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The draft Toxicological Review of Phosgene discusses the potential human health effects of chronic exposure to phosgene. While the draft report discusses both cancer and noncancer endpoints, the focus of the document is on noncancer chronic effects due to a lack of adequate information about cancer exposure hazards. Some discussion of acute exposure health hazards is also contained in the document. Phosgene exposure may occur in the workplace and environment as a result of chemical processes. Phosgene is used primarily in the manufacture of polyurethane. It is also used in the polycarbonate industry and in the manufacture of certain pesticides, dyes, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. A 1990 summary file on phosgene included in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) concluded that the available data were inadequate for derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) for potential noncancer effects resulting from inhalation exposure, a reference dose (RfD) for potential noncancer effects resulting from oral exposure, or an estimate of carcinogenic risk to humans. While this updated document includes a proposed RfC, it still concludes that there is inadequate information for the derivation of an RfD or cancer risk estimates.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS Toxicological Review of Phosgene (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2004.