Exposures and Internal Doses of Trihalomethanes in Humans: Multi-Route Contributions from Drinking Water (Final)
This final report, Exposures and Internal Doses of Trihalomethanes in Humans: Multi-Route Contributions from Drinking Water, presents the results of an analysis in which multiple data sets and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were combined to estimate the oral, dermal and inhalation route-specific contributions to internal doses of THMs, which are drinking water disinfection byproducts. It was supported by a contract to Wilkes Technologies, Inc. (Bethesda, MD). Point estimates of THM concentrations were taken from the Agency’s Information Collection Rule database; additional databases on external exposure factors, e.g. water use, household behaviors, human activity patterns, house volume and ventilation provided distributions of exposure data. The results demonstrated that the inhalation exposure pathway represents a significant contribution to THM internal doses.
Topics covered include:
- Data Quality and Assumptions
- Modeling and Integration Framework: concentrations of THMs in drinking water, water use patterns, human in-home behavioral characteristics, room volumes and ventilation, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.
- Required Data.
- Population distributions of internal doses in the adult male, adult female and 6 year old child resulting from household contact with drinking water.
- Contributions of oral, dermal and inhalation routes to attained internal concentrations of THMs.
|Jun 2003||Feasibility document published.|
|Sep 2003||Simplified acquisition awarded to Wilkes Technologies, Inc.|
|Jan 2004||Contractor report received.|
|Sep 2004||Peer review contract established.|
|Mar 2005||Internal Agency Review completed.|
|Jun 2005||External Panel Review of final report reviewed.|
|Dec 2005||Simplified acquisition developed to refine the description of the model and documentation of parameter values.|
|Nov 2006||EPA Releases the final report.|
This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.
- (251 pp, 3 MB, about PDF)