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Wet Ponds

Minimum Measure: Post-Construction Stormwater Management in New Development and Redevelopment

Subcategory: Retention/Detention

Photo Description: The primary functions of a wet pond are to detain stormwater and facilitate pollutant removal through settling and biological uptake.
The primary functions of a wet pond are to detain stormwater and facilitate pollutant removal through settling and biological uptake.

Description

Wet ponds (a.k.a. stormwater ponds, wet retention ponds, wet extended detention ponds) are constructed basins that have a permanent pool of water throughout the year (or at least throughout the wet season). Ponds treat incoming stormwater runoff by allowing particles to settle and algae to take up nutrients. The primary removal mechanism is settling as stormwater runoff resides in this pool, and pollutant uptake, particularly of nutrients, also occurs through biological activity in the pond. Traditionally, wet ponds have been widely used as stormwater best management practices.

Applicability

Wet ponds are widely applicable stormwater management practices. Although they have limited applicability in highly urbanized settings and in arid climates, they have few other restrictions.

Regional Applicability

Wet ponds can be applied in most regions of the United States, with the exception of arid climates. In arid regions, it is difficult to justify the supplemental water needed to maintain a permanent pool because of the scarcity of water. Even in semi-arid Austin, Texas, one study found that 2.6 acre-feet per year of supplemental water was needed to maintain a permanent pool of only 0.29 acre-feet (Saunders and Gilroy, 1997). Other modifications and design variations are needed in cold climates and karst (i.e., limestone) topography.

Ultra-Urban Areas

Ultra-urban areas are densely developed urban areas in which little pervious surface exists. It is difficult to use wet ponds in the ultra-urban environment because of the land area each pond consumes. They can, however, be used in an ultra-urban environment if a relatively large area is available downstream of the site.

Stormwater Hot Spots

Stormwater hot spots are areas where land use or activities generate highly contaminated runoff, with concentrations of pollutants in excess of those typically found in stormwater. A typical example is a gas station. Wet ponds can accept runoff from stormwater hot spots, but need significant separation from ground water if they will be used for this purpose.

Stormwater Retrofit

A stormwater retrofit is a stormwater management practice (usually structural) put into place after development has occurred, to improve water quality, protect downstream channels, reduce flooding, or meet other specific objectives. Wet ponds are very useful stormwater retrofits and have two primary applications as a retrofit design. In many communities, detention ponds have been designed for flood control in the past. It is possible to modify these facilities to develop a permanent wet pool to provide water quality control (see Treatment under Design Considerations), and modify the outlet structure to provide channel protection.

Cold Water (Trout) Streams

Wet ponds pose a risk to cold water systems because of their potential to warm the water. When water remains in the permanent pool, it is heated by the sun. A study in Prince George's County, Maryland, found that stormwater wet ponds heat stormwater by about 9°F from the inlet to the outlet (Galli, 1990).

Siting and Design Considerations

Photo Description: Example profile view of a wet pond design.
Example profile view of a wet pond design.

Siting Considerations

In addition to the restrictions and modifications to adapting wet ponds to different regions and land uses, designers need to ensure that this management practice is feasible at the site in question. The following section provides basic guidelines for siting wet ponds.

Drainage Area

Wet ponds need sufficient drainage area to maintain the permanent pool. In humid regions, this is typically about 25 acres, but a greater area may be needed in regions with less rainfall. BMPs that focus on source control such as bioretention, should be considered for smaller drainage areas.

Slope

Wet ponds can be used on sites with an upstream slope up to about 15 percent. The local slope should be relatively shallow, however. Although there is no minimum slope requirement, there does need to be enough elevation drop from the pond inlet to the pond outlet to ensure that water can flow through the system.

Soils / Topography

Wet ponds can be used in almost all soils and geology, with minor design adjustments for regions of karst topography (see Design Considerations).

Ground Water

Unless they receive hot spot runoff, ponds can often intersect the ground water table. However, some research suggests that pollutant removal is reduced when ground water contributes substantially to the pool volume (Schueler, 1997b).

Design Considerations

Specific designs may vary considerably, depending on site constraints or preferences of the designer or community. There are some features, however, that should be incorporated into most wet pond designs. These design features can be divided into five basic categories: pretreatment, treatment, conveyance, maintenance reduction, and landscaping.

