. Performance and Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Predictions By the Eta-Community Multiscale Air Quality Forecast System During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study. JOURNAL OF AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 56(10):1459-1471, (2006).
Abstract: A real-time air quality forecasting system (Eta-CMAQ model suite) has been developed by linking the NCEP Eta model to the U.S. EPA CMAQ model. This work presents results from the application of the Eta-CMAQ modeling system for forecasting O3 over the northeastern U.S during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS).

JOURNAL Understanding the Relationships Between Air Quality and Human Health 09/01/2006
RAO, S.T. Understanding the Relationships Between Air Quality and Human Health. EM: AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS MAGAZINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 6, (2006).
Abstract: This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Following this, a series of articles by various researchers present some aspects of air quality and human health. It should be noted that the views expressed in these articles do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of any federal agency.

JOURNAL Temporally-Resolved Ammonia Emission Inventories: Current Estimates, Evaluation Tools, and Measurement Needs 08/25/2006
PINDER, R. W., P. ADAMS, S. N. PANDIS, AND A. GILLILAND. Temporally-Resolved Ammonia Emission Inventories: Current Estimates, Evaluation Tools, and Measurement Needs. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 111(D16310):1-14, (2006).
Abstract: In this study, we evaluate the suitability of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) as a tool for assessing ammonia emission inventories, calculate the improvement in CTM performance owing to recent advances in temporally-varying ammonia emission estimates, and identify the observational data necessary to improve future ammonia emission estimates. We evaluate two advanced approaches to estimating the temporal variation in ammonia emissions: a process-based approach and an inverse-modeled approach.

JOURNAL Seasonal Nh 3 Emissions for the Continental United States: Inverse Model Estimation and Evaluation 08/01/2006
GILLILAND, A., W. APPEL, R. L. DENNIS, AND R. W. PINDER. Seasonal Nh 3 Emissions for the Continental United States: Inverse Model Estimation and Evaluation. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4986-4998, (2006).
Abstract: An inverse modeling study has been conducted here to evaluate a prior estimate of seasonal ammonia (NH3) emissions. The prior estimates were based on a previous inverse modeling study and two other bottom-up inventory studies. The results suggest that the prior estimates were within a reasonable level of uncertainty for both spring and fall seasons, but prior estimates needed to be lower in the winter and higher in the summer than originally estimated. For future studies of NH3 emissions, it is important to have total ammonia (gas phase NH3+ aerosol ammonium) observations to constrain the results.

JOURNAL A Performance Evaluation of the 2004 Release of Models-3 Cmaq 08/01/2006
EDER, B. K. AND S. YU. A Performance Evaluation of the 2004 Release of Models-3 Cmaq. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4811-4824, (2006).
Abstract: This performance evaluation compares a full annual simulation (2001) of CMAQ (Version4.4) covering the contiguous United States against monitoring data from four nationwide networks. This effort, which represents one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive performance evaluations of the model, reveals that CMAQ varies considerably in its ability to simulate ambient air concentrations of critical gas and particulate matter species.

JOURNAL A Bayesian Statistical Approach for the Evaluation of Cmaq 08/01/2006
SWALL, J. AND J. M. DAVIS. A Bayesian Statistical Approach for the Evaluation of Cmaq. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4883-4893, (2006).
Abstract: Bayesian statistical methods are used to evaluate Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of sulfate aerosol over a section of the eastern US for 4-week periods in summer and winter 2001. The observed data come from two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data collection networks. The statistical methods used here address two problems that arise in model evaluation: the sparseness of the observational data which is to be compared to the model output fields and the comparison of model-generated grid cell averages with point-referenced monitoring data. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to estimate the true values of the sulfate concentration field. Emphasis is placed on modeling the spatial dependence of sulfate over the study region, and then using this dependence structure to estimate average grid cell values for comparison with CMAQ. For the winter period, CMAQ tends to underpredict the sulfate concentrations over a large portion of the region. The CMAQ simulations for the summer period do not show this systematic underprediction of sulfate concentrations.

JOURNAL Development and Analysis of Air Quality Modeling Simulations for Hazardous Air Pollutants 08/01/2006
LUECKEN, D. J., W. T. HUTZELL, AND G. L. GIPSON. Development and Analysis of Air Quality Modeling Simulations for Hazardous Air Pollutants. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):5087-5096, (2006).
Abstract: The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results are shown for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein. Photochemical production in the atmosphere is predicted to dominate ambient formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations, and to account for a significant fraction of ambient acrolein concentrations. Spatial and temporal variations are large throughout the domain over the year. Predicted concentrations are compared with observations for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Although the modeling results indicate an overall slight tendency towards underprediction, they reproduce episodic and seasonal behavior of pollutant concentrations at many monitors with good skill.

JOURNAL An Operational Evaluation of the Eta Cmaq Air Quality Forecast Model 08/01/2006
EDER, B. K., D. KANG, R. MATHUR, S. YU, AND K. L. SCHERE. An Operational Evaluation of the Eta Cmaq Air Quality Forecast Model. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4894-4905, (2006).
Abstract: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in partnership with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an operational, nationwide Air Quality Forecasting (AQF) system. An experimental phase of this program, which couples NOAA's Eta meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, began operation in June of 2004 and has been providing forecasts of ozone (O3) concentrations over the northeastern United States. An important component of this AQF system has been the development and implementation of an evaluation protocol. Accordingly, a suite of statistical metrics that facilitates evaluation of both discrete- and categorical-type forecasts was developed and applied to the system in order to characterize its performance. The results reveal that the AQF system performed reasonably well in this inaugural season (mean domain wide correlation coefficient = 0.59), despite anomalously cool and wet conditions that were not conducive to the formation of O3. Due in part to these conditions, the AQF system overpredicted concentrations, resulting in a mean bias of +10.2 ppb (normalized mean bias = +22.8%). In terms of error, the domain-wide root mean square error averaged 15.7 ppb (normalized mean error = 28.1%) for the period. Examination of the discrete and categorical metrics on a daily basis revealed that the AQF system's level of performance was closely related to the synoptic-scale meteorology impacting the domain. The model performed very well during periods when anticyclones, characterized by clear skies, dominated. Conversely, periods characterized by extensive cloud associated with fronts and/or cyclones, resulted in poor model performance. Subsequent analysis revealed that factors associated with CMAQ's cloud cover scheme contributed to this overprediction. Accordingly, changes to the cloud schemes are currently underway that are expected to significantly improve the AQF system's performance in anticipation of its second year of operation.

JOURNAL Preface Special Issue on Model Evaluation: Evaluation of Urban and Regional Eulerian Air Quality Models 08/01/2006
HANNA, A. AND W. G. BENJEY. Preface Special Issue on Model Evaluation: Evaluation of Urban and Regional Eulerian Air Quality Models. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4809-4810, (2006).
Abstract: The "Preface to the Special Edition on Model Evaluation: Evaluation of Urban and Regional Eulerian Air Quality Models" is a brief introduction to the papers included in a special issue of Atmospheric Environment. The Preface provides a background for the papers, which have their genesis in the Model Evaluation Session of the Third community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) Conference held by the CMA center in Chapel Hill, NC, October 18-20, 2004.

JOURNAL Temporal Features in Observed and Simulated Meteorology and Air Quality Over the Eastern United States 08/01/2006
HOGREFE, C., S. PORTER, E. GEGO, A. GILLILAND, R. GILLIAM, J. SWALL, J. IRWIN, AND S.T. RAO. Temporal Features in Observed and Simulated Meteorology and Air Quality Over the Eastern United States. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):5041-5055, (2006).
Abstract: In this study, temporal scale analysis is applied as a technique to evaluate an annual simulation of meteorology, O3, and PM2.5 and its chemical components over the continental U.S. utilizing two modeling systems. It is illustrated that correlations were insignificant on the intra-day time scale for all variables, suggesting that these models in the setup used for this study were not skillful in simulating the higher-frequency variations in meteorological variables and the levels of all pollutants. The models exhibited greatest skills at capturing longer-term (seasonal) fluctuations for temperature, wind speed, O3, sulfate and nitrate. Correlations for total PM2.5, ammonium, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and crustal PM2.5 correlations were highest for the synoptic time scale implying problems with factors other than meteorology, such as emissions or lateral chemical boundary conditions, in capturing the baseline fluctuations.

JOURNAL Comparison of Spatial Patterns of Pollutant Distribution With Cmaq Predictions 08/01/2006
PHILLIPS, S. AND P. L. FINKELSTEIN. Comparison of Spatial Patterns of Pollutant Distribution With Cmaq Predictions. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4999-5009, (2006).
Abstract: To evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in reproducing the spatial patterns of aerosol concentrations over the country on timescales of months and years, the spatial patterns of model output are compared with those derived from observational data. Simple spatial interpolation procedures were applied to data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) monitoring networks. Species included sulfate PM, total nitrate (NO3 + HNO3), and ammonium PM. Comparisons were made for the annual average concentrations for 2001, and for one lunar month (four weeks), where the month chosen for each species represents the highest concentrations of the year. Comparisons between the modeled and interpolated spatial patterns show very good agreement in the location and magnitude of the maxima and minima, as well as the gradients between them. Some persistent biases are identified and noted. Limitations on our ability to describe the spatial pattern from sparse data as well as the limitations of the networks are briefly discussed.

JOURNAL An Examination of the Cmaq Simulations of the Wet Deposition of Ammonium from a Bayesian Perspective 08/01/2006
DAVIS, J. M. AND J. SWALL. An Examination of the Cmaq Simulations of the Wet Deposition of Ammonium from a Bayesian Perspective. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(24):4562-4573, (2006).
Abstract: The objective of this study is to ascertain the effects of precipitation simulations and emissions on CMAQ simulations of deposition. In both seasons, CMAQ tends to underpredict the deposition amounts. Based on the co-located measurements of ammonium wet deposition and precipitation at the NADP sites and on estimated precipitation amounts for each grid cell, Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate ammonium wet deposition over all grid cells in the study region.

JOURNAL Testing Cmaq Chemistry Sensitivities in Base Chase and Emission Control Runs at Search and Sos 99 Surface Sites in the Southeastern United States 08/01/2006
ARNOLD, J. AND R. L. DENNIS. Testing Cmaq Chemistry Sensitivities in Base Chase and Emission Control Runs at Search and Sos 99 Surface Sites in the Southeastern United States. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):5027-5040, (2006).
Abstract: CMAQ was run to simulate urban conditions in the southeastern U.S. in July 1999 at 32, 8, and 2 km grid spacings. Runs were made with two older mechanisms, Carbon Bond IV (CB4) and the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2 (RADM2), and with the more recent California Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, version 1999 (SAPRC99) in a sensitivity matrix with a full emissions base case and separate 50% control scenarios for emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). CMAQ predictions were compared for the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study (SEARCH) site at Jefferson Street in Atlanta, GA (JST) and the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) Cornelia Fort Airpark (CFA) site downwind of Nashville, TN. In the emissions control cases, SAPRC99 was generally more responsive than CB4 and RADM2 to NOX and VOC controls.

