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Extramural Research

Final Report: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

EPA Grant Number: R832414
Center: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)
Center Director: Wexler, Anthony S.
Title: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)
Investigators: Wexler, Anthony S. , Pinkerton, Kent E.
Institution: University of California - Davis
EPA Project Officer: Peffers, Mel
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2011)
Project Amount: $7,999,767
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004)
Research Category: Health Effects , Particulate Matter

Description:

Objective:

This research investigated the mechanistic links between ambient particles and health effects. This objective included two goals: (1) understanding the metabolic response of tissue and organs when they are exposed to particulate pollutants, and (2) understanding the characteristics of the particulate pollutants and their gaseous co-pollutants that elicit these responses. Five center projects investigated the metabolic response to pollutant exposure in pulmonary and cardiovascular tissues, whole animal effects of exposure, transport of particles from the airways to other tissues, and the effects of particles and gases on lung development in juveniles.

Both field and laboratory studies were performed. The field studies took place in the San Joaquin Valley of California, one of the worst violators of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter. UC Davis is located at the northern end of the San Joaquin Valley which facilitated this work. The laboratory studies at UC Davis examined the effects of particles from ambient sources and laboratory-generated particles with carefully controlled properties that model ambient ones or those from dominant sources. The research team was composed of physiologists, toxicologists, chemists, and engineers who already collaborate on air pollution studies in the UC Davis Air Quality Research Center. The SAHERC researchers investigated a complementary set of hypotheses related to the mechanisms and loci of action that cause acute and chronic responses in normal animal models of children and adults and those made susceptible by exposure to particles and ozone during development.
 
The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) was an ideal location to study the nexus of air pollutants and their health effects because its residents breathe some of the worst particulate air pollution in the country, community health effects are evident. Air-quality–related health indicators reflect the severity of the region’s air quality problems; for example, asthma and cardiovascular disease rates are some of the highest in the country. The San Joaquin Valley routinely experiences some of the highest fine airborne particulate matter concentrations in the U.S., with fine and ultrafine particle concentrations that rival those found in Los Angeles. The American Lung Association reports that three of the four most polluted American cities are located in the SJV. Many of the air pollution source categories in the SJV are the same as in the rest of the country: transportation, wood smoke, refineries, and agriculture. The Valley also encompasses sharp gradients—concentrations are higher in the south-central portion of the valley and significantly lower in the foothills and further north; there is a seasonal variation in the concentrations as well.
 
The AQRC at UC Davis has research investigations underway ranging from biological effects of air pollution to global climate research. The scientists on the AQRC team who worked on this project investigated pulmonary and cardiovascular biology and aerosol and atmospheric science, and worked together to examine urban and regional smog and its health effects. UC Davis has one of the largest concentrations of university faculty with air pollution expertise at any one campus in the U.S. with over 70 faculty members on campus involved in air quality research and affiliated with the AQRC at UC Davis.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

All studies in the SAHERC were being undertaken within the primary theme of ‘ambient particulate matter and resulting health effects in the San Joaquin Valley‘. Below is a chart outlining the relationship between the center’s five projects. All five research projects were complementary and focused on the role of particulates in pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The research accomplishments for these studies are summarized in separate reports for each project.
 
In addition to accomplishments reported separately for each project, the administrative core supported a number of outreach programs to scientists and the community, as specified in the original proposal.
 
Conferences Sponsored by SAHERC
 
Atmospheric Chemical Mechanisms (Dec 2006, 2008 & 2010)
 
A biennial meeting held at UC Davis of more than 100 scientists and engineers worldwide to discuss cutting-edge research into chemical mechanisms in the atmosphere.
  • Topic: Modeling Gas Phase Photochemistry

  • Attendees: 120 - 170

  • Location: UC Davis

  • Sponsors: EPA, CARB, European Union & American Chemistry Council

 
International Aerosol Modeling Algorithms (Dec 2007, 2009 & 2011)
 
A biennial meeting held at UC Davis more than 100 international scientists and engineers to share information about development of mathematical models of atmospheric photochemistry.
  • Topic: Modeling Atmospheric Aerosol Processes

  • Attendees: 100 - 120

  • Location: UC Davis

  • Sponsors: EPA, CARB, American Chemistry Council

 
Aviation Environmental Impacts (March 2007 ~ 2011)
Breaking Barriers ’07 / Flying Green ‘08 / Revolution in Aviation ‘09 / Ecoaerovision ‘10 / Boom! Blast! Boost! ‘11
 
An annual meeting held usually in southern California bringing together more than 200 international stakeholders from government, industry and research to discuss the environmental impacts of aviation and the formation of policy and technology to address these impacts.
  • Topic: Aviation and the Environment

