Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (External Review Draft)
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This draft document presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant sprays. This case study is organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which combines a product life-cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Instead, it is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and unknown about nano-Ag in a selected application and can be used as a starting point to identify and prioritize possible research directions to support future assessments of nanomaterials.
This case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of nano-Ag; rather, it uses an assessment framework known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which starts with the product life cycle but encompasses fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and ecological and health effects, as well as other direct and indirect ramifications of both primary and secondary substances or stressors associated with a nanomaterial. The CEA approach is both a framework and a process; the latter aspect will be pursued through a collective judgment process that will be the subject of a future announcement.
Each chapter includes lists of questions that reflect information gaps in that portion of the document. Some of these knowledge gaps or research needs are specific to the use of nano-Ag in disinfectant spray; others may relate more broadly to nano-Ag irrespective of its application, while still others may apply more widely to nanomaterials in general. Readers are encouraged to consider the questions listed throughout the document and offer specific comments on how individual questions or research needs might be better expressed. If additional questions should be included or if information is already available to address some of the questions posed here, readers are also encouraged to provide such information. These and other comments should be submitted as explained below under Additional Information.
|Feb 2007||EPA’s Nanotechnology White Paper recommends the development of case studies to identify unique risk assessment considerations and research needed to support risk assessment efforts for nanomaterials.|
|Jul 2009||EPA released "Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (External Review Draft)" for public review and comment.|
|Sep 2009||EPA initiates the "Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide" under auspices of the EPA Board of Scientific Counselors (invitation only) to identify and prioritize research needs for titanium dioxide, using the nanoscale titanium dioxide case studies and a structured collective judgment process.|
|May 2010||EPA released the report, "Workshop Summary for the EPA Board of Scientific Counselors, Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide."|
|May 2010||EPA conducted a peer review for "Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen."|
|Apr 2010||EPA conducted an internal review of the "Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray" draft report.|
|Jul 2010||EPA conducted an interagency review of the "Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray."|
|Aug 2010||EPA released the external review draft for a 45-day public review and comment period. [Federal Register Aug 13, 2010]|
|Dec 2010||EPA announced a public meeting to review and discuss the EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies reports. [Federal Register Dec 13, 2010]|
|Jan 2011||EPA held a workshop in Research Triangle Park, NC on January 4-7, 2011 to identify and prioritize research questions related to nanoscale silver based on the external review draft of the Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray document. A summary report (PDF) is available that describes the workshop and its outcomes.|
|Dec 2011||EPA conducted a peer review for "Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray" draft report.|
This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.