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Trichloroacetic acid Quickview (CASRN 76-03-9)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

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Status of Data for Trichloroacetic acid

File First On-Line: 10/01/1992; Last Significant Revision: 09/30/2011

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment Yes 09/30/2011
Inhalation RfC Assessment Discussion 09/30/2011
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 09/30/2011
  • 76-03-9
  • TCA
  • Trichloroacetic acid
  • Aceto-Caustin
  • Acide trichloracetique [French]
  • Acido tricloroacetico [Spanish]
  • AI3-24157
  • Amchem Grass Killer
  • Caswell No. 870
  • EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 081002
  • HSDB 1779
  • more...
Trichloroacetic acid Source Documents
Revision History
Date Section Description
09/30/2011 I., II. RfD and cancer assessment sections updated. RfC discussion added.
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
Hepatocellular necrosis BMDL10 : 18 mg/kg-day 1000 2 x10-2 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (Cancer Guidelines) (U.S. EPA, 2005a), there is suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential for TCA based on significantly increased incidences of liver tumors in male B6C3F1 mice exposed via drinking water for 52–104 weeks (DeAngelo et al., 2008 Bull et al., 2002, 1990 Herren-Freund et al., 1987) and female B6C3F1 mice exposed for 51 or 82 weeks (Pereira, 1996), and lack of treatment-related tumors in a study of male F344/N rats following lifetime exposure in drinking water (DeAngelo et al., 1997).
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
7 x10-2 per mg/kg-day Multistage model with linear extrapolation from the POD (LED10).
Drinking Water Unit Risks
2x10-6 per µg/L
Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 50 µg/L
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 5 µg/L
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 0.5 µg/L

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

  • Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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