Pretreatment

Pretreatment incorporates design features that help to settle out coarse sediment particles. By removing these particles from runoff before they reach the large permanent pool, the maintenance burden of the pond is reduced. In ponds, pretreatment is achieved with a sediment forebay. A sediment forebay is a small pool (typically about 10 percent of the volume of the permanent pool). Coarse particles remain trapped in the forebay, and maintenance is performed on this smaller pool, eliminating the need to dredge the entire pond.

Treatment

Treatment design features help enhance the ability of a stormwater management practice to remove pollutants. The purpose of most of these features is to increase the amount of time that stormwater remains in the pond.

One technique of increasing the pollutant removal of a pond is to increase the volume of the permanent pool. Typically, ponds are sized to be equal to the water quality volume (i.e., the volume of water treated for pollutant removal). Designers may consider using a larger volume to meet specific watershed objectives, such as phosphorous removal in a lake system. Regardless of the pool size, designers need to conduct a water balance analysis to ensure that sufficient inflow is available to maintain the permanent pool.

Other design features do not increase the volume of a pond, but can increase the amount of time stormwater remains in the practice and eliminate short-circuiting. Ponds should always be designed with a length-to-width ratio of at least 1.5:1. In addition, the design should incorporate features to lengthen the flow path through the pond, such as underwater berms designed to create a longer route through the pond. Combining these two measures helps ensure that the entire pond volume is used to treat stormwater. Another feature that can improve treatment is to use multiple ponds in series as part of a "treatment train" approach to pollutant removal. This redundant treatment can also help slow the rate of flow through the system. Additionally, a vegetated buffer with shrubs or trees around the pond area should provide shading and consequent cooling of the pond water.

If designers of wet ponds are anticipating ponds that stratify in the summer, they might want to consider installing a fountain or other mixing mechanism. This will ensure that the full water column remains oxic.

Conveyance

Stormwater should be conveyed to and from all stormwater management practices safely and to minimize erosion potential. The outfall of pond systems should always be stabilized to prevent scour. In addition, an emergency spillway should be provided to safely convey large flood events. To help mitigate warming at the outlet channel, designers should provide shade around the channel at the pond outlet.

Maintenance Reduction

In addition to regular maintenance activities needed to maintain the function of stormwater practices, some design features can be incorporated to ease the maintenance burden of each practice. In wet ponds, maintenance reduction features include techniques to reduce the amount of maintenance needed, as well as techniques to make regular maintenance activities easier.

One potential maintenance concern in wet ponds is clogging of the outlet. Ponds should be designed with a non-clogging outlet such as a reverse-slope pipe, or a weir outlet with a trash rack. A reverse-slope pipe draws from below the permanent pool extending in a reverse angle up to the riser and establishes the water elevation of the permanent pool. Because these outlets draw water from below the level of the permanent pool, they are less likely to be clogged by floating debris. Another general rule is that no orifice should be less than 3 inches in diameter. (Smaller orifices are more susceptible to clogging).

Design features are also incorporated to ease maintenance of both the forebay and the main pool of ponds. Ponds should be designed with maintenance access to the forebay to ease this relatively routine (5.7 year) maintenance activity. In addition, ponds should generally have a pond drain to draw down the pond for the more infrequent dredging of the main cell of the pond.

Landscaping

Landscaping of wet ponds can make them an asset to a community and can also enhance the pollutant removal of the practice. A vegetated buffer should be preserved around the pond to protect the banks from erosion and provide some pollutant removal before runoff enters the pond by overland flow. In addition, ponds should incorporate an aquatic bench (i.e., a shallow shelf with wetland plants) around the edge of the pond. This feature may provide some pollutant uptake, and it also helps to stabilize the soil at the edge of the pond and enhance habitat and aesthetic value.

Design Variations

There are several variations of the wet pond design. Some of these design alternatives are intended to make the practice adaptable to various sites and to account for regional constraints and opportunities.

Wet Extended Detention Pond

The wet extended detention pond combines the treatment concepts of the dry extended detention pond and the wet pond. In this design, the water quality volume is split between the permanent pool and detention storage provided above the permanent pool. During storm events, water is detained above the permanent pool and released over 12 to 48 hours. This design has similar pollutant removal to a traditional wet pond and consumes less space. Wet extended detention ponds should be designed to maintain at least half the treatment volume of the permanent pool. In addition, designers need to carefully select vegetation to be planted in the extended detention zone to ensure that the selected vegetation can withstand both wet and dry periods.