JOURNAL MODELING FLOW PATTERNS IN A SMALL VEGETATED AREA IN THE NORTHERN CHICHUAHUAN DESERT USING QUIC ( QUIC URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX ) 08/01/2006
BOWKER, G. E., D. GILLETTE, G. BERGAMETTI, AND B. MARTICORNEA. MODELING FLOW PATTERNS IN A SMALL VEGETATED AREA IN THE NORTHERN CHICHUAHUAN DESERT USING QUIC ( QUIC URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX ). ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS. Springer, New York, NY, 6(4):359-384, (2006).
Abstract: Sandstorms are frequent in the northern Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, an area characterized by open areas lacking vegetation, individual mesquite bushes, and mesquite coppice dunes. Field measurements of sand fluxes and wind velocities over a two year period provided a description of the area - suggesting that the "streets", the flat, elongated, non-vegetated areas aligned with the dominant wind directions are the principal sources of wind-dispersed soil and dust. However, since soil erosion and dust movement depend on the pattern, strength, and gradients in the wind field, modeling soil erosion and dust movement requires a continuous wind velocity field. Consequently, air flow patterns at this site were simulated using a semi-empirical mass-consistent diagnostic wind field model: QUIC version 3.4 (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). 251 simulations were run encompassing several dust storms occurring in April 2003. Wind velocity vectors were compared between the model and field data at three heights for six locations and were found to correlate well for a majority of the situations suggesting that the flow patterns are consistent throughout the domain. In particular, good agreement was found for wind speeds at 0.75 m, the height for which the model was tuned. However, it overestimated velocities at 1.5 m (10% and 3.14 m (13%). Generally, the model successfully identified locations of the highest wind velocities and wind stresses, predominately found in "streets" aligned with the driving wind, and locations of wake flow downwind of mesquite bushes where there was separation flow or otherwise shelter from the wind.

JOURNAL On Joint Deterministic Grid Modeling and Sub-Grid Variability Conceptual Framework for Model Evaluation 08/01/2006
CHING, J. K., J. HERWEHE, AND J. SWALL. On Joint Deterministic Grid Modeling and Sub-Grid Variability Conceptual Framework for Model Evaluation. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(26):4935-4945, (2006).
Abstract: The general situation, (but exemplified in urban areas), where a significant degree of sub-grid variability (SGV) exists in grid models poses problems when comparing gridbased air quality modeling results with observations. Typically, grid models ignore or parameterize processes and features that are at their sub-grid scale. Also, observations may be obtained in an area where significant spatial variability in the concentration fields exists. Consequently, model results and observations cannot be expected to be equal. To address this issue, we suggest a framework that can provide for qualitative judgments on model performance based on comparing observations to the grid predictions and its SGV distribution. Further, we (a) explore some characteristics of SGV, (b) comment on the contributions to SGV and (c) examine the implications to the modeling results at coarse grid resolution using examples from fine scale grid modeling of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system.

JOURNAL Wind Characteristics of Mesquite Streets in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA 06/01/2006
GILLETTE, D., J. E. HERRICK, AND G. A. HERBERT. Wind Characteristics of Mesquite Streets in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS. Springer, New York, NY, 6(3):241-275, (2006).
Abstract: The most active areas for sand movement in the mesquite-dominated ecosystems in the northern part of the Chihuahuan Desert are elongated bare soil patches referred to as "streets." Wind properties were measured at two flat mesquite sites having highly similar sandy textures but very different configurations of mesquite. Wind direction, friction velocity, aerodynamic roughness height and zero plane displacement height were estimated for 15-m tower and 3-m mast data. These aerodynamic data allowed us to distinguish five categories with differing potentials for sediment transport. Sediment transport for the five categories varied from unrestricted, free transport to virtually no transport caused by vegetation protection from wind forces. In addition, "steering" of winds below the level of the tops of mesquite bushes and coppice dunes allowed longer parallel wind durations and increased wind erosion for streets that aligned roughly SW-NE.

JOURNAL Resolving Neighborhood-Scale Air Toxics Modeling: A Case Study in Wilmington, California 05/01/2006
ISAKOV, V. AND A. VENKATRAM. Resolving Neighborhood-Scale Air Toxics Modeling: A Case Study in Wilmington, California. JOURNAL OF AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 56(5):559-568, (2006).
Abstract: Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 10-100 km2 in size. One approach for refined air quality modeling is to combine Gaussian and regional photochemical grid models. In this paper we demonstrate this approach on a case study of Wilmington, California, focused on diesel exhaust particulate matter. Modeling results suggest pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of emission sources are elevated and therefore an understanding of local emission sources is necessary to generate credible modeling results. A probabilistic evaluation of the Gaussian model application indicated that spatial allocation, emission rates, and meteorological data are important contributors to input and parameter uncertainty in the model results. This uncertainty can be substantially reduced through the collection and integration of site specific information about the location of emission sources, and the activity and emission rates of key sources affecting model concentrations.

JOURNAL Air Quality Modeling of Hazardous Pollutants: Current Status and Future Directions 05/01/2006
TOUMA, J., V. ISAKOV, J. K. CHING, AND C. SEIGNEUR. Air Quality Modeling of Hazardous Pollutants: Current Status and Future Directions. JOURNAL OF AIR AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 56(5):547-558, (2006).
Abstract: The paper presents a review of current air toxics modeling applications and discusses possible advanced approaches. Many applications require the ability to predict hot spots from industrial sources or large roadways that are needed for community health and Environmental Justice concerns. Such local-scale modeling assessments can be performed by using Gaussian-based atmospheric dispersion models. However, these models have a limited ability to address chemical transformations. A new generation of Eulerian grid-based models is now capable to comprehensively treat transport and chemical transformations but have limited spatial resolution. The paper presents possible advanced approaches that can combine the grid-based models with local scale models within a single model.

JOURNAL Multi-Scale Controls on and Consequences of Aeolian Processes in Landscape Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments 04/01/2006
OKIN, G. S., D. GILLETTE, AND J. E. HERRICK. Multi-Scale Controls on and Consequences of Aeolian Processes in Landscape Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments. JOURNAL OF ARID ENVIRONMENTS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 65(2):253-275, (2006).
Abstract: This paper reviews the controls on aeolian processes and their consequences at plant-interspace, patch-landscape, and regional-global scales. Based on this review, we define the requirements for a cross-scale model of wind erosion in structurally complex arid and semiarid ecosystems.

JOURNAL Review of the Governing Equations, Computational Algorithms, and Other Components of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (Cmaq) Modeling System 03/01/2006
BYUN, D. W. AND K. L. SCHERE. Review of the Governing Equations, Computational Algorithms, and Other Components of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (Cmaq) Modeling System. Applied Mechanics Reviews. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fairfield, NJ, 59(2):51-77, (2006).
Abstract: This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-of-the-science capabilities for modeling multiple air quality issues, including tropospheric ozone, fine particles, acid deposition, and visibility degradation. CMAQ was also designed to have multiscale capabilities so that separate models were not needed for urban and regional scale air quality modeling.

JOURNAL A Simple, Efficient Solution of Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer 02/01/2006
PLEIM, J. A Simple, Efficient Solution of Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 45(2):341-347, (2006).
Abstract: This note describes a simple scheme for analytical estimation of the surface layer similarity functions from state variables. What distinguishes this note from the many previous papers on this topic is that this method is specifically targeted for numerical models where simplicity and economic execution are critical. Additionally, it has been in use in a mesoscale meteorology model for several years. For stable conditions, a very simple scheme is presented that compares well with the iterative solution. The stable scheme includes a very stable regime where the slope of the stability functions is reduced to permit significant fluxes to occur, which is particularly important for numerical models where decoupling from the surface can be an important problem. For unstable conditions, simple schemes generalized for varying ratios of aerodynamic roughness to thermal roughness (zo/zoh) are less satisfactory. Therefore, a simple scheme has been empirically derived a for a fixed zo/zoh ratio, which represents quasi-laminar sublayer resistance.

JOURNAL Reply to Comment on "SIZE Distribution of Sea-Salt Emissions as a Function of Relative Humidity" 01/01/2006
ZHANG, M., E. M. KNIPPING, A. S. WEXLER, P. BHAVE, AND G. S. TONNESEN. Reply to Comment on "SIZE Distribution of Sea-Salt Emissions as a Function of Relative Humidity". ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 40(3):591-592, (2006).
Abstract: This paper presents a response to the discussion by Ernie Lewis and Steven Schwartz, which was spurred by the publication of our Technical Note. The equations that we proposed initially are modified slightly based on the comments by Lewis and Schwartz.

PAPER IN NON-EPA PROCEEDINGS Role of Leaf Surface Water in the Bi-Directional Ammonia Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere 06/08/2006
WU, Y., J. T. WALKER, JR. K, C. PETERS-LIDARD, D. B. SCHWEDE, R. L. DENNIS, AND W. ROBARGE. Role of Leaf Surface Water in the Bi-Directional Ammonia Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere. In Proceedings, Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Sciences, Potomac, MD, June 05 - 08, 2006. Ecological Society of America, Ithaca, NY, 1-9, (2006).
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the ammonia exchange between plants and the atmosphere in a soybean field in Duplin County, North Carolina during the summer of 2002. Measurements indicate that the net canopy-scale ammonia exchange is bi-directional and has a significant diurnal cycle. In general, ammonia concentrations peak a few hours after sunrise. Deposition occurs in the evening and early morning hours while emission occurs in the late morning and early afternoon. To investigate the mechanisms that control the exchange process, a new model is developed based on the Multi-Layer BioChemical deposition (MLBC) model (Wu et al., 2003) with additional parameterizations for the leaf ammonia compensation point (Wu et al., 2006) and leaf surface water effects. The MLBC model considers biochemical processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, and membrane passive transport through the cuticle. The leaf surface water thickness is based on a simple water budget equation. Model results suggest that while accurate prediction of the stomatal compensation point is critical, leaf surface water also plays an important role in the net canopy-scale ammonia flux.

PRESENTATION A53b-0199: Predicting the Fate and Transport of Toxic Metal Emissions Over the United States 12/17/2006
HUTZELL, W. T. AND D. J. LUECKEN. A53b-0199: Predicting the Fate and Transport of Toxic Metal Emissions Over the United States. Presented at 2006 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, December 11 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: A poster presented at 2006 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union on December 15th in San Francisco, CA. It discusses a regional photochemical model that determines the atmospheric concentration and deposition of toxic metals found in atmospheric particulate matter. It highlights an application of the model that simulates the transport and fate of the toxic metal emissions during 2001. Results are discussed and then compared to observations.

