Anthropogenic sources of CDDs and CDFs in the U.S. are broadly classified as combustion/incineration sources, and chemical manufacturing/processing sources. It is postulated here that each source type favors the formation and environmental release of certain mixtures of CDDs and CDFs. These mixtures can be translated into what are termed congener profiles' which represent the distribution of total CDDs and CDFs present in the mixture. A congener profile may serve as a signature of the types of CDDs and CDFs associated with particular environmental sources of these compounds. Such source-specific profiles may aid researchers in explaining source contributions to environmental measurements in various matrices. This paper presents the congener profiles of the following sources of CDDs and CDFs to the U.S. environment: municipal, medical and hazardous waste incineration; cement kilns burning and not burning hazardous waste; industrial oil-fired boilers; industrial/coal and wood combustors; unleaded fuel combustion in vehicles; diesel fuel combustion in trucks; secondary aluminum smelters; secondary lead smelters; sewage sludge incineration; bleached chlorine paper pulp; technical pentachlorophenol, and 2,4-D salts and esters.
Cleverly, D., J. Schaum, G. Schweer, J. Becker, AND D. Winters. The Congener Profiles of Anthropogenic Sources of Chlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Chlorinated Dibenzofurans in the U.S. Ecoinforma Press, Bayreuth, Germany, 1997.