Water Reuse Pond

Some designers have used wet ponds to act as a water source, usually for irrigation. In this case, the water balance should account for the water that will be taken from the pond. One study conducted in Florida estimated that a water reuse pond could provide irrigation for a 100-acre golf course at about one-seventh the cost of the market rate of the equivalent amount of water ($40,000 versus $300,000).

Regional Adaptations

Semi-Arid Climates

In arid climates, wet ponds are not a feasible option (see Applicability), but they may possibly be used in semi-arid climates if the permanent pool is maintained with a supplemental water source, or if the pool is allowed to vary seasonally. This choice needs to be seriously evaluated, however. Saunders and Gilroy (1997) reported that 2.6 acre-feet per year of supplemental water were needed to maintain a permanent pool of only 0.29 acre-feet in Austin, Texas. Hence, wet ponds are normally not ideal in semi-arid environments.

Cold Climates

Cold climates present many challenges to designers of wet ponds. The spring snowmelt may have a high pollutant load and a large volume to be treated. In addition, cold winters may cause freezing of the permanent pool or freezing at inlets and outlets. Finally, high salt concentrations in runoff resulting from road salting, and sediment loads from road sanding, may impact pond vegetation as well as reduce the storage and treatment capacity of the pond. Designers should consider planting the pond with salt-tolerant vegetation if the facility receives road runoff.

One option to deal with high pollutant loads and runoff volumes during the spring snowmelt is the use of a seasonally operated pond to capture snowmelt during the winter, and retain the permanent pool during warmer seasons. In this option, proposed by Oberts (1994), the pond has two water quality outlets, both equipped with gate valves. In the summer, the lower outlet is closed. During the fall and throughout the winter, the lower outlet is opened to draw down the permanent pool. As the spring melt begins, the lower outlet is closed to provide detention for the melt event. This method can act as a substitute for using a minimum extended detention storage volume. When wetlands preservation is a downstream objective, seasonal manipulation of pond levels may not be desired. An analysis of the effects on downstream hydrology should be conducted before considering this option. In addition, the manipulation of this system requires some labor and vigilance; a careful maintenance agreement should be confirmed.

Several other modifications may help to improve the performance of ponds in cold climates. In order to counteract the effects of freezing on inlet and outlet structures, the use of inlet and outlet structures that are resistant to frost, including weirs and larger diameter pipes, may be useful. Designing structures on-line, with a continuous flow of water through the pond, will also help prevent freezing of these structures. Finally, since freezing of the permanent pool can reduce the effectiveness of pond systems, it may be useful to incorporate extended detention into the design to retain usable treatment area above the permanent pool when it is frozen.

Karst Topography

In karst (i.e., limestone) topography, wet ponds should be designed with an impermeable liner to prevent ground water contamination or sinkhole formation, and to help maintain the permanent pool.

Limitations

Limitations of wet ponds include:

  • If improperly located, wet pond construction may cause loss of wetlands or forest.
  • Wet ponds are often inappropriate in dense urban areas because each pond is generally quite large.
  • Their use is restricted in arid and semi-arid regions due to the need to supplement the permanent pool.
  • In cold water streams, wet ponds are not a feasible option due to the potential for stream warming.
  • Wet ponds may pose safety hazards.

Maintenance Considerations

In addition to incorporating features into the pond design to minimize maintenance, some regular maintenance and inspection practices are needed. The table below outlines these practices.

Table 1. Typical maintenance activities for wet ponds (Source: WMI, 1997)

Activity

Schedule

  • If wetland components are included, inspect for invasive vegetation.

Semi-annual inspection

  • Inspect for damage.
  • Note signs of hydrocarbon build-up, and deal with appropriately.
  • Monitor for sediment accumulation in the facility and forebay.
  • Examine to ensure that inlet and outlet devices are free of debris and operational.

Annual inspection

  • Repair undercut or eroded areas.

As needed maintenance

  • Clean and remove debris from inlet and outlet structures.
  • Mow side slopes.

Monthly maintenance

  • Manage and harvest wetland plants.

Annual maintenance
(if needed)

  • Remove sediment from the forebay.

5- to 7-year maintenance

  • Monitor sediment accumulations, and remove sediment when the pool volume has become reduced significantly or the pond becomes eutrophic.

20-to 50-year maintenance

Effectiveness

Structural stormwater management practices can be used to achieve four broad resource protection goals. These include flood control, channel protection, ground water recharge, and pollutant removal. Wet ponds can provide flood control, channel protection, and pollutant removal.

