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The document evaluates the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of cadmium, supplementing an earlier document (Health Assessment Document for Cadmium, May 1981) which dealt with all health effects. Since the earlier document was prepared, a rat inhalation carcinogenicity study has been reported and several epidemiology and mutagenicity papers have been published. This document concludes that: (1) there is mixed evidence on the mutagenicity of various cadmium salts; (2) cadmium chloride aerosol induces lung cancer in rats; (3) injected cadmium salts induce injection site sarcomas and testicular tumors in both mice and rats; (4) there is limited epidemiologic evidence that inhaled cadmium is dose-related to lung cancer in exposed workers; (5) there is no evidence that cadmium is carcinogenic via ingestion, which is a major route of human exposure, and the upper limit of potency via ingestion is at least 100 times less than via inhalation.
U.S. EPA. Updated Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity Assessment of Cadmium: Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Cadmium. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/8-83/025F (NTIS PB85243533).