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The Office of Research and Development of U.S. EPA has prepared this health assessment document for the program office to determine whether manganese should be regulated as a hazardous air pollutant. The document reviews the literature on manganese including general properties, uses, environmental fate and transport, environmental levels and exposure, health effects, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. The final chapter reviews the effects of concern and contains a health hazard evaluation, including critical effects and effect levels.
Erdreich, L., J. Stara, R. Bruins, AND D. Kello. Health Assessment Document for Manganese. External Review Draft. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/8-83/013A (NTIS PB83217786), 1983.