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Vinyl chloride Quickview (CASRN 75-01-4)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

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Status of Data for Vinyl chloride

File First On-Line: 08/07/2000; Last Significant Revision: 08/07/2000

Category (section)
Status
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment On-line 08/07/2000
Inhalation RfC Assessment On-line 08/07/2000
Carcinogenicity Assessment On-line 08/07/2000
Synonyms
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Vinyl chloride monomer
  • Chloroethylene
  • Chloroethene
  • VC
  • VCM
  • 75-01-4
Vinyl chloride Source Documents
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfD
Liver cell polymorphism NOAEL (HED): 9 x10-2 mg/kg-day 30 3 x10-3 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfC
Liver cell polymorphism NOAEL (HEC): 2.5 mg/m3 30 1x10-1 mg/m3

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Inhalation RfC was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • A (Human carcinogen)
    • Known/likely human carcinogen
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • On the basis of sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in human epidemiology studies, VC is considered to best fit the weight-of-evidence Category "A," according to current EPA Risk Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986). Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), it is concluded that VC is a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure, based on human epidemiological data, and by analogy the oral route because of positive animal bioassay data as well as pharmacokinetic data allowing dose extrapolation across routes. VC is also considered highly likely to be carcinogenic by the dermal route because it is well absorbed and acts systemically.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
7.2 x10-1 per mg/kg-day 1
(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
LMS method
1.5 per mg/kg-day 1
(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
LED 10/ linear method

1 This represents the lowest/highest of multiple discrete oral slope factors for this substance. See IRIS Summary.

Drinking Water Unit Risks
2.1 x10-5 per µg/L 2
(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
4.2 x10-5 per µg/L 2
(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)

2 This represents the lowest/highest of drinking water unit risks for this substance. See IRIS Summary.

Risk Level
Concentration
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 2.4 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 2.4x10-1 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 2.4x10-2 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
 
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 4.8 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 4.8x10-1 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 4.8x10-2 µg/L(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
 

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
4.4 x10-6 per µg/m3 4
(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
LMS method
4.4 x10-6 per µg/m3
(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
LED 10/ linear method
8.8 x10-6 per µg/m3
(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
LMS method
8.8 x10-6 per µg/m3 4
(Continuous lifetime exposure from birth)
LED 10/ linear method

4 This represents the lowest/highest of multiple discrete inhalation unit risks for this substance. See IRIS Summary.

Inhalation Concentrations at Specified Risk Levels

Risk Level
Concentration
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 2.3x101 µg/m3(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 2.3 µg/m3(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 2.3x10-1 µg/m3(Continuous lifetime exposure during adulthood)

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