Flood Control

One objective of stormwater management practices can be to reduce the flood hazard associated with large storm events by reducing the peak flow associated with these storms. Wet ponds can easily be designed for flood control by providing flood storage above the level of the permanent pool.

Channel Protection

When used for channel protection, wet ponds have traditionally controlled the 2-year storm. It appears that this control has been relatively ineffective, and research suggests that control of a smaller storm may be more appropriate (MacRae, 1996).

Ground Water Recharge

Wet ponds cannot provide ground water recharge. Infiltration is impeded by the accumulation of debris on the bottom of the pond.

Pollutant Removal

Wet ponds are among the most effective stormwater management practices at removing stormwater pollutants. A wide range of research is available to estimate the effectiveness of wet ponds. Table 2 summarizes some of the research completed on wet pond removal efficiency. Typical removal rates, as reported by Schueler (1997a) are:

Total Suspended Solids: 67%

Total Phosphorous: 48%

Total Nitrogen: 31%

Nitrate Nitrogen: 24%

Metals: 24.73%

Bacteria: 65%

Table 2. Wet pond percent removal efficiency data

Wet Pond Removal Efficiencies

Study

TSS

TP

TN

NO3

Metals

Bacteria

Practice Type

City of Austin, TX 1991. Woodhollow, TX

54

46

39

45

69.76

46

wet pond

Driscoll 1983. Westleigh, MD

81

54

37

-

26.82

-

wet pond

Dorman et al., 1989. West Pond, MN

65

25

-

61

44.66

-

wet pond

Driscoll, 1983. Waverly Hills, MI

91

79

62

66

57.95

-

wet pond

Driscoll, 1983. Unqua, NY

60

45

-

-

80

86

wet pond

Cullum, 1985. Timber Creek, FL

64

60

15

80

-

-

wet pond

City of Austin, TX 1996. St. Elmo, TX.

