IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft)
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Thallium exists in monovalent (Tl+1) and trivalent (Tl+3) states. Thallium is released to the environment through the combustion of fossil fuels, refinement of oil fractions, the smelting of ferrous and non-ferrous ores, and by some other industrial processes such as cement production and brick works. In the past, thallium was used as a depilatory agent and as a treatment for ringworm, venereal diseases, TB, and malaria. It was banned for use as a pesticide in the United States in 1972. Currently, thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation gems, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors.
|1987||IRIS assessments of thallium acetate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, selenite, and sulfate, and thallic oxide posted on the IRIS database (RfD only).|
|1988||RfDs for thallium compounds revised.|
|1989||RfD for thallic oxide withdrawn from the IRIS database.|
|1990||Carcinogenicity assessments for thallium compounds added to the IRIS database.|
|1993||RfD for thallium selenite withdrawn from the IRIS database.|
|Feb 2008||EPA releases the draft document, IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium, for public review and comment in a February 15, 2008 Federal Register notice.|
|Apr 2008||EPA announces the external peer review panel workshop in an April 8, 2008 Federal Register notice.|
|Sep 2009||EPA released the Final Toxicological Review (PDF) (136 pp, 964K) and accompanying Summary for Thallium and Compounds to the IRIS Web site.|
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