PRESENTATION Predicting the Fate and Transport of Toxic Metal Emissions Over the United States 12/11/2006
HUTZELL, W. T. Predicting the Fate and Transport of Toxic Metal Emissions Over the United States. Presented at 2006 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, December 11 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: The abstract describes presentation to 2006 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union. The material discusses research that determines the atmospheric concentration and deposition of toxic metals found in atmospheric particulate matter. The method uses a regional air quality model to simulate the transport and fate of the toxic metal emissions. Results are discussed and then compared to observations.

PRESENTATION Regional-Scale Atmospheric Mercury Modeling 12/06/2006
BULLOCK, R. Regional-Scale Atmospheric Mercury Modeling. Presented at 31st Annual EPA-AWMA Information Exchange, Research Triangle Park, NC, December 05, 2006.
Abstract: This PowerPoint presentation gives a short synopsis of the state of the science of atmospheric mercury modeling, including a description of recent publications of model codes by EPA, a description of a recent mercury model intercomparison study, and a description of a synthesis paper on the source attribution of mercury deposition produced at the 8th Internation Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant.

PRESENTATION Effects of Using the Cb05 Vs Saprc 99 Vs Cb4 Chemical Mechanisms on Model Predictions 12/06/2006
LUECKEN, D. J., S. PHILLIPS, C. JANG, AND N. POSSIEL. Effects of Using the Cb05 Vs Saprc 99 Vs Cb4 Chemical Mechanisms on Model Predictions. Presented at International Conference on Atmospheric Chemical Mechanisms, Davis, CA, December 06 - 08, 2006.
Abstract: In this study, we examine differences in predictions of ozone, other oxidants, and ozone precursors for 3 chemical mechanisms: the CB4, CB05 and SAPRC99 mechanism (CMAQ/Models3 version). We present results for current conditions and differences among the mechanisms with emission reductions.

PRESENTATION Accuracy and Cost Considerations in Choosing a Chemical Mechanism for Operational Use in Aq Models 12/06/2006
SCHERE, K. L. Accuracy and Cost Considerations in Choosing a Chemical Mechanism for Operational Use in Aq Models. Presented at International Conference on Atmospheric Chemical Mechanisms, Davis, CA, December 06 - 08, 2006.
Abstract: There are several contemporary chemical kinetic mechanisms available for use in tropospheric air quality simulation models, with varying degrees of condensation of the chemical reaction pathways. Likewise, there are several different numerical solution methods available to use with the chemical mechanisms to produce time-varying chemical solutions. We examine the considerations required in the choice of chemical mechanism/solver for air quality model applications, and some of the trade-offs between accuracy and cost.

PRESENTATION Air Quality Assessment in USA Technical Tools and Linkage to Human Health 11/10/2006
ISAKOV, V. Air Quality Assessment in USA Technical Tools and Linkage to Human Health. Presented at Air4EU Final Conference, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC, November 10, 2006.
Abstract: This is an invited presentation to the Air4EU Final Conference to held in Prague, Czech Republic, on 10 November 2006. Air4EU is a jointly-sponsored, three-year European effort to provide recommendations on air quality assessment by monitoring and modeling for regulated pollutants in Europe. The presentation provides an overview of air quality modeling research in the USEPA/ORD/NERL's Atmospheric Modeling Division, with an emphasis on urban-scale modeling and its linkage to human exposure modeling. The presentation's underlying message is that air quality modeling is an important tool for air quality management and that careful attention needs to be given towards linkage of air quality and human exposure.

PRESENTATION Climate Impacts on Regional Air Quality (Ciraq): Modeling Ozone Sensitivities to Future Climate 11/01/2006
GILLILAND, A. Climate Impacts on Regional Air Quality (Ciraq): Modeling Ozone Sensitivities to Future Climate. Presented at Assessment of the Impact of Global Change on U.S. Air Quality Workshop, Durham, NC, November 01 - 02, 2006.
Abstract: Using global and regional modeling tools, predictions of future climate and ozone concentrations are developed for the continental United States. Results suggest that future changes in climate will contribute to an increase in ozone concentrations; however, the future changes in air quality emissions could have a much larger effect. The challenge here is that the future emissions scenarios are so uncertain that the impact from future emissions of NOx and VOC could lead to an increase or a decrease in ozone.

PRESENTATION Large-Scale Predictions of Mobile Source Contributions to Concentrations of Toxic Air Pollutants 10/24/2006
LUECKEN, D. J. AND W. T. HUTZELL. Large-Scale Predictions of Mobile Source Contributions to Concentrations of Toxic Air Pollutants. Presented at CRC Mobile Source Air Toxics Workshop, Phoenix, AZ, October 24 - 25, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

PRESENTATION Near Roadway Research in the Atmospheric Modeling Division 10/23/2006
PIERCE, T. E. AND V. ISAKOV. Near Roadway Research in the Atmospheric Modeling Division. Presented at CRC Mobile Source Air Toxics Workshop, Phoenix, AZ, October 23 - 25, 2006.
Abstract: This is a presentation to the CRC Mobile Source Air Toxics Workshop in Phoenix, AZ, on 23 October 2006. The presentation provides an overview of air quality modeling research in the USEPA/ORD/NERL's Atmospheric Modeling Division, with an emphasis on near-road pollutant characterization. This near-road modeling project is a part of the ORD multi-laboratory effort to assess impacts of traffic emissions on near road air quality, population exposures, and adverse health effects. The presentation discusses a modeling methodology to include near-road impacts, shows examples of applications, discusses configurations for the planned wind tunnel modeling, and also shows first modeling results and data analyses to evaluate and improve existing assessment methods for near-road applications (sound barriers, road configuration, etc.)

PRESENTATION Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions on Air Quality and Public Health in the United States 10/17/2006
TONG, D., R. MATHUR, G. POULIOT, K. L. SCHERE, S. YU, D. KANG, AND J. O. YOUNG. Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions on Air Quality and Public Health in the United States. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Wildfire is a natural disaster that claims human life and property. While most attention has been paid to direct life and health threats, mostly to firefighters, this work focuses on the indirect impact of wildfires on the general population due to degraded air quality. Using an integrated assessment approach, we estimate that fire emissions during a 18-day five-active period have resulted in 161,000 health days lost from O3 exposures, and 465,000 health days lost from PM2.5 exposures.

PRESENTATION Developing Emission Inventories for Biomass Burning for Real-Time and Retrospective Modeling 10/17/2006
POULIOT, G., T. E. PIERCE, AND T. PACE. Developing Emission Inventories for Biomass Burning for Real-Time and Retrospective Modeling. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The EPA uses chemical transport models to simulate historic meteorological episodes for developing air quality management strategies. In addition, chemical transport models are now being used operationally to create air quality forecasts. There are currently a number of methods and approaches to the estimation of wildland fire emissions for use in chemical transport models. We will provide an overview of these approaches and compare and contrast their merits and deficiencies. Ground-based approaches as well as satellite based approaches will be reviewed. In particular, we will be comparing different approaches to national fuel loading estimates, the accuracy of satellite derived fire events both in space and in time, and emission factors used in generating emission estimates. The goal of this review is to guide the timely development of a spatially and temporally accurate method for estimating a national inventory of wild land fire emissions. Currently, there is a need to develop national wild land fire inventories on a timely basis.

PRESENTATION Revised Treatment of N2 O5 Hydrolysis in Cmaq 10/16/2006
BHAVE, P., G. SARWAR, W. APPEL, AND R. L. DENNIS. Revised Treatment of N2 O5 Hydrolysis in Cmaq. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: In this presentation, revised treatment of homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide in the Community Multiscale Air Quality model version 4.6 are described. A series of model sensitivity tests are conducted and compared with observations of total atmospheric nitrate in the eastern U.S. during January 2002.

PRESENTATION A Framework for Fine-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics Air Quality Modeling and Analysis 10/16/2006
HUBER, A. H. A Framework for Fine-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics Air Quality Modeling and Analysis. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Fine-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of pollutant concentrations within roadway and building microenvironments is feasible using high performance computing. Unlike currently used regulatory air quality models, fine-scale CFD simulations are able to account rigorously for topographical details such as terrain variations and building structures in urban areas as well as their local aerodynamics and turbulence. Thermal heat fluxes may be added to terrain and building surfaces to simulate the thermal atmospheric boundary layer and their influences on pollution transport and dispersion. The results of these CFD simulations can both be directly used to better understand specific case studies as well as be used to support the development of better-simplified algorithms for adoption into other modeling systems. This oral presentation with sldies discusses a framework for fine-scale CFD modeling that may be developed to complement the present Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system which itself is a computational fluid dynamics model. A goal of this presentation is to stimulate discussions on what is "Computational Fluid Dynamics" modeling and how can it evolve to support the critical needs for modeling human exposures to air pollutants. Related mathematical equations and their solutions cannot begin to be covered herein and thus no equations are presented.

PRESENTATION A Framework for Fine-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics Air Quality Modeling and Analysis 10/16/2006
HUBER, A. H. A Framework for Fine-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics Air Quality Modeling and Analysis. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This paper discusses a framework for fine-scale CFD modeling that may be developed to complement the present Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system which itself is a computational fluid dynamics model. A goal of this presentation is to stimulate discussions on what is "Computational Fluid Dynamics" modeling and how can it evolve to support the critical needs for modeling human exposures to air pollutants. Related mathematical equations and their solutions cannot begin to be covered herein and thus no equations are presented. These details are not critical to this presentation. Advances in computing hardware and software make it possible and increasingly more practical to consider extending present CMAQ-like air quality models to increasingly finer scales.

PRESENTATION Effects of Vertical-Layer Structure and Boundary Conditions on Cmaq-V4.5 and V4.6 Models 10/16/2006
APPEL, W. AND A. GILLILAND. Effects of Vertical-Layer Structure and Boundary Conditions on Cmaq-V4.5 and V4.6 Models. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This work is aimed at determining whether the increased vertical layers in CMAQ provides substantially improved model performance and assess whether using the spatially and temporally varying boundary conditions from GEOS-CHEM offer improved model performance as compared to the default profiles.

PRESENTATION The 2006 Cmaq Release and Plans for 2007 10/16/2006
PLEIM, J. E., S. J. ROSELLE, P. BHAVE, R. BULLOCK, W. T. HUTZELL, D. J. LUECKEN, C. G. NOLTE, K. L. SCHERE, J. O. YOUNG, J. M. GODOWITCH, AND W. APPEL. The 2006 Cmaq Release and Plans for 2007. Presented at 5rh Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The 2006 release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (Version 4.6) includes upgrades to several model components as well as new modules for gas-phase chemistry and boundary layer mixing. Capabilities for simulation of hazardous air pollutants have been expanded to include more gas-phase toxics and several toxic metals. The mercury model has been updated and adapted to the new version of CMAQ. The CMAQ analysis tools, sulfur tracking and carbon source apportionment, have also been updated to operate with new physics, chemistry, and aerosol components.