92

80

19

-17

2.58

89-91

wet pond

Horner, Guedry, and Kortenhoff, 1990. SR 204, WA

99

91

-

-

88.90

-

wet pond

Horner, Guedry, and Kortenhoff, 1990. Seattle, WA

86.7

78.4

-

-

65.67

-

wet pond

Kantrowitz and Woodham, 1995. Saint Joe's Creek, FL

45

45

-

36

38.82

-

wet pond

Wu, 1989. Runaway Bay, NC

62

36

-

-

32.52

-

wet pond

Driscoll 1983. Pitt-AA, MI

32

18

-

7

13.62

-

wet pond

Bannerman and Dodds, 1992. Monroe Street, WI

90

65

-

-

65.75

70

wet pond

Horner, Guedry, and Kortenhoff, 1990. Mercer, WA

75

67

-

-

23.51

-

wet pond

Oberts, Wotzka, and Hartsoe 1989. McKnight, MN

85

48

30

24

67

-

wet pond

Yousef, Wanielista, and Harper 1986. Maitland, FL

-

-

-

87

77.96

-

wet pond

Wu, 1989. Lakeside Pond, NC

93

45

-

-

80.87

-

wet pond

Oberts, Wotzka, and Hartsoe, 1989. Lake Ridge, MN

90

61

41

10

73

-

wet pond

Driscoll, 1983. Lake Ellyn, IL

84

34

-

-

71-78

-

wet pond

Dorman et al., 1989. I-4, FL

54

69

-

97

47.74

-

wet pond

Martin, 1988. Highway Site, FL

83

37

30

28

50.77

-

wet pond

Driscoll, 1983. Grace Street, MI

32

12

6

-1

26

-

wet pond

Occoquan Watershed Monitoring Laboratory, 1983. Farm Pond, VA

85

86

34

-

-

-

wet pond

Occoquan Watershed Monitoring Laboratory, 1983. Burke, VA

-33.3

39

32

-

38.84

-

wet pond

Dorman et al., 1989. Buckland, CT

61

45

-

22

-25 to
-51

-

wet pond

Holler, 1989. Boynton Beach Mall, FL

91

76

-

87

-

-

wet pond

Urbonas, Carlson, and Vang 1994. Shop Creek, CO

78

49

-12

-85

51.57

-

wet pond

Oberts and Wotzka, 1988. McCarrons, MN

91

78

85

-

90

-

wet pond

Gain, 1996. FL

54

30

16

24

42.73

-

wet pond

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1991. Uplands, Ontario

82

69

-

-

-

97

wet extended detention pond

Borden et al., 1996. Piedmont, NC

19.6

36.5

35.1

65.9

-4 to-97

-6

wet extended detention pond

Holler, 1990. Lake Tohopekaliga District, FL

-

85

-

-

-

-

wet extended detention pond

Ontario Ministry of the Environment 1991. Kennedy-Burnett, Ontario

98

79

54

-

21.39

99

wet extended detention pond

Ontario Ministry of the Environment 1991. East Barrhaven, Ontario

52

47

-

-

-

56

wet extended detention pond

Borden et al., 1996. Davis, NC

60.4

46.2

16

18.2

15.51

48

wet extended detention pond

There is considerable variability in the effectiveness of ponds, and it is believed that properly designing and maintaining ponds may help to improve their performance. The siting and design criteria presented in this sheet reflect the best current information and experience to improve the performance of wet ponds. A joint project of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and the USEPA Office of Water may help to isolate specific design features that can improve performance. The National Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) database is a compilation of stormwater practices which includes both design information and performance data for various practices. As the database expands, inferences about the extent to which specific design criteria influence pollutant removal may be made. More information on this database is available from the BMP database Exit EPA Site.

Cost Considerations

The construction costs associated with wet ponds range considerably. A recent study (Brown and Schueler, 1997) estimated the cost of a variety of stormwater management practices. The study resulted in the following cost equation, adjusting for inflation:

C = 24.5V0.705

where:

C = Construction, design and permitting cost;

V = Volume in the pond to include the 10-year storm (ft3).

Using this equation, typical construction costs are:

$45,700 for a 1 acre-foot facility

$232,000 for a 10 acre-foot facility

$1,170,000 for a 100 acre-foot facility

Ponds do not consume a large area relative to the drainage size of the watershed (typically 2.3 percent of the contributing drainage area). It is important to note, however, that these facilities are generally large and require a relatvely large contiguous area. Other practices, such as filters or swales, may be "squeezed" into relatively unusable land, but ponds need a relatively large continuous area.

For ponds, the annual cost of routine maintenance is typically estimated at about 3 to 5 percent of the construction cost. Alternatively, a community can estimate the cost of the maintenance activities outlined in the maintenance section. Ponds are long-lived facilities (typically longer than 20 years). Thus, the initial investment into pond systems may be spread over a relatively long time period.

In addition to the water resource protection benefits of wet ponds, there is some evidence to suggest that they may provide an economic benefit by increasing property values. The results of one study suggest that "pond front" property can increase the selling price of new properties by about 10 percent (USEPA, 1995). Another study reported that the perceived value (i.e., the value estimated by residents of a community) of homes was increased by about 15 to 25 percent when located near a wet pond (Emmerling-Dinovo, 1995).

References

Bannerman, R., and R. Dodds. 1992. Unpublished data. Bureau of Water Resources Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Borden, R. C., J.L. Dorn, J.B. Stillman, and S.K. Liehr. 1996. Evaluation of Ponds and Wetlands For Protection of Public Water Supplies. Draft Report. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, Department of Civil Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Brown, W., and T. Schueler. 1997. The Economics of Stormwater BMPs in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Prepared for the Chesapeake Research Consortium, Edgewater, MD, by the Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.

City of Austin, TX. 1991. Design Guidelines for Water Quality Control Basins. Public Works Department, Austin, TX.

City of Austin, TX. 1996. Evaluation of Non-Point Source Controls: A 319 Grant Project. Draft Water Quality Report Series, Public Works Department, Austin, TX.

Cullum, M. 1985. Stormwater Runoff Analysis at a Single Family Residential Site. Publication 85-1. University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. pp. 247.256.

Dorman, M.E., J. Hartigan, R.F. Steg, and T. Quasebarth. 1989. Retention, Detention and Overland Flow for Pollutant Removal From Highway Stormwater Runoff. Vol. 1 Research Report. FHWA/RD 89/202. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

Driscoll, E.D. 1983. Performance of Detention Basins for Control of Urban Runoff Quality. Presented at the 1983 International Symposium on Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics and Sedimentation Control, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Emmerling-Dinovo, C. 1995. Stormwater detention basins and residential locational decisions. Water Resources Bulletin, 31(3):515.52.

Gain, W.S. 1996. The Effects of Flow Path Modification on Water Quality Constituent Retention in an Urban Stormwater Detention Pond and Wetland System. Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4297. U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL.

