Jump to main content.


Trichloroethylene Quickview (CASRN 79-01-6)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

For definitions of terms in the IRIS Web site, refer to the IRIS Glossary.

Status of Data for Trichloroethylene

File First On-Line: 03/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 09/28/2011

Category (section)
Status
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment On-line 09/28/2011
Inhalation RfC Assessment On-line 09/28/2011
Carcinogenicity Assessment On-line 09/28/2011
Synonyms
  • 79-01-6
  • Anamenth
  • Benzinol
  • Cecolene
  • Chlorilen
  • 1-Chloro-2,2-dichloroethylene
  • Chlorylea
  • Chorylen
  • CirCosolv
  • Crawhaspol
  • 1,1-Dichloro-2-chloroethylene
  • more...
Revision History
Date Section Description
09/28/2011 I., II., VI. RfD, RfC, and Cancer assessment added.
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfD
Multiple Multiple Multiple 5 x 10-4 mg/kg/day
Decreased thymus weight in female B6C3F1 mice (adult immunological effects) LOAEL(HED99): 0.048 mg/kg/day 100 candidate RfD = 4.8 x 10-4 mg/kg/day
Decreased plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, increased delayed-type hypersensitivity in B6C3F1 mice (development Immunotoxicity) LOAEL: 0.37 mg/kg/day 1,000 candidate RfD = 3.7 x 10-4 mg/kg/day
Increased fetal cardiac malformations in Sprague-Dawley rats (heart malformations) BMDL01(HED99): 0.0051 mg/kg/day 10 candidate RfD = 5.1 x 10-4 mg/kg/day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

  • Principal and Supporting Studies (Oral RfD)
    • 30-week drinking water study , Keil et al., 2009 (adult immunological effects)
    • Drinking water exposure from gestation day (GD) 0 to 3 or 8 weeks of age , Peden-Adams et al., 2006 (development immunotoxicity)
    • Drinking water exposure from GD 1 to 22 , Johnson et al., 2003 (heart malformations)
  • Confidence in the Oral RfD
    • Study -- Medium/High (adult immunological effects and developmental immunotoxicity); Medium (heart malformations)
    • Database -- High
    • RfD -- High

Top of page


Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfC
Multiple Multiple Multiple 0.002 mg/m3
Decreased thymus weight in female B6C3F1 mice (immunotoxicity) LOAEL (HEC99): 0.19 mg/m3 100 candidate RfC = 0.0019 mg/m3
Increased fetal cardiac malformations in Sprague-Dawley rats (heart malformations) BMDL01 (HEC99): 0.021 mg/m3 10 candidate RfC = 0.0021 mg/m3

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Inhalation RfC was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

Top of page

Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • Carcinogenic to humans
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Following U.S. EPA (2005b) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, TCE is characterized as "carcinogenic to humans" by all routes of exposure.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
4.6 x10-2 per mg/kg-day PBPK model-based route-to-route extrapolation of the inhalation unit risk estimate for kidney cancer with a factor of 5 applied to include non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and liver cancer risks, combined risk
  • EPA has concluded, by a weight of evidence evaluation, that TCE is carcinogenic by a mutagenic mode of action for induction of kidney tumors. As a result, increased early-life susceptibility is assumed for kidney cancer and the age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) should be used for the kidney cancer component of the total cancer risk when estimating age-specific cancer risks. See IRIS Summary.
  • Dose-Response Data (Carcinogenicity, Oral Exposure)
    • Tumor Type: Renal cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and liver tumors
    • Test Species: Human (epidemiological studies)
    • Route: Inhalation, (route-to-route extrapolation to Oral)
    • Reference: Charbotel et al., 2006 EPA, 2011 Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 2003

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
4.1 x10-6 per µg/m3 Low-dose linear extrapolation from the point of departure (LEC01) with a factor of 4 applied to include non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and liver cancer risks, combined risk
  • EPA has concluded, by a weight of evidence evaluation, that TCE is carcinogenic by a mutagenic mode of action for induction of kidney tumors. As a result, increased early-life susceptibility is assumed for kidney cancer and the age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) should be used for the kidney cancer component of the total cancer risk when estimating age-specific cancer risks. See IRIS Summary.

Top of page


Recent Additions | Advanced Search | IRIS Home | Environmental Assessment | Research


Local Navigation


Jump to main content.