OLS : Record


Main Title Active military sonar and marine mammals events and references / {electronic resource} :
Author Buck, Eugene H.
Publisher Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress,
Place Published {Washington, D.C.} :
Year Published 2005
OCLC Number 66026847
Subject Added Ent Marine mammals; Marine biology; Radar in navigation; Sonar
Library   Call Number Additional Info Location Date Modified
EJBM QL713.2.B83 2005 Paper copy Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 04/21/2006
Collation 14 p. : digital, PDF file.
Notes "Updated November 22, 2005." Title taken from PDF title screen (viewed April 9, 2006). Includes bibliographical references.
Contents Notes The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. Some peacetime use of military sonar has been regulated under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and other statutes due to concerns that active military sonars are operated at frequencies used by some cetaceans (i.e., whales, porpoises, and dolphins), and their high-intensity sound pulses may travel long distances in the ocean. There is also concern that sonar transmissions of sufficiently high intensity might physically damage the hearing in cetaceans or cause them to modify their behavior in ways that are detrimental. Although mid-frequency sonar has been implicated in several beaked whale strandings, there is scientific uncertainty surrounding the totality of the effects active sonar transmissions may have on marine mammals. This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. Prior to the late 1990s, concerns focused primarily on the use of underwater sound as a research tool. While strandings and mortality of marine mammals, primarily beaked whales, have been observed in concurrence with mid-frequency sonar operation, additional controversy has focused on the development of low-frequency active (LFA) sonar. Environmental interests are concerned with LFA sonar because low-frequency sound travels farther than mid-frequency sound and is closer in frequency to those known to be used by baleen whales. Additional questions involve how to balance obligations of the military to comply with MMPA provisions (as well as provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Endangered Species Act) with national security concerns. Generally speaking, concern about the environmental effects of ocean noise is now principally focused on three activities -- military sonar exercises, oil and gas exploration, and commercial shipping. This report summarizes some of the more significant recent events pertaining to active military sonar, in particular.
Access Notes Mode of access: World Wide Web. System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Author Added Ent
Calvert, Kori.
Corporate Au Added Ent Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
PUB Date Free Form 2005.
Series Title Traced CRS report for Congress ; RL33133
BIB Level m
OCLC Time Stamp 20060419145153
Cataloging Source OCLC/T
Language eng
Origin OCLC
Type CAT
OCLC Rec Leader 03375nam 2200337Ia 45020