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Section 405 of the Clean Water Act requires the U.S. EPA to develop and issue regulations that identify: 1) uses for sludge including disposal; 2) specific factors (including costs) to be taken into account in determining the measures and practices applicable for each use or disposal; and 3) concentrations of pollutants that interfere with each use or disposal. o comply with this mandate, the U.S EPA has embarked on a program to develop four major technical regulations: land application, including distribution and marketing; landfilling; incineration and surface disposal. The development of these technical regulations requires a consideration of pathogens as well as chemical constituents of sludge. he purpose of this report is to describe a proposed methodology and associated computer model designed to assess the potential risks to human health posed by pathogens in municipal sewage sludge applied to land as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Volume I: Methodology and Computer Model describes the conceptual framework of the risk assessment methodology and the structural organization, including assumptions and components, of the computer model. olume II: User's Manual contains background information to provide the user with an understanding of the actual functioning of the model. his information includes descriptions of operating variables and their default values, explanations of the various subroutines, and the mathematical basis for process and transfer functions.
U.S. EPA. Pathogen Risk Assessment for Land Application of Municipal Sludge, Volume II: User's Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/6-90/002B (NTIS PB90171919).