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IRIS Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a (External Review Draft)

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Archived files are provided for reference purposes only. The file was current when produced, but is no longer maintained and may now be outdated. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing archived files may contact the NCEA Webmaster for assistance. Please visit http://epa.gov/ncea to access current information.


Federal Register Notices
Contact
Belinda S. Hawkins
by phone at:   513-569-7523
by fax at:   513-587-2542
by email at:  hawkins.belinda@epa.gov
The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contaminants on the CCL. The purpose of these documents is to compile and evaluate the available data regarding toxicity of these toxins to aid the Office of Water in regulatory decision making.

Downloads/Related Links

This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.

Public Comments

In Section 6, Major Conclusions in the Characterization of Hazard and Dose Response, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the hazard and dose response by addressing knowledge gaps, uncertainties, quality of data and scientific controversies. The discussion is intended to convey the limitations of the assessment and to aid and guide the Office of Water in the ensuing steps of the human health risk assessment of anatoxin-a.

Background
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), as amended in 1996, requires the EPA to publish a list of contaminants that, at the time of publication, are not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems, and may require regulations under SDWA. This list, known as the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), was first published in 1998 and then again in 2005. The 1998 and 2005 CCLs include cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), other freshwater algae, and their toxins as microbial contaminants.

In 2001, a meeting was held among EPA, researchers from the drinking water industry, academia and government agencies with expertise in the area of fresh water algae and their toxins. The goal of this meeting was to convene a panel of scientists to assist in identifying a target list of algal toxins that are likely to pose a health risk in source and finished waters of the drinking water utilities in the U.S. Toxin selection was based on four criteria: health effects, occurrence in the United States, susceptibility to drinking water treatment and toxin stability. Anatoxin-a was identified at this meeting as being a toxin of high priority based on those criteria.

NCEA then prepared the document, Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a as one in a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contaminants on the CCL. The purpose of this document is to compile and evaluate the available data regarding Anatoxin-a toxicity to aid the EPA/Office of Water in regulatory decision making. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of Anatoxin-a.

History/Chronology

Jul 2006Internal Review completed and comments addressed.

Next Steps

Following the public comment period and external peer review, EPA will incorporate the comments in a Final report to be released in 2007.

Citation

US EPA. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/137, 2006.

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