PRESENTATION Initial Study of Hpac Modeled Dispersion Driven By Mm5 With and Without Urban Canopy Parameterizations 10/16/2006
KILEY, C., J. K. CHING, AND S. HAMILTON. Initial Study of Hpac Modeled Dispersion Driven By Mm5 With and Without Urban Canopy Parameterizations. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Improving the accuracy and capability of transport and dispersion models in urban areas is essential for current and future urban applications. These models must reflect more realistically the presence and details of urban canopy features. Such features markedly influence the flow circulation patterns, turbulence fields, and energy budgets at mesoscale; they also have a dominant influence of the fine scale flow and corresponding dispersion within and above the building elements and their canopy. Current advancements in mapping these urban features with a high degree of horizontal and vertical resolution is making possible (a) improved urban meteorological simulations with advanced urban canopy parameterizations in mesoscale models and (b) in advanced models of flow and dispersion within and above urban canopies at building scales. For this study, we utilize outputs of simulations from an urbanized version of the well known Mesoscale Model (Version 5) or MM5 to drive the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model. The building data set is derived from airborne lidar mappings providing resolution at 1 to 5 meter resolution. HPAC incorporates such data as shape files; MM5 utilizes these data in aggregated form as urban canopy parameters (UCPs) gridded at 1 km resolution. The study venue is Houston Texas. This sensitivity study provides a comparative of HPAC driven by both the UCP and the standard versions of MM5.

PRESENTATION A New Combined Local and Non-Local Pbl Model for Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling 10/16/2006
PLEIM, J. E. A New Combined Local and Non-Local Pbl Model for Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diffusion to better represent the full range of turbulent transport within the convective boundary layer (CBL). After a summary of the model formulation and an MM5 evaluation, this paper focuses on the implementation of the ACM2 in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and some initial testing and evaluation.

PRESENTATION The Use of Air Quality Forecasts to Assess Impacts of Air Pollution on Crops 10/16/2006
TONG, D., R. MATHUR, K. L. SCHERE, D. KANG, AND S. YU. The Use of Air Quality Forecasts to Assess Impacts of Air Pollution on Crops. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Assessing O3 damage to crops is challenging due to the difficulties in determining the reduction in crop yield that results from exposure to surface O3, for which monitors are limited and deployed mostly in non-rural areas. This work explores the potential benefits of using the EPA/NOAA operational air quality forecasts to alleviate several limitations in existing crop exposure assessment approaches. As a case study, we estimate that exposure to O3 has reduced US soybean production by 10% on a national average in 2005.

PRESENTATION Fine Scale Air Quality Modeling Using Dispersion and Cmaq Modeling Approaches: An Example Application in Wilmington, De 10/16/2006
CHING, J. K. Fine Scale Air Quality Modeling Using Dispersion and Cmaq Modeling Approaches: An Example Application in Wilmington, De. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Model 3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Characterization of spatial variability of air pollutants in an urban setting at fine scales is critical for improved air toxics exposure assessments, for model evaluation studies and also for air quality regulatory applications. For this study, we investigate an approach that supplement results of outputs from a local scale dispersion model (AERMOD) to CMAQ at regional scales for fine particulates and formaldehyde. The CMAQ runs were performed at 4 and 12 km grid sizes. Both modeling systems were run for the calendar year 2001. (A limited set of CMAQ runs were also made at 1 km grid size for July, 2001) Model results for formaldehyde, ozone and ultrafine PM are compared with observational data from a recent field study in Wilmington, DE. ). Our attention will be focused on an area covered by a 12 km CMAQ grid cell (and its nine 4 km cells) centered over Wilmington DE. The ultrafine particle and formaldehyde data were collected in situ using an instrumented van deployed in a mobile sampling mode for approximately one week periods during each of four seasons in 2005-2006. (During the summer of 2005, an ozone monitor was installed and operated in the van.). The sampling consisted of mobile transects over a set course covering much of the street blocks over an areas about 1 km by 2 km of downtown Wilmington. Each set of transects took approximately an hour to complete. The concentration distributions derived from each of the time series of the individual transects and constituted a 'sample' which is then compared against distributions based on the modeled results.

PRESENTATION Development of a Tightly Coupled Wrf-Nmm-Cmaq Air Quality Forecast System By Using the Hybrid Sigma-P Vertical Coordinate System 10/16/2006
LIN, H., T. L. OTTE, R. MATHUR, P. LEE, J. E. PLEIM, J. MCQUEEN, K. L. SCHERE, AND P. DAVIDSON. Development of a Tightly Coupled Wrf-Nmm-Cmaq Air Quality Forecast System By Using the Hybrid Sigma-P Vertical Coordinate System. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This poster was presented at the 2006 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference.

PRESENTATION National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (Nudapt): Facilitating Advancements in Urban Meteorology and Climate Modeling With Community-Based Urban Databases 10/16/2006
CHING, J. K., A. HANNA, D. WILLIAMS, AND S. BURIAN. National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (Nudapt): Facilitating Advancements in Urban Meteorology and Climate Modeling With Community-Based Urban Databases. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: We discuss the initial design and application of the National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (NUDAPT). This new project is sponsored by the USEPA and involves collaborations and contributions from many groups from federal and state agencies, and from private and academic institutions. NUDAPT will produce gridded outputs of urban parameterizations capable of driving advanced urban meteorological and air quality models. NUDAPT takes advantage of advances in modeling and parameterizations to improve urban simulations given the availability of new high-resolution data of urban morphological features. Portal technology is being used to develop NUDAPT as a "Community"-based system. The NUDAPT portal will facilitate data retrievals and handling based on data federation concepts (data federation provides a method for integrating diverse data into an application). Houston will serve as the initial prototype, it can then serve to demonstrate the NUDAPT features, including scope of the data and processing methodologies for an eventual extensibility to all other cities. Houston is the fourth most populated area in the United States. The city has been the subject of various environmental studies that have created a rich source of corresponding data (e.g., oxidants, air toxics). Fundamental data used will include buildings data, land use families, energy usage, census data, SAR data, activity data, traffic information, and population data. The initial prototype will be feature advanced urban implementations of the MM5 as well as WRF.

PRESENTATION Diagnostic Study on Fine Particulate Matter Predictions of Cmaq in the Southeastern U.S. 10/16/2006
LIU, P., Y. ZHANG, S. YU, P. BHAVE, R. W. PINDER, AND K. L. SCHERE. Diagnostic Study on Fine Particulate Matter Predictions of Cmaq in the Southeastern U.S. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: In this study, the authors use the process analysis tool embedded in CMAQ to examine major processes that govern the fate of key pollutants, identify the most influential processes that contribute to model errors, and guide the diagnostic and sensitivity studies aimed at improving model predictions of inorganic PM2.5.

PRESENTATION The Watershed Deposition Tool: A Means to Link Atmospheric Deposition to Watersheds 10/16/2006
DENNIS, R. L. The Watershed Deposition Tool: A Means to Link Atmospheric Deposition to Watersheds. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The potential for atmospheric deposition reductions to contribute to water quality management is not being included in many planning exercises. This is because often the water quality scientists do not know where to get and how to use projections of atmospheric deposition reductions produced by the air regulatory community. A means to facilitate the air-water quality linkage is needed.
To meet this need, a software tool is being developed by NOAA/EPA's Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division to aid the linkage of air and water for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) and related nonpointsource watershed analyses. The tool is called the Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT).

PRESENTATION The Value of Nudging in the Meteorology Model for Retrospective Cmaq Simulations 10/16/2006
OTTE, T. L. The Value of Nudging in the Meteorology Model for Retrospective Cmaq Simulations. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Using a nudging-based data assimilation approach throughout a meteorology simulation (i.e., as a "dynamic analysis") is considered valuable because it can provide a better overall representation of the meteorology than a pure forecast. Dynamic analysis is often used in the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) to generate multi-day meteorology simulations that are used as background for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System when CMAQ is used for retrospective research and regulatory applications. Because the influence of the input meteorology fields (e.g., from MM5) is significant, it may be considered intuitively obvious that using nudging to provide a dynamic analysis will lead to an improved air quality simulation. However, the penalty if nudging is not used in the meteorology model has not yet been quantified. This paper provides preliminary insights into the value to the chemistry model simulation of using nudging-based data assimilation for dynamic analysis in the meteorology fields that are input to CMAQ.

PRESENTATION Numerical Noise PM Simulation in Cmaq 10/16/2006
WONG, D. C. AND D. TONG. Numerical Noise PM Simulation in Cmaq. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference , Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: We have found that numerical noise in the latest release of CMAQ using the yamo advection scheme when compiled on Linux cluster with pgf90 (5.0 or 6.0). We recommend to use -C option to eliminate the numerical noise.

PRESENTATION Relative Effects of Observationally-Nudged Model Meteorology and Down-Scaled Global Climate Model Meteorology on Biogenic Emissions for the United States 10/16/2006
BENJEY, W. G. Relative Effects of Observationally-Nudged Model Meteorology and Down-Scaled Global Climate Model Meteorology on Biogenic Emissions for the United States. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) participate in a multi-agency examination of the effects of climate change through the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP, 2003). The EPA Global Change Research Program (GCRP) and NOAA Office of Global Research support the Climate Impacts on Regional Air Quality (CIRAQ) program, a program component focused on the potential effects of climate change on air quality by the year 2050. The first phase of the CIRAQ program is investigating the effect of climate change with emissions held constant at base period (2001 inventory) levels (EPA, 2006), except for meteorologically dependent emissions including biogenic and mobile source emissions. The second phase will incorporate future emission scenarios.

PRESENTATION Linking the Cmaq and Hysplit Modeling System Interface Program and Example Application 10/16/2006
GODOWITCH, J. M. AND R. R. DRAXLER. Linking the Cmaq and Hysplit Modeling System Interface Program and Example Application. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: A new software tool has been developed to link the Eulerian-based Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with the Lagrangian-based HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. Both models require many of the same hourly meteorological parameter fields in their applications, however, their meteorological input data files exhibit different formats and data structures. This paper describes the MCIP2ARL interface program, which was designed to retrieve the key meteorological fields required by HYSPLIT from CMAQ's MCIP (Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor) data files. It generates a HYSPLIT-compatible input data file, which permits analyses of various CMAQ results within HYSPLIT's Lagrangian trajectory framework. An example application is discussed. Results of CMAQ simulated concentrations along HYSPLIT trajectory paths are also presented.

