Qualitative Pathogen Risk Assessment for Ocean Disposal of Municipal Sludge

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Abstract

The purpose of the document is to focus on microbial contaminants of municipal wastewater sludges that have been actually or potentially implicated in producing human illness; it summarizes available data on the occurrence, transport and fate of these pathogens in the marine environment; and describes the possible hazards to human health associated with the disposal of sludges in open ocean waters. Following the presentation of background information, a discussion of risks associated with ocean disposal of sludge are presented.

Citation

U.S. EPA. Qualitative Pathogen Risk Assessment for Ocean Disposal of Municipal Sludge. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/6-88/010 (NTIS PB89126593).