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This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. Deposition processes, routes, and mechanisms of entry into plants, and responses of natural ecosystems versus agroecosystems are presented. Effects of air pollutants, singly or in combination are described in terms of dose-response relationships to the extent that supporting evidence is available. Both adverse and beneficial effects, where appropriate, are addressed.
U.S. EPA. Air Pollution Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/6-83/003, 1983.