PRESENTATION A Study of Process Contribution to PM 2.5 Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. 10/16/2006
YU, S., R. MATHUR, K. L. SCHERE, D. KANG, J. E. PLEIM, J. O. YOUNG, AND D. TONG. A Study of Process Contribution to PM 2.5 Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: In this study, first, we evaluate the Eta-CMAQ forecast model performance for the chemical components (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) of PM2.5 with the observational data from aircraft flights during the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field experiments. The model spatial performance for PM2.5 chemical constituents (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, OC and EC) is evaluated with the observational data from the IMPROVE, CASTNet, and STN networks. The spatial and temporal performance of the model for surface PM2.5 mass over the eastern U.S during this period is examined through comparison with observations from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) network. Secondly, the contributions of various physical and chemical processes governing the distribution of PM2.5 are investigated through detailed analysis of model process budgets using the integrated process rate analysis (IPR) along back trajectories from selected locations.

PRESENTATION Cmaq Model Evaluation Using An Ensemble of Mm5 Meteorological Simulations 10/16/2006
PINDER, R. W., R. C. GILLIAM, W. APPEL, AND A. GILLILAND. Cmaq Model Evaluation Using An Ensemble of Mm5 Meteorological Simulations. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Use multiple meteorological simulations and chemical mechanisms to explore the use of ensembles in air quality model evaluation.

PRESENTATION Effects of Using the Cb05 Versus the Cb4 Chemical Mechanisms on Model Predictions 10/16/2006
LUECKEN, D. J. AND G. SARWAR. Effects of Using the Cb05 Versus the Cb4 Chemical Mechanisms on Model Predictions. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The Carbon Bond 4 (CB4) chemical mechanism has been widely used for many years in box and air quality models to predict the effect of atmospheric chemistry on pollutant concentrations. Because of the importance of this mechanism and the length of time since its original development, the CB05 chemical mechanism was developed in 2005 and implemented in CMAQ release v4.5, and a final version is available in the 2006 CMAQ release (v4.6).
During 2006, concentration predictions by CMAQ using the CB05 chemical mechanism are being extensively compared with predictions using the older CB4 chemical mechanism, as well as with observational data. While some of the differences between the CB4 and the CB05 mechanisms are small, there are some significant differences in a few of the oxidant and particulate matter (PM) species, and the magnitude of these differences vary both temporally and spatially. In this study, we examine where and when the largest differences between the two mechanisms tend to occur.

PRESENTATION Relative Effects of Observationally-Nudged Modeled Meteorology and Down-Scaled Global Climate Model Meteorology on Biogenic Emissions 10/16/2006
BENJEY, W. G. Relative Effects of Observationally-Nudged Modeled Meteorology and Down-Scaled Global Climate Model Meteorology on Biogenic Emissions. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Assess potential climate change impacts on O3 and PM using EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model linked with global-scale climate and chemical transport models.

PRESENTATION Effects of Using the Cb05 Versus the Cb4 Chemical Mechanism on Model Predictions 10/16/2006
LUECKEN, D. J. AND G. SARWAR. Effects of Using the Cb05 Versus the Cb4 Chemical Mechanism on Model Predictions. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The Carbon Bond 4 (CB4) chemical mechanism has been widely used for many years in box and air quality models to predict the effect of atmospheric chemistry on pollutant concentrations. Because of the importance of this mechanism and the length of time since its original development, the CB05 chemical mechanism was developed in 2005 and implemented in CMAQ release v4.5, and a final version is available in the 2006 CMAQ release (v4.6).
During 2006, concentration predictions by CMAQ using the CB05 chemical mechanism are being extensively compared with predictions using the older CB4 chemical mechanism, as well as with observational data. While some of the differences between the CB4 and the CB05 mechanisms are small, there are some significant differences in a few of the oxidant and particulate matter (PM) species, and the magnitude of these differences vary both temporally and spatially. In this study, we examine where and when the largest differences between the two mechanisms tend to occur.

PRESENTATION Changes to the Chemical Mechanisms for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Cmaq Version 4.6 10/16/2006
HUTZELL, W. T., G. POULIOT, AND D. J. LUECKEN. Changes to the Chemical Mechanisms for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Cmaq Version 4.6. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Research Triangle Park, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The extended abstract describes a presentation to the 2006 conference of the Community Modeling and Analysis System. The presentation introduces two new mechanisms for the atmospheric photochemistry of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) to be used in regional air quality models. It then lists the HAPs treated by the mechanisms and describes how the mechanisms represent the processes controlling their fate and transport. The presentation concludes on expected differences between predictions from the two mechanisms and gives possible reason for the differences.

PRESENTATION Application of Bias and Adjustment Techniques to the Eta-Cmaq Air Quality Forecast 10/15/2006
KANG, D., R. MATHUR, AND S.T. RAO. Application of Bias and Adjustment Techniques to the Eta-Cmaq Air Quality Forecast. Presented at 5th Annual CMAS Models-3 User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, October 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The current air quality forecast system, based on linking NOAA's Eta meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, consistently overpredicts surface ozone concentrations, but simulates its day-to-day variability quite well. The ability of bias correction techniques in improving the accuracy of the forecasts at discrete monitoring locations is investigated through their application to archived real-time surface level ozone forecasts from the Eta-CMAQ air quality forecasting modeling system. In particular, two bias correction techniques, namely the Hybrid Forecast and the Kalman Filter Predictor approaches, are applied to model forecast data during July to September 2005 period to examine if the corrected forecasts can improve forecast accuracy in both discrete and categorical measures. Hybrid Forecast is based on today's observation and the change between today's and tomorrow's model forecasts to correct tomorrow's forecasts, while the Kalman Filter Predictor Bias Correction is a recursive algorithm to optimally estimate bias correction term from previous measurements and forecasts. Preliminary results have shown that both Hybrid Forecasts and Kalman Filter Bias Correction Forecasts can significantly reduce forecast errors compared with original model forecasts. However, the impact on categorical metrics such as hit rates and false alarm ratios varies with time and locations. A detailed analysis of this research will be presented.

PRESENTATION Expressing Supply Limitation in Sand Saltation 09/28/2006
GILLETTE, D. Expressing Supply Limitation in Sand Saltation. Presented at First Sino-USA Conference on Environments and Mechanics, Lanzhov, CHINA, September 28 - 29, 2006.
Abstract: Saltation-driven sandblasting is the most effective producer of windblown dust. Modeling of wind-blown dust emissions requires an efficient parameterization of sand flux in the saltating mode. According to the theory of P. R. Owen the horizontal mass flux of saltating uniform particles is equal to a coefficient AO times a function using three parameters: friction velocity, threshold friction velocity, and the ratio of air density to the acceleration of gravity. We compared Owen's expression for AO with the ratio of the measured horizontal flux of saltating particles to Owen's expression for saltating sand when AO was set to 1. We called this ratio "A." AO was part of Owen's model whereas "A" is a value that forces Owens model to agree with our measured sand flux. Values of A in can be used to (1) characterize the efficiency of the wind to move sand by saltation for different soil textures and aggregations, and (2) to make practical predictions of sand movement based on the condition of the surface soil and (3) to delimit a surface that is "supply limited," that is, normal saltation is not possible because sand particles available for entrainment are limited.

PRESENTATION Regional-Scale Air Quality Modeling Using Cmaq 09/26/2006
BHAVE, P. Regional-Scale Air Quality Modeling Using Cmaq. Presented at 2006 Environmental Partnership Summit, Resesarch Triangle Park, NC, September 26 - 27, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation provides an overview of the technical competencies within the Atmospheric Modeling Division as well as our current research. Following a brief description of PM2.5 modeling activities, the presentation closes with a list of areas in which our Division could benefit from partnerships with industries and academia.

PRESENTATION The Impact of Building Topography on Aerosol Dispersion in An Urban Street Canyon 09/13/2006
RICHMOND-BRYANT, J., L. BRIXEY, D. HEIST, S. G. PERRY, G. E. BOWKER, AND R. W. WIENER. The Impact of Building Topography on Aerosol Dispersion in An Urban Street Canyon. Presented at International Aerosol Conference 2006 (AAAR) , St Paul, MN, September 10 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: This slide presentation will made to the International Aerosol Conference (AAAR) in St. Paul, MN in September, 2006 and will available to the general public.

PRESENTATION Emissions Inventory of PM 2.5 Trace Elements Across the U.S. 09/13/2006
REFF, A. AND P. BHAVE. Emissions Inventory of PM 2.5 Trace Elements Across the U.S. Presented at American Association for Aerosol Research 2006, St. Paul, MN, September 10 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: This abstract describes work done to speciate PM2.5 emissions into emissions of trace metals to enable concentrations of metal species to be predicted by air quality models. Methods are described and initial results are presented. A technique for validating the resulting PM2.5 metals emissions by comparing them to ambient concentrations is described, and the need for future improvement of the speciation process is discussed.

PRESENTATION Ultrafine Particle Concentrations Near Freeways at Night or Early Morning Under Calm Weather Conditions 09/11/2006
FRUIN, S. A. AND V. ISAKOV. Ultrafine Particle Concentrations Near Freeways at Night or Early Morning Under Calm Weather Conditions. Presented at Internatrional Aerosol Conference (AAAR), St. Paul, MN, September 10 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: There is evidence that ultrafine (UF) particles dominate the number concentrations in close proximity to the roadway. The UF particles are also known to be more toxic than larger sizes of PM on an equal mass basis. In this work, UF particle number concentrations were measured under calm, nighttime conditions near highway 50 in Sacramento, CA. The results indicate that the influence of freeway traffic late at night, under cool and calm conditions, may influence an order of magnitude larger area than has been predicted by previous daytime measurements.

PRESENTATION The Impact of Building Topography on Aerosol Dispersion in An Urban Street Canyon 09/10/2006
RICHMOND-BRYANT, J., L. BRIXEY, D. HEIST, S. G. PERRY, G. E. BOWKER, AND R. W. WIENER. The Impact of Building Topography on Aerosol Dispersion in An Urban Street Canyon. Presented at International Aerosol Conference (AAAR/ISAM), St. Paul, MN, September 10 - 15, 2006.
Abstract: This extended abstract describes numerical simulations of the flow through a building array which includes an isolated tall tower. The work seeks to explore the impact of a single tall building on the circulation and channeling of aerosolized traffic emissions within a series of street canyons using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with particle tracking. The abstract will be submitted to the International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association of Aerosol Research to be held in St. Paul MN from September 10-15, 2006 and may be included in the proceedings from that conference.