  • Attendees: 225 ~ 300

  • Location: Palm Springs, San Francisco, San Diego & Tucson

  • Sponsors: Industry, Government, Environmental Organizations

 
Green Acres - Blue Skies (June 2008, 2009 & 2010)
 
A recurring conference bringing together the ag industry, regulators and researchers to discuss the latest findings, policy and mitigation technologies to address the emissions and control of air pollution from agricultural operations.
  • Topic: Agricultural Emissions of Air Pollutants & Impacts

  • Attendees: 50 ~150

  • Location: UC Davis

  • Sponsors: Ag Industry, Regulators & UC Davis

 
Governor’s Global Climate Summit (Nov 2010)
 
The AQRC was instrumental in assembling presentations of campus scientists on climate change and sharing recent research through a poster session for delegates. In addition we assembled the UC Davis exhibition highlighting climate change work on campus.
  • Topic: Climate Change

  • Attendees: 850+

  • Location: UC Davis

  • Sponsors: Governor’s Office, United Nations Development & Environmental Programmes and UC Davis

 
Air Pollution Impacts of Secondary Roadways and their Mitigation (Jan. 2008) Workshop on the topic of near road (mostly non-freeway) air pollution impacts and mitigation strategies to share new data being developed by several agencies along with important recent findings and their implications for planning.
  • Topic: Air pollution from roadways

  • Attendees: 50

  • Location: UC Davis

  • Sponsors: EPA Region IX, Breathe California of Sacramento-Emigrant Trails, the Sacramento Metropolitan AQMD, and the UC Davis DELTA Group and Air Quality Research Center

 
Community Outreach Sponsored by SAHERC
 
Passport to Air Quality and Health: A program designed to bring junior high age girls to campus to learn about air quality, health and to engage them in science and math, while encouraging higher education by receiving mentorship from female faculty, post-docs and graduate students. We reached about 400 students with this program.
 
 
 
 
 
 


Journal Articles: 47 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 110 publications 53 publications in selected types All 47 journal articles

Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Aung HH, Lame MW, Gohil K, He G, Denison MS, Rutledge JC, Wilson DW. Comparative gene responses to collected ambient particles in vitro: endothelial responses. Physiological Genomics 2011;43(15):917-929.
abstract available   full text available
R832414 (Final)
R832414C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: American Physiological Society - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: American Physiological Society - Abstract
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  • Other: American Physiological Society - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Bein KJ, Zhao Y, Wexler AS. Conditional sampling for source-oriented toxicological studies using a single particle mass spectrometer. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(24):9445-9452.
    abstract available  
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ES&T
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  • Journal Article Chan JKW, Fanucchi MV, Anderson DS, Abid AD, Wallis CD, Dickinson DA, Kumfer BM, Kennedy IM, Wexler AS, Van Winkle LS. Susceptibility to inhaled flame-generated ultrafine soot in neonatal and adult rat lungs. Toxicological Sciences 2011;124(2):472-486.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Toxicological Sciences - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Toxicological Sciences - abstract
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  • Other: Toxicological Sciences - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Day KC, Plopper CG, Fanucchi MV. Age-specific pulmonary cytochrome P-450 3A1 expression in postnatal and adult rats. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2006;291(1):L75-L83.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2009)
    R832414C001 (2007)
    R832414C001 (2008)
    R832414C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article den Hartigh LJ, Lame MW, Ham W, Kleeman MJ, Tablin F, Wilson DW. Endotoxin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient fine particulate matter from Fresno, California initiate human monocyte inflammatory responses mediated by reactive oxygen species.Toxicology In Vitro 2010;24(7):1993-2002.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C002 (2010)
    R832414C002 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect - Abstract
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  • Journal Article Donaldson K, Borm PJA, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Stone V, Tran CL. Concordance between in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the proinflammatory effects of low-toxicity, low-solubility particles:the key role of the proximal alveolar region. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(1):53-62.
    abstract available  
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Greeley MA, Van Winkle LS, Edwards PC, Plopper CG. Airway trefoil factor expression during naphthalene injury and repair. Toxicological Sciences 2010;113(2):453-467.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C001 (2010)
    R832414C001 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Oxford Journals - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Ham WA, Herner JD, Green PG, Kleeman MJ. Size distribution of health-relevant trace elements in airborne particulate matter during a severe winter stagnation event: implications for epidemiology and inhalation exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2010;44(9):753-765.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor Francis Online Full Text
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  • Abstract: informaworld
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  • Journal Article Kennedy IM. The health effects of combustion-generated aerosols. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 2007;31(2):2757-2770.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2009)
    R832414C001 (2008)
    R832414C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Science Direct
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  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Jakober CA. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6469-6475.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS Publications
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  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Fine PM, Hays MD, Schauer JJ, Hannigan MP. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(2):272-279.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Lee DY, Wexler AS, Fanucchi MV, Plopper CG. Expiration rate drives human airway design. Journal of Theoretical Biology 2008;253(2):381-387.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2009)
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    R832414C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee DY, Wallis C, Wexler AS, Schelegle ES, Van Winkle LS, Plopper CG, Fanucchi MV, Kumfer B, Kennedy IM, Chan JKW. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development. Journal of Applied Physiology 2010;109(4):1115-1124.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C001 (2010)
    R832414C005 (2010)
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Park SS, Ban-Weiss GA, Fanucchi MV, Plopper CG, Wexler AS. Bifurcation model for characterization of pulmonary architecture. Anatomical Record 2008;291(4):379-389.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2009)
    R832414C005 (2007)
    R832414C005 (2008)
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online - full text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Fanucchi MV, Plopper CG, Fung J, Wexler AS. Pulmonary architecture in the conducting regions of six rats. Anatomical Record 2008;291(8):916-926.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2009)
    R832414C005 (2008)
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online - full text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Wallis CD, Van Winkle LS, Wexler AS. Disruption of tracheobronchial airway growth following postnatal exposure to ozone and ultrafine particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(9):520-531.
    abstract available  
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: InformaHealth
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Wexler AS. Simulated annealing implementation with shorter Markov chain length to reduce computational burden and its application to the analysis of pulmonary airway architecture. Computers in Biology and Medicine 2011;41(8):707-715.
    abstract available  
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Abstract: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Willits N, Wexler AS. Detecting alterations in pulmonary airway development with airway-by-airway comparison. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2011;39(6):1805-1814.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Srirama PK, Wallis C, Wexler AS. Postnatal growth of tracheobronchial airways of Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Anatomy 2011;218(6):717-725.
    abstract available  
    R832414C005 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Wiley
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  • Journal Article Lee D, Wexler AS. Particle deposition in juvenile rat lungs: a model study. Journal of Aerosol Science 2011;42(9):567-579.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct - full text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct
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  • Journal Article Madl AK, Pinkerton KE. Health effects of inhaled engineered and incidental nanoparticles. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2009;39(8):629-658.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
    R831714 (2005)
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  • Abstract: Informa healthcare
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  • Journal Article Madl AK, Teague SV, Qu Y, Masiel D, Evans JE, Guo T, Pinkerton KE. Aerosolization system for experimental inhalation studies of carbon-based nanomaterials. Aerosol Science and Technology 2012;46:(1):94-107.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis Online - full text html
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis Online - abstract
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  • Journal Article Nakayama Wong LS, Lame MW, Jones AD, Wilson DW. Differential cellular responses to protein adducts of naphthoquinone and monocrotaline pyrrole. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2010;23(9):1504-1513.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C002 (2010)
    R832414C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nakayama Wong LS, Aung HH, Lame MW, Wegesser TC, Wilson DW. Fine particulate matter from urban ambient and wildfire sources from California's San Joaquin Valley initiate differential inflammatory, oxidative stress, and xenobiotic responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicology In Vitro 2011;25(8):1895-1905.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ngo MA, Pinkerton KE, Freeland S, Geller M, Ham W, Cliff S, Hopkins LE, Kleeman MJ, Kodavanti UP, Meharg E, Plummer L, Recendez JJ, Schenker MB, Sioutas C, Smiley-Jewell S, Haas C, Gutstein J, Wexler AS. Airborne particles in the San Joaquin Valley may affect human health. California Agriculture 2010;64(1):12-16.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