Galli, F. 1990. Thermal Impacts Associated with Urbanization and Stormwater Best Management Practices. Prepared for the Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore, MD, by the Metropolitan Council of Governments, Washington, DC.

Holler, J.D. 1989. Water quality efficiency of an urban commercial wet detention stormwater management system at Boynton Beach Mall in South Palm Beach County, FL. Florida Scientist 52(1):48.57.

Holler, J.D. 1990. Nonpoint source phosphorous control by a combination wet detention/filtration facility in Kissimmee, FL. Florida Scientist 53(1):28.37.

Horner, R.R., J. Guedry, and M.H. Kortenhoff. 1990. Improving the Cost Effectiveness of Highway Construction Site Erosion and Pollution Control. Final Report. Washington State Transportation Commission, Olympia, WA.

Kantrowitz, I., and W. Woodham. 1995. Efficiency of a Stormwater Detention Pond in Reducing Loads of Chemical and Physical Constituents in Urban Streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida. Water Resources Investigations Report 94-4217. U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL.

Martin, E. 1988. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond/wetland system. Journal of Environmental Engineering 114(4):810.827.

Oberts, G.L. 1994. Performance of stormwater ponds and wetlands in winter. Watershed Protection Techniques 1(2):64.68.

Oberts, G.L., P.J. Wotzka, and J.A. Hartsoe. 1989. The Water Quality Performance of Select Urban Runoff Treatment Systems. Publication No. 590-89-062a. Prepared for the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, Metropolitan Council, St. Paul, MN.

Oberts, G.L., and L. Wotzka. 1988. The water quality performance of a detention basin wetland treatment system in an urban area. In Nonpoint Source Pollution: Economy, Policy, Management and Appropriate Technology. American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, VA.

Occoquan Watershed Monitoring Laboratory. 1983. Metropolitan Washington Urban Runoff Project. Final Report. Prepared for the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC, by the Occoquan Watershed Monitoring Laboratory, Manassas, VA.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 1991. Stormwater Quality Best Management Practices. Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited, Toronto, Ontario.

Saunders, G. and M. Gilroy. 1997. Treatment of Nonpoint Source Pollution With Wetland/Aquatic Ecosystem Best Management Practices. Texas Water Development Board, Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX.

Schueler, T. 1997a. Comparative pollutant removal capability of urban BMPs: A reanalysis. Watershed Protection Techniques 2(4):515.520.

Schueler, T. 1997b. Influence of groundwater on performance of stormwater ponds in Florida. Watershed Protection Techniques 2(4):525.528.

Urbonas, B., J. Carlson, and B. Vang. 1994. Joint Pond-Wetland System in Colorado. Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, Denver, CO.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1995. Economic Benefits of Runoff Controls. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, Washington, DC.

Watershed Management Institute (WMI). 1997. Operation, Maintenance, and Management of Stormwater Management Systems. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, by the Watershed Management Institute, Ingleside, MD.

Wu, J. 1989. Evaluation of Detention Basin Performance in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina. Report No. 89-248. North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute, Raleigh, NC.

Yousef, Y., M. Wanielista, and H. Harper. 1986. Design and Effectiveness of Urban Retention Basins. In Urban Runoff Quality.Impact and Quality Enhancement Technology. B. Urbonas and L.A. Roesner (Eds.). American Society of Civil Engineering, New York, New York. pp. 338.350.

Information Resources

Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 1995. Stormwater Management Pond Design Example for Extended Detention Wet Pond. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.

Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 1997. Stormwater BMP Design Supplement for Cold Climates. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds, Washington, DC, by the Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.

Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District. 1992. Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual.Volume 3: Best Management Practices. Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, Denver, CO.

Galli, J. 1992. Preliminary Analysis of the Performance and Longevity of Urban BMPs Installed in Prince George's County, Maryland. Prince George's County, Maryland, Department of Natural Resources, Largo, MD.

MacRae, C. 1996. Experience from Morphological Research on Canadian Streams: Is Control of the Two-Year Frequency Runoff Event the Best Basis for Stream Channel Protection? In Effects of Watershed Development and Management on Aquatic Ecosystems. American Society of Civil Engineers. Snowbird, UT. pp. 144.162.

Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE). 2000. Maryland Stormwater Design Manual. [http://www.mde.state.md.us/environment/wma/stormwatermanual Exit EPA Site]. Accessed May 22, 2001.

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 1989. Protecting Water Quality in Urban Areas: Best Management Practices. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minneapolis, MN.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1993. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-92-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

 

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