PRESENTATION Cmaq Model Development: Current Model Configuration and Future Plans 08/06/2006
ROSELLE, S. J. Cmaq Model Development: Current Model Configuration and Future Plans. Presented at ACCNET-CMAS Training Workshop , Sofia, BULGARIA, August 06, 2006.
Abstract: Presentation slides provide background on air quality model, a description of the current CMAQ model development activities, and a look at the future CMAQ development plans.

PRESENTATION Results from the North American Mercury Model Inter-Comparison Study (Nammis) 08/06/2006
BULLOCK, R., K. LOHMAN, C. SEIGNEUR, K. VIJAYARAGHAVAN, A. DASTOOR, D. DAVIGNON, N. E. SELIN, D. J. JACOB, T. MYERS, K. CIVEROLO, C. HOGREFE, J. KU, G. SISTLA, D. ATKINSON, AND T. BRAVERMAN. Results from the North American Mercury Model Inter-Comparison Study (Nammis). Presented at 8th International Conference on Mercury, Madison, WI, August 06 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: A North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study (NAMMIS) has been conducted to build upon the findings from previous mercury model intercomparison in Europe. In the absence of mercury measurement networks sufficient for model evaluation, model developers continue to rely on model intercomparison studies to gauge the level of modeling uncertainty and to identify the most important knowledge gaps leading to this uncertainty. Three regional-scale atmospheric mercury models have been applied for the NAMMIS: a mercury-specific version of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD), and the Trace Element Analysis Model (TEAM). The modeling domain used by all of the regional-scale models covers the 48 contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Three different global-scale atmospheric mercury models were applied to define three sets of initial condition and boundary condition (IC/BC) data for the regional study area. The global models applied were: the Chemical Tracer Model (CTM), the Global - Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metal (GRAHM) model, and the GEOS-Chem model. The regional-scale models have each used these three IC/BC sets along with identical meteorological and pollutant emissions input data to simulate atmospheric mercury transport, transformation and deposition. Through this highly structured model application process, the individual effects of IC/BC input data and science process treatments in the regional models are measured.

PRESENTATION Sensitivity of the Cmaq Mercury Model to Gas-Phase Oxidation Chemistry 08/06/2006
BULLOCK, R. AND T. BRAVERMAN. Sensitivity of the Cmaq Mercury Model to Gas-Phase Oxidation Chemistry. Presented at 8th International Conference on Mercury, Madison, WI, August 06 - 11, 2006.
Abstract: Simulations of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for mercury have shown the vast majority of the mercury deposited in the United States to be in the form of oxidized mercury. However, most of this simulated oxidized mercury was the result of atmospheric oxidation rather than direct industrial emissions from domestic sources. The simulated atmospheric oxidation of mercury by reaction with ozone and hydroxyl radical was critical to this finding. The importance of both of these gas-phase oxidation reactions has recently been called into question in a peer-reviewed journal article. Given the uncertainty about the actual rates of these reactions under atmospheric conditions, test simulations of the CMAQ model were performed with both reactions deactivated to see how the simulated deposition flux and source attribution might change. This new modeling shows that simply removing these reactions from the simulation has a dramatic effect, significantly lowering the wet deposition flux to values well below observed levels. These findings illustrate the critical importance of accurate chemical kinetics information to any such modeling assessment of mercury source attribution.

PRESENTATION Application and Evaluation of Cmaq in the United States: Air Quality Forecasting and Retrospective Modeling 08/06/2006
ROSELLE, S. J. Application and Evaluation of Cmaq in the United States: Air Quality Forecasting and Retrospective Modeling. Presented at ACCENT-CMAS Training Workshop , Sofia, BULGARIA, August 06, 2006.
Abstract: Presentation slides provide background on model evaluation techniques. Also included in the presentation is an operational evaluation of 2001 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) annual simulation, and an evaluation of PM2.5 for the CMAQ air quality forecast (AQF) simulations.

PRESENTATION Ammonia: Environmental Impacts, Emissions, Inorganic PM 2.5, and Clean Air Interstate Rule 07/28/2006
PINDER, R. W., A. GILLILAND, R. L. DENNIS, P. ADAMS, AND S. N. PANDIS. Ammonia: Environmental Impacts, Emissions, Inorganic PM 2.5, and Clean Air Interstate Rule. Presented at EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, July 28, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has been statistically associated with pulmonary and cardiac health impacts. In this presentation, we show that ammonia emission reductions are a cost-effective control strategy for reducing inorganic PM2.5 in nonattainment areas. We also show that after future NOx and SO2 emission reductions (as a result of the Clean Air Interstate Rule) the sensitivity of PM2.5 to NH3 emissions decreases, and deposition of NH3 to ecosystems increases.

PRESENTATION Developments and Applications of Cfd Simulations of Micrometeorology and Pollution Transport in Support of Air Quality Modeling 07/16/2006
HUBER, A. H., M. FREEMAN, R. SPENCER, W. TANG, W. SCHWARZ, B. BELL, AND K. KUEHLERT. Developments and Applications of Cfd Simulations of Micrometeorology and Pollution Transport in Support of Air Quality Modeling. Presented at Computational Wind Engineering 2006 Conference, Yokohama, JAPAN, July 16 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: Development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being advanced through case studies for simulating air pollutant concentrations from sources within open fields and within complex urban building environments. CFD applications have been under development to reconstruct the dust/smoke plume following the events at the New York City World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

PRESENTATION Air Quality Model Evaluation Forecasting and Retrospectives 06/29/2006
SCHERE, K. L. Air Quality Model Evaluation Forecasting and Retrospectives. Presented at NARSTO Workshop on Applications of Particulate Matter Models for Source Apportionment and AQ Management, Boulder, CO, June 29, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation discusses the CMAQ model evaluation framework, and presents results of evaluation of CMAQ's particulate matter estimates for PM2.5, and its components for 2005 air quality forecast predictions as well as retrospective modeling for 2001.

PRESENTATION Status and Progress in Particulate Matter Forecasting: Initial Application of the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model 06/27/2006
MATHUR, R. Status and Progress in Particulate Matter Forecasting: Initial Application of the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model. Presented at NARSTO Workshop on PM Simulation and Process Evaluation, Boulder, CO, June 27, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with measurements of PM forecast results from the Eta-CMAQ forecast model.

PRESENTATION Interdependencies of Multi-Pollutant Control Simulations in An Air Quality Model 06/20/2006
LUECKEN, D. J. Interdependencies of Multi-Pollutant Control Simulations in An Air Quality Model. Presented at 99th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, New Orleans, LA, June 20 - 23, 2006.
Abstract: In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

PRESENTATION Ammonia Emissions and Their Implications on Fine Particulate Matter Formation in North Carolina 06/07/2006
HU, J., S. WU, Y. ZHANG, V. ANEJA, G. POULIOT, A. GILLILAND, AND R. W. PINDER. Ammonia Emissions and Their Implications on Fine Particulate Matter Formation in North Carolina. Presented at Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, Potomac, MD, June 05 - 08, 2006.
Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) is an important atmospheric pollutant that plays a key role in several air pollution problems. The accuracy of NH3 emissions can have a large effect on air quality model (AQM) predictions of aerosol sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations. Large uncertainties exist in NH3 emission inventories in both total emissions and temporal variations. In this work, sensitivity simulations are conducted to assess the impact of NH3 emissions on the formation of PM2.5 and its composition in August and December 2002 in North Carolina.

PRESENTATION The Impact of Winter Nh3 Emission Reductions on Inorganic Particulate Matter Under Present and Future Regulated Conditions 06/07/2006
PINDER, R., A. GILLILAND, AND R. L. DENNIS. The Impact of Winter Nh3 Emission Reductions on Inorganic Particulate Matter Under Present and Future Regulated Conditions. Presented at Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, Potomac, MD, June 05 - 08, 2006.
Abstract: Recent regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency requires large-scale emission reductions of NOx and SO2. This study estimates the impact of these changes on the sensitivity of PM2.5 to NH3 emission reductions and the reduced-form nitrogen deposition burden.

PRESENTATION The Fate and Transport of Ammonia at the Local to Regional Level 06/07/2006
DENNIS, R. L., R. MATHUR, D. B. SCHWEDE, J. T. WALKER, AND W. ROBARGE. The Fate and Transport of Ammonia at the Local to Regional Level. Presented at Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, Potomac, MD, June 05 - 08, 2006.
Abstract: Air quality model results are developed and presented as to where ammonia goes once it is emitted. The ammonia budget is dissected in terms of dry and wet deposition and turbulent and wind transport. The domain of analysis is the eastern U.S. The CMAQ model is used with process analysis at a 12 km grid size. An important message is to show that only a minority of the ammonia emissions deposit locally around emission hot spots.

PRESENTATION INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE, MODELED, AND GROUND BASED AEROSOL DATA FOR USE IN AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH APPLICATIONS ( AGU-BALTIMORE ) 05/23/2006
GARCIA, V., S. KONDRAGUNTA, D. M. HOLLAND, F. DIMMICK, V. BOOTHE, J. SZYKMAN, J. ENGEL-COX, C. KITTAKA, J. AL-SAADI, R. M. HOFF, S.T. RAO, AND L. REMER. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE, MODELED, AND GROUND BASED AEROSOL DATA FOR USE IN AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH APPLICATIONS ( AGU-BALTIMORE ). Presented at AGU 2006 Joint Assembly, Baltimore, MD, May 23 - 26, 2006.
Abstract: Within the next several years NOAA and EPA will begin to issue PM2.5 air quality forecasts over the entire domain of the eastern United States, eventually extending to national coverage. These forecasts will provide continuous estimated values of particulate matter on a daily basis. This modeled data, combined with the ground-based and satellite measures described above, will result in the availability of enriched air quality information on an ongoing and systematic basis for use in a multitude of applications.

PRESENTATION Examining the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality Over the United States 05/18/2006
COOTER, E., R. GILLIAM, W. G. BENJEY, CHRIS NOLTE, J. SWALL, AND A. GILLILAND. Examining the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality Over the United States. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation summarizes recent results produced in support of the assessment of climate change impacts on ozone and particulate matter over the continental United States. Preliminary findings of climate scenario, meteorologically-drive emissions and air quality simulation analyses for current (ca. 2000) and future (ca. 2050) time periods are reported.

PRESENTATION Developing and Implementing An Updated Chlorine Chemistry Into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model 05/18/2006
SARWAR, G., D. J. LUECKEN, AND G. YARWOOD. Developing and Implementing An Updated Chlorine Chemistry Into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: The study presents an updated chlorine mechanism and evaluates the effects of chlorine emissions on ozone concentrations in the western United States.