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    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: CaliforniaAgriculture-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Palko HA, Fung JY, Louie AY. Positron emission tomography: a novel technique for investigating the biodistribution and transport of nanoparticles. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(8):657-688.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pham H, Bonham AC, Pinkerton KE, Chen CY. Central neuroplasticity and decreased heart rate variability after particulate matter exposure in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(9):1448-1453.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
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    R831918 (Final)
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  • Full-text: EHP
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  • Journal Article Pinkerton KE, Joad JP. Influence of air pollution on respiratory health during perinatal development. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 2006;33(3):269-272.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2009)
    R829215 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Plummer LE, Ham W, Kleeman MJ, Wexler A, Pinkerton KE. Influence of season and location on pulmonary response to California's San Joaquin Valley airborne particulate matter. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2012;75(5):253-271.
    abstract available  
    R832414C003 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis Online - abstract
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  • Journal Article Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Hannigan MP, Kleeman MJ. Size-resolved source apportionment of airborne particle mass in a roadside environment. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6580-6586.
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  • Journal Article Ruehl CR, Ham WA, Kleeman MJ. Temperature-induced volatility of molecular markers in ambient airborne particulate matter. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2011;11(1):67-76.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
  • Full-text: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics PDF
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  • Abstract: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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  • Journal Article Schenker MB, Pinkerton KE, Mitchell D, Vallyathan V, Elvine-Kreis B, Green FHY. Pneumoconiosis from agricultural dust exposure among young California farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):988-994.
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  • Journal Article Sekizawa S-i, Joad JP, Pinkerton KE, Bonham AC. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2010;242(2):199-208.
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  • Journal Article Shen H, Barakat AI, Anastasio C. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2011;11(2):753-765.
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    R832414 (2010)
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    R832414C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Shen H, Anastasio C. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2011;11(18):9671-9682.
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  • Full-text: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Shen H, Anastasio C. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions. Atmospheric Environment 2012;46:665-668.
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  • Journal Article Smith KR, Veranth JM, Kodavanti UP, Aust AE, Pinkerton KE. Acute pulmonary and systemic effects of inhaled coal fly ash in rats: comparison to ambient environmental particles. Toxicological Sciences 2006;93(2):390-399.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C003 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Srirama PK, Wallis CD, Lee D, Wexler AS. Imaging extra-thoracic airways and deposited particles in laboratory animals. Journal of Aerosol Science 2012;45:40-49.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414C005 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct - full text HTML
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  • Journal Article Sutherland KM, Combs TJ, Edwards PC, Van Winkle LS. Site-specific differences in gene expression of secreted proteins in the mouse lung: comparison of methods to show differences by location. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 2010;58(12):1107-1119.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C001 (2010)
    R832414C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sutherland KM, Edwards PC, Combs TJ, Van Winkle LS. Sex differences in the development of airway epithelial tolerance to naphthalene. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2012;302(1):L68-L81.
    abstract available  
    R832414C001 (Final)
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  • Abstract: American Physiological Society - abstract
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  • Journal Article Tablin F, den Hartigh LJ, Aung HH, Lame MW, Kleeman MJ, Ham W, Norris JW, Pombo M, Wilson DW. Seasonal influences on CAPs exposures: differential responses in platelet activation, serum cytokines and xenobiotic gene expression. Inhalation Toxicology 2012;24(8):506-517.
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    R832414 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tebockhorst S, Lee D, Wexler AS, Oldham MJ. Interaction of epithelium with mesenchyme affects global features of lung architecture: a computer model of development. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007;102(1):294-305.
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    R832414 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Van Winkle LS, Chan JK, Anderson DS, Kumfer BM, Kennedy IM, Wexler AS, Wallis C, Abid AD, Sutherland KM, Fanucchi MV. Age specific responses to acute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: cellular injury and the airway antioxidant response. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(Suppl 2):70-83.
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    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C001 (2010)
    R832414C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wegesser TC, Pinkerton KE, Last JA. California wildfires of 2008: coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):893-897.
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    R832414 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Wexler AS, Johnston MV. What have we learned from highly time-resolved measurements during EPA's Supersites Program and related studies? Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(2):303-319.
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis Online
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  • Journal Article Wilson DW, Aung HH, Lame MW, Plummer L, Pinkerton KE, Ham W, Kleeman M, Norris JW, Tablin F. Exposure of mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter results in platelet and systemic cytokine activation. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(4):267-276.
    abstract available   full text available
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C002 (Final)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa - Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhong C-Y, Zhou Y-M, Smith KR, Kennedy IM, Chen C-Y, Aust AE, Pinkerton KE. Oxidative injury in the lungs of neonatal rats following short-term exposure to ultrafine iron and soot particles. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 2010;73(12):837-847.
    abstract available  
    R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informaworld
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    ambient air, ozone, exposure, health effects, human health, metabolism, sensitive populations, infants, children, PAH, metals, oxidants, agriculture, transportation

    Progress and Final Reports:
    Original Abstract
    2006 Progress Report
    2007 Progress Report
    2008 Progress Report
    2009 Progress Report
    2010 Progress Report

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832414C001 Project 1 -- Pulmonary Metabolic Response
    R832414C002 Endothelial Cell Responses to PM—In Vitro and In Vivo
    R832414C003 Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol
    R832414C004 Project 4 -- Transport and Fate Particles
    R832414C005 Project 5 -- Architecture Development and Particle Deposition

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    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Conclusions drawn by the principal investigators have not been reviewed by the Agency.

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