PRESENTATION The Influence of a Tall Building on Street-Canyon Flow in An Urban Neighborhood 05/17/2006
BOWKER, G. E., D. HEIST, S. G. PERRY, L. BRIXEY, R. S. THOMPSON, AND R. W. WIENER. The Influence of a Tall Building on Street-Canyon Flow in An Urban Neighborhood. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This study presents a velocity comparison between meteorological wind tunnel results and results from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex model (QUIC, version 3.9) for a simplified urban area, representing a regular array of city blocks composed of row houses in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. QUIC reproduced the overall flow patterns observed in the wind tunnel.

PRESENTATION Understanding Pollutant Dispersion in An Urban Neighborhood 05/17/2006
BOWKER, G. E., S. G. PERRY, D. HEIST, L. A. BRIXEY, R. THOMPSON, AND R. W. WIENER. Understanding Pollutant Dispersion in An Urban Neighborhood. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2006, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Work has been focused on urban air quality and homeland security issues, modeling the complex airflow patterns in cities and around buildings (e.g. the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, and the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C.). These experimental studies have contributed directly to the development and improvement of many of EPA¿s numerical models of pollutant transport and diffusion and have helped in the design of urban field studies and interpretation of the resulting data.

PRESENTATION Evaluation of Eta-Cmaq O3 Forecast Over Different Regions of the Continental US and Using New Categorical Evaluation Metrics 05/17/2006
KANG, D., R. MATHUR, S. YU, AND K. L. SCHERE. Evaluation of Eta-Cmaq O3 Forecast Over Different Regions of the Continental US and Using New Categorical Evaluation Metrics. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Lepzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: Developmental forecasts simulations with the Eta-CMAQ modeling system over the continental U.S. were initiated in 2005. This paper presents an evaluation of surface O3 forecast over different regions of the continental U.S. In addition, to the traditional operational evaluation metric, three new categorical metric are developed and applied to the Eta-CMAQ results.

PRESENTATION Policy and Science: Assessing the Impact of Regulations on Air Quality and Human Health 05/17/2006
GARCIA, V. Policy and Science: Assessing the Impact of Regulations on Air Quality and Human Health. Presented at East Tennessee Ozone Study Workshop, Oak Ridge, TN, May 17 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation will discuss the NOx SIP call and the results of several studies investigating the impact of the regulation on NOx emissions and ozone levels across the northeastern United States. Current research plans to investigate linkages with human health will also be discussed.

PRESENTATION The North American Mercury Model Inter-Comparison Study (Nammis) 05/17/2006
BULLOCK, R., D. ATKINSON, T. BRAVERMAN, A. DASTOOR, D. DAVIGNON, N. ECKLEY-SELIN, D. JACOB, K. LOHMAN, C. SEIGNEUR, K. VIJAYARAGHAVAN, T. MYERS, K. CIVEROLO, AND C. HOGREFE. The North American Mercury Model Inter-Comparison Study (Nammis). Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This paper describes the North American Mercury Model Inter-comparison Study (NAMMIS). The NAMMIS is an effort to apply atmospheric Hg models in a tightly constrained testing environment with a focus on North America. With each model using the same input data sets for initial conditions, meteorology, emissions and boundary values, and with each model applied to the same horizontal modeling domain, the separate effects of input data and scientific process treatments of each model can be better understood and guidance can be provided to the research community regarding which scientific process uncertainties are contributing most to observed discrepancies in model simulations of Hg deposition.

PRESENTATION A Study of Process Contributions to Ozone Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. 05/17/2006
YU, S., R. MATHUR, K. L. SCHERE, D. KANG, J. PLEIM, JEFF O. YOUNG, AND T. L. OTTE. A Study of Process Contributions to Ozone Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Lepzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: First, this study evaluates the Eta-CMAQ forecast model performances for O3, and related chemical species with the observational data from the aircraft (NOAA P-3 and NASA DC-8) flights, Lidar and ozonesonde during the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field experiments. The spatial and temporal performance of the model for surface O3 over the northeastern U.S during this period is also examined through comparison with observations from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) network. Secondly, the contributions of various physical and chemical processes governing the distribution of O3 during this period are investigated through detailed analysis of model process budgets using the integrated process rate analysis (IPR).

PRESENTATION The Influence of a Tall Building on Street Canyon Flow in An Urban Neigborhood 05/17/2006
BOWKER, G. E., D. HEIST, S. G. PERRY, L. BRIXEY, AND R. S. THOMPSON. The Influence of a Tall Building on Street Canyon Flow in An Urban Neigborhood. Presented at 28th ITM NATO/CCMS , Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This study presents a velocity comparison between meteorological wind tunnel results and results from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex model (QUIC, version 3.9) for a simplified urban area, representing a regular array of city blocks composed of row houses in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

PRESENTATION The Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality 05/17/2006
NOLTE, CHRIS, E. COOTER, R. GILLIAM, W. G. BENJEY, J. SWALL, A. GILLILAND, L. J. MICKLEY, AND P. ADAMS. The Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: In this study, air quality is simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model under current climatological conditions and under climatological conditions 50 years in the future

PRESENTATION Examining the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality Over the United States 05/17/2006
COOTER, E., R. GILLIAM, W. G. BENJEY, CHRIS NOLTE, J. SWALL, AND A. GILLILAND. Examining the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Quality Over the United States. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This product contains material to be presented at the 28th NATO/CCMS ITM on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application to be held in Leipzig, Germany, 15-19 May, 2006.

PRESENTATION The Noaa EPA National Air Quality Forecasting System 05/17/2006
HERWEHE, J. The Noaa EPA National Air Quality Forecasting System. Presented at East Tennessee Ozone Study 2006, Oak Ridge, TN, May 17 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: Building upon decades of collaboration in air pollution meteorology research, in 2003 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signed formal partnership agreements to develop and implement an operational national air quality forecasting (AQF) system. Utilizing comprehensive state-of-the-science numerical models, the AQF system provides air quality guidance for state and local agencies to determine a local air quality index (AQI). The AQF system consists of linking the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather prediction model with the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to produce next-day hourly surface ozone (O3) forecasts on a horizontal grid spacing of 12 km. This linked AQF system was tested during the 2003 and 2004 summer ozone seasons for the northeastern U.S., and then became operational in September 2004. In August 2005, the operational AQF domain was expanded over the eastern half of the U.S. The current NAM model is Eta, but the NWS will switch to the WRF-NMM model during the summer of 2006; CMAQ linkage to WRF-NMM is already well under way. Example AQF predictions and analyses from the summer of 2005 will be shown, including comparison with ETOS O3 observations.
The research presented here was performed under the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Commerce¿s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and under agreement number DW13921548. This work constitutes a contribution to the NOAA Air Quality Program. Although it has been reviewed by EPA and NOAA and approved for publication, it does not necessarily reflect their policies or views.

PRESENTATION The Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool 05/16/2006
GILLIAM, R. C. AND W. APPEL. The Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2006, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: This poster describes a model evaluation tool that is currently being developed and applied for meteorological and air quality model evaluation. The poster outlines the framework and provides examples of statistical evaluations that can be performed with the model evaluation tool.

PRESENTATION Development and Evaluation of PM 2.5 Source Apportionment Methodologies 05/16/2006
REFF, A. H. Development and Evaluation of PM 2.5 Source Apportionment Methodologies. Presented at 2006 EPA Science Forum, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2006.
Abstract: The receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) has been extensively used to apportion sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), but the accuracy of source apportionment results currently remains unknown. In addition, air quality forecast models such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model do not currently posses the ability to adequately apportion sources of PM2.5 on a regional or national scale. The objectives of this project are to 1) develop a synthetic dataset of ambient PM species concentrations with known source contributions, 2) analyze this dataset with PMF to evaluate the accuracy of current PMF methods, 3) use this dataset as a basis explore new and more accurate procedures for the application of PMF to ambient PM data, and 4) compare source apportionment results obtained by "tagging" PM2.5 emissions in CMAQ to the results of applying the newly developed PMF methodologies to ambient PM2.5 data. Currently the creation of the synthetic dataset is underway, and preliminary exploration of PMF methods is ongoing.

PRESENTATION A Study of Process Contributions to Ozone Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. 05/16/2006
YU, S., R. MATHUR, K. L. SCHERE, D. KANG, J. PLEIM, J. O. YOUNG, AND T. L. OTTE. A Study of Process Contributions to Ozone Formation During the 2004 Icartt Period Using the Eta-Cmaq Forecast Model Over the Northeastern U.S. Presented at 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: First, this study evaluates the Eta-CMAQ forecast model performances for O3, and related chemical species with the observational data from the aircraft (NOAA P-3 and NASA DC-8) flights, Lidar and ozonesonde during the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field experiments. The spatial and temporal performance of the model for surface O3 over the northeastern U.S during this period is also examined through comparison with observations from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) network. Secondly, the contributions of various physical and chemical processes governing the distribution of O3 during this period are investigated through detailed analysis of model process budgets using the integrated process rate analysis (IPR).

PRESENTATION Modeling Assessment of No x Emission Reduction in the Eastern United States: Offsetting Increases in Energy Use 05/15/2006
PORTER, S., E. GEGO, A. GILLILAND, C. HOGREFE, J. M. GODOWITCH, AND S.T. RAO. Modeling Assessment of No x Emission Reduction in the Eastern United States: Offsetting Increases in Energy Use. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: This product was presented at the 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution and Modeling and its Application, Leipzig, Germany May 15-19, 2006

PRESENTATION The Relationship Between Meteorology and No x Emissions from Electric Generating Units in the U.S. 05/15/2006
PORTER, P. S., S.T. RAO, A. GILLILAND, AND E. GEGO. The Relationship Between Meteorology and No x Emissions from Electric Generating Units in the U.S. Presented at 28th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting, Leipzig, GERMANY, May 15 - 19, 2006.
Abstract: In this paper, we present time series and spatial images of emission rates, fuel heat value, and NOX emissions for the Eastern U.S.

PRESENTATION Past and Present: 50 Years of Air Quality Modeling Research and Its Applications By the Noaa Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division 05/10/2006
POOLE-KOBER, E. Past and Present: 50 Years of Air Quality Modeling Research and Its Applications By the Noaa Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division. Presented at Southeast Affiliate of IAMSLIC Annual Meeting, Ocean Springs, MS, May 09 - 12, 2006.
Abstract: The NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division (ASMD) celebrated its Golden Jubilee in September 2005. The partnership between NOAA and EPA began when the Air Pollution Unit of the Public Health Service, which later became part of the EPA, requested the Weather Bureau provide it with meteorological expertise. Thus, in 1955, a special Weather Bureau air pollution unit was formed, integrated with the Public Health Service, and located in Cincinnati, Ohio, until it moved in 1969 to Raleigh, North Carolina. This paper focuses on 50 years of air quality research performed by ASMD in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and predecessor agencies.

PRESENTATION ( RTP, NC ) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT 03/21/2006
MOBLEY, J. DAVID. ( RTP, NC ) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT. Presented at Air and Waste Management Association Meeting, Research Triangle Park, NC, March 21, 2006.
Abstract: The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timeliness, and cost effectiveness. Accordingly, NARSTO sponsored a workshop to address new and innovative methods for emission inventory development and evaluation. Findings and recommendations from the workshop led NARSTO to undertake an assessment of the emission inventory programs across North America. The assessment, slated for completion in Spring 2005, identifies emission inventory programs needed for the 21st century, recognizes the capabilities and limitations of current programs, and recommends enhancements needed to move the programs forward. Preliminary findings and recommendations will be presented.

PRESENTATION Use of Remote Sensing Air Quality Information in Regional Scale Air Pollution Modeling: Current Use and Requirements 02/22/2006
RAO, S.T., R. MATHUR, R. PINDER, JON PLEIM, S. J. ROSELLE, AND B. ROY. Use of Remote Sensing Air Quality Information in Regional Scale Air Pollution Modeling: Current Use and Requirements. Presented at Community Workshop on Air Quality Remote Sensing from Space: Defining and Optimum Observing Strategy, Boulder, CO, February 21 - 23, 2006.
Abstract: In recent years the applications of regional air quality models are continuously being extended to address atmospheric pollution phenomenon from local to hemispheric spatial scales over time scales ranging from episodic to annual. The need to represent interactions between physical and chemical atmospheric processes occurring at these disparate spatial and temporal scales requires the use of observation data beyond traditional in-situ networks so that the model simulations can be reasonably constrained. This presentation reviews several preliminary applications of remote sensing data in regional air quality modeling using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The results from these early applications are discussed in context of (1) uncertainties in the model and in the remote sensing data and (2) needs for defining a future optimum observing strategy.

PRESENTATION Simulating Regional-Scale Air Quality With Dynamic Changes in Regional Climate and Chemical Boundary Conditions 02/15/2006
HOGREFE, C., S.T. RAO, R. BULLOCK, A. GILLILAND, AND P. L. KINNEY. Simulating Regional-Scale Air Quality With Dynamic Changes in Regional Climate and Chemical Boundary Conditions. Presented at International Conference on Mesoscale Processes in Atmosphere, Ocean and Environmental Systems (IMPA 2006), New Delhi, INDIA, February 14 - 17, 2006.
Abstract: This poster compares air quality modeling simulations under current climate and a future (approximately 2050) climate scenario. Differences in predicted ozone episodes and daily average PM2.5 concentrations are presented, along with vertical ozone profiles. Modeling results suggest ozone episode increases in the future, as well as some increases in PM2.5; however, additional years of simulation are needed to more thoroughly test this.

PRESENTATION The Emergence of Numerical Air Quality Forcasting Models and Their Applications 02/02/2006
SCHERE, K. L. The Emergence of Numerical Air Quality Forcasting Models and Their Applications. Presented at American Meteorological Society Forum, Atlanta, GA, February 02, 2006.
Abstract: In recent years the U.S. and other nations have begun programs for short-term local through regional air quality forecasting based upon numerical three-dimensional air quality grid models. These numerical air quality forecast (NAQF) models and systems have been developed and tested over the last thirty years through retrospective applications for air quality management. Air quality forecasting is a newer application area and brings with it significant new challenges. Such systems are now in operational or experimental use in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, among other locations, and are operated by government, private sector, and academic organizations. We present several examples of such systems now in operation within North America, including the NOAA National Weather Service Eta-CMAQ system, Baron Advanced Meteorological Systems MM5-MAQSIP system, Environment Canada GEM-CHRONOS system, and the NCAR/NOAA WRF-Chem system. The forecast systems are briefly described, including a discussion of particular challenges encountered during development or application, and example forecasts are provided. Results from a recent air quality forecast model intercomparison are shown based on applications during the 2004 ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field study focused on the northeast U.S. The concept of "ensemble" air quality model forecasts is illustrated as part of the model intercomparion study. Future challenges for NAQF are also discussed, including chemical data assimilation in modeling systems, integrated meteorological/chemical systems, and interactions with global models for specifying boundary conditions.

PRESENTATION An Approach for Incorporating Sub-Grid Variability Information Into Air Quality Modeling 02/01/2006
CHING, J. K., V. ISAKOV, M. A. MAJEED, AND J. IRWIN. An Approach for Incorporating Sub-Grid Variability Information Into Air Quality Modeling. Presented at Joint Conference on the Application of Air Pollution Meteorology and Air and Waste Management Association, Atlanta, GA, January 29 - February 02, 2006.
Abstract: All air quality grid model outputs are single valued for each grid cell at each time step. This paper explores a method for introducing unresolved spatial details using weighting function for sub-grid variability (SGV) to grid model outputs. This study examined and compared the Coefficient of Variation, the 95th percentile and the peak-to-mean statistical representations of the a priori SGV distributions. Potential utility of the method and these different weighting functions include air toxic assessments, model evaluation and SIP applications.

PRESENTATION Application of Cfd Simulations for Short-Range Atmospheric Dispersion Over Open Fields and Within Arrays of Buildings 02/01/2006
TANG, W., A. H. HUBER, B. BELL, AND W. SCHWARZ. Application of Cfd Simulations for Short-Range Atmospheric Dispersion Over Open Fields and Within Arrays of Buildings. Presented at 14th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, A&WMA, Atlanta, GA, January 30 - February 02, 2006.
Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are increasingly being applied to air quality modeling of short-range dispersion, especially the flow and dispersion around buildings and other geometrically complex structures. The proper application and accuracy of such CFD techniques needs to be assessed. Part of the ongoing work has focused on the development of computer models and the evaluation of the performance of the FLUENT code in simulating: (1) the atmospheric boundary layer, (2) plume dispersion over an open field, and (3) dispersion within arrays of buildings. Case studies based on the Project Prairie Grass field program were used to develop and evaluate CFD simulations of plume dispersion over an open field under thermally neutral and unstable conditions. CFD predictions of arc concentrations were compared with measurements and results of the AERMOD dispersion model. Analyses for the near thermally neutral cases have been completed and are summarized herein. Analyses for the thermally unstable cases are ongoing therefore only a case study is presented. Simulations of dispersion around buildings are being evaluated with data from the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) field experiment. Methods for applying CFD simulations for these complex flow situations are being developed.

PRESENTATION Development and Applications of Cfd Simulations Supporting Urban Air Quality and Homeland Security 02/01/2006
HUBER, A. H., M. FREEMAN, R. SPENCER, W. SCHWARZ, B. BELL, AND K. KUEHLERT. Development and Applications of Cfd Simulations Supporting Urban Air Quality and Homeland Security. Presented at Symposium on the Urban Environment; AMS Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, January 29 - February 02, 2006.
Abstract: Prior to September 11, 2001 developments of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were begun to support air quality applications. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due to the advancing power of computational hardware and software. CFD simulations have the potential to yield more accurate solutions than existing regulatory air quality models because CFD mechanistically is a solution of the fundamental physics equations and include the effects of detailed three-dimensional geometry and local environmental conditions. This presentation reviews CFD developments and applications to help understand the dust cloud on September 11, 2001 and transport of potential emissions from "ground zero" over the following weeks at the New York World Trade Center (WTC) area. Much has been learned and developed over the past few years through research and development. Herein developments and applications supporting US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) WTC program to understand the transport of potential contaminants are summarized to illustrate what has been done and to characterize remaining challenges. There are three major reports being prepared to fully report the work

PRESENTATION Experimental and Model-Computed Area Averaged Vertical Profiles of Wind Speed for Evaluation of Mesoscale Urban Canopy Schemes 02/01/2006
BROWN, M., S. POL, W. COIRIER, S. KIM, A. H. HUBER, M. NELSON, P. KLEIN, M. FREEMAN, AND A. GOWARDHAN. Experimental and Model-Computed Area Averaged Vertical Profiles of Wind Speed for Evaluation of Mesoscale Urban Canopy Schemes. Presented at Sixth Symposium on the Urban Environment, Atlanta, GA, January 30 - February 02, 2006.
Abstract: Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged" wind measurements in cities are difficult to obtain owing to the large number of wind sensors required to obtain a reasonable statistical sample. Quasi-area-averaged vertical profiles of wind speed are presented for several recent field and wind-tunnel experiments studies where a relatively large number of wind measurements were taken. In addition, area-averaged profiles were derived using numerical model-computed mean wind fields from numerical simulations performed in several cities. These computational fluid dynamics codes have the advantage of producing a dense array of "measurements" which can be used to obtain a more statistically-significant area average. The use of numerical models for creating "synthetic" data is discussed and demonstrated for several cities.

PRESENTATION The Emergence of Numerical Air Quality Forecasting Models and Their Application 01/30/2006
SCHERE, K. L., V. BOUCHET, G. GREIL, J. MCHENRY, AND S. MCKEEN. The Emergence of Numerical Air Quality Forecasting Models and Their Application. Presented at AMS Annual Meeting - Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry, Atlanta, GA, January 29 - February 02, 2006.
Abstract: In recent years the U.S. and other nations have begun programs for short-term local through regional air quality forecasting based upon numerical three-dimensional air quality grid models. These numerical air quality forecast (NAQF) models and systems have been developed and tested over the last thirty years through retrospective applications for air quality management. Air quality forecasting is a newer application area and brings with it significant new challenges. Such systems are now in operational or experimental use in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, among other locations, and are operated by government, private sector, and academic organizations. We present several examples of such systems now in operation within North America, including the NOAA National Weather Service Eta-CMAQ system, Baron Advanced Meteorological Systems MM5-MAQSIP system, Environment Canada GEM-CHRONOS system, and the NCAR/NOAA WRF-Chem system. The forecast systems are briefly described, including a discussion of particular challenges encountered during development or application, and example forecasts are provided. Results from a recent air quality forecast model intercomparison are shown based on applications during the 2004 ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field study focused on the northeast U.S. The concept of "ensemble" air quality model forecasts is illustrated as part of the model intercomparion study. Future challenges for NAQF are also discussed, including chemical data assimilation in modeling systems, integrated meteorological/chemical systems, and interactions with global models for specifying boundary conditions.

PRESENTATION COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY ( CMAQ ) MODEL - QUALITY ASSURANCE AND VERSION CONTROL 01/24/2006
SCHERE, K. L. AND S. J. ROSELLE. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY ( CMAQ ) MODEL - QUALITY ASSURANCE AND VERSION CONTROL. Presented at EPA Exposure Modeling Workgroup, Arlington, VA, January 24, 2006.
Abstract: This presentation will be given to the EPA Exposure Modeling Workgroup on January 24, 2006. The quality assurance and version control procedures for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model are presented. A brief background of CMAQ is given, then issues related to quality assurance, including the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP), coding guidelines, model archiving, and model